1638 (MDCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1638th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 638th year of the 2nd millennium, the 38th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1638, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1638 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2391|
|Balinese saka calendar||1559–1560|
|English Regnal year||13 Cha. 1 – 14 Cha. 1|
|Chinese calendar||丁丑年 (Fire Ox)|
4334 or 4274
— to —
戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
4335 or 4275
|- Vikram Samvat||1694–1695|
|- Shaka Samvat||1559–1560|
|- Kali Yuga||4738–4739|
|Japanese calendar||Kan'ei 15|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||274 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2180–2181|
1764 or 1383 or 611
— to —
1765 or 1384 or 612
Events from the year 1638 in England.1638 in France
Events from the year 1638 in France.1638 in Ireland
Events from the year 1638 in Ireland.1638 in Japan
Events in the year 1638 in Japan.1638 in Norway
Events in the year 1638 in Norway.1638 in Sweden
Events from the year 1638 in SwedenBalnamore
Balnamore (from Irish: Baile an Átha Mhóir, meaning "homestead of the big ford") is a small village in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is within the townland of Ballynacree-Skein and lies 3 km west of Ballymoney. It is part Causeway Coast and Glens District Council. Historically it was known as Balinamore.Battle of Goa (1638)
The Battle of Goa refers to a series of naval engagements between the Portuguese Armada and the Dutch East India Company fleets attempting to blockade and conquer the city of Goa. In 1638, forces commanded by the Viceroy of Portuguese India, D. Pedro da Silva and later António Teles de Meneses fought off a large Dutch fleet sent to block the port colony of Goa, commanded by Admiral Adam Westerwolt, who was badly defeated at this encounter.
The next year 1639, the Dutch Admiral Cornelis Simonsz van der Veere would conduct a new raid on Goa's port.Belize City
Belize City (Spanish: Ciudad de Belice) is the largest city in Belize and was once the capital of the former British Honduras. According to the 2010 census, Belize City has a population of 57,169 people in 16,162 households. It is at the mouth of the Haulover Creek, which is a tributary of the Belize River. The Belize River empties into the Caribbean Sea five miles from Belize City on the Philip Goldson Highway on the coast of the Caribbean. The city is the country's principal port and its financial and industrial hub. Cruise ships drop anchor outside the port and are tendered by local citizens. The city was almost entirely destroyed in 1961 when Hurricane Hattie swept ashore on October 31. It was the capital of British Honduras (as Belize was then named) until the government was moved to the new capital of Belmopan in 1970.Covenanters
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and of Ireland, during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their history to the Covenanters and often incorporating the name continue the ideas and traditions in Scotland and internationally.
They derived their name from the word covenant meaning a band, legal document or agreement, with particular reference to the Covenant between God and the Israelites in the Old Testament.Equestrian statue of Charles I, Charing Cross
The equestrian statue of Charles I at Charing Cross, London, is a work by the French sculptor Hubert Le Sueur, probably cast in 1633.
Its location at Charing Cross is on the former site of the most elaborate of the Eleanor crosses erected by Edward I, which had stood for three and a half centuries until 1647. Charing Cross is used to define the centre of London and a plaque by the statue indicates that road signage distances are measured from this point. The statue faces down Whitehall towards Charles I's place of execution at Banqueting House.The first Renaissance-style equestrian statue in England, it was commissioned by Charles's Lord High Treasurer Richard Weston for the garden of his country house in Roehampton, Surrey (now in South London). Following the English Civil War the statue was sold to a metalsmith to be broken down, but he hid it until the Restoration. It was installed in its current, far more prominent location in the centre of London in 1675, and the elaborately carved plinth dates from that time.Hampton, New Hampshire
Hampton is a town in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 14,976 at the 2010 census. Located beside the Atlantic Ocean, Hampton is home to Hampton Beach, a summer tourist destination.
The densely populated central part of the town, where 9,656 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Hampton census-designated place (CDP) and is centered on the intersection of U.S. 1 and NH 27.Lynnfield, Massachusetts
Lynnfield is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the United States. At the 2010 census, the town population was 11,596.Lynnfield initially consisted of two distinct villages with a single governing body. Lynnfield Center comprises mostly an agricultural population, while South Lynnfield boasted a mixed culture. Together, the two towns evolved into one of the most prosperous suburbs in the North Shore region of Massachusetts.Maria Theresa of Spain
Maria Theresa of Spain (Spanish: María Teresa de Austria; French: Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche; 10 September 1638 – 30 July 1683), was by birth Infanta of Spain and Portugal (until 1640) and Archduchess of Austria as member of the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Queen of France.
Her marriage in 1660 with King Louis XIV, her cousin, was made with the purpose of ending the long-standing war between France and Spain. Famed for her virtue and piety, she saw five of her six children die in early childhood, and is frequently viewed as an object of pity in historical accounts of her husband's reign, since she had no choice but to tolerate his many love affairs.
Without any political influence in the French court or government (except briefly in 1672, when she was named Regent during her husband's absence during the Franco-Dutch War), she died at the early age of 44 from complications from an abscess on her arm.
Her grandson Philip V inherited the Spanish throne in 1700 after the death of her younger half-brother, Charles II, and the War of the Spanish Succession, founding the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon, which has reigned with some interruption until present time.New Sweden
New Sweden (Swedish: Nya Sverige; Finnish: Uusi Ruotsi; Latin: Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River in America from 1638 to 1655, established during the Thirty Years' War when Sweden was a great military power. New Sweden was part of Swedish colonization efforts in the Americas. Settlements were established on both sides of the Delaware Valley in the region of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, often in places where Swedish traders had been visiting since about 1610. Fort Christina in Wilmington, Delaware was the first settlement, named after the reigning Swedish monarch. The settlers were Swedes, Finns, and a number of Dutch. New Sweden was conquered by the Dutch Republic in 1655 during the Second Northern War and incorporated into the Dutch colony of New Netherland.Portsmouth, Rhode Island
Portsmouth is a town in Newport County, Rhode Island. The population was 17,389 at the 2010 U.S. Census. Portsmouth is the second oldest municipality in Rhode Island, after Providence; it was one of the four colonies which merged to form the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, the others being Providence, Newport, and Warwick.Shimabara Rebellion
The Shimabara Rebellion (島原の乱, Shimabara no ran) was an uprising that occurred in the Shimabara Domain of the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan from 17 December 1637 to 15 April 1638.
Matsukura Katsuie, the daimyō of the Shimabara Domain, enforced unpopular policies set by his father Matsukura Shigemasa that drastically raised taxes to construct the new Shimabara Castle and violently prohibited Christianity. In December 1637, an alliance of local rōnin and mostly Catholic peasants led by Amakusa Shirō rebelled against the Tokugawa shogunate due to discontent over Katsuie's policies. The Tokugawa Shogunate sent a force of over 125,000 troops supported by the Dutch to suppress the rebels and defeated them after a lengthy siege against their stronghold at Hara Castle in Minamishimabara.
Following the successful suppression of the rebellion, Shirō and an estimated 37,000 rebels and sympathizers were executed by beheading, and the Portuguese traders suspected of helping them were expelled from Japan. Katsuie was beheaded for misruling, becoming the only daimyō to be beheaded during the Edo period, and the Shimabara Domain was given to Kōriki Tadafusa. Japan's policies of national seclusion and persecution of Christianity were tightened until the Bakumatsu.
The Shimabara Rebellion was the largest civil conflict in Japan during the Edo period, and was one of only a handful of instances of serious unrest during the relatively peaceful period of the Tokugawa shogunate's rule.The Village Fête (Rubens)
The Village Fête, La Kermesse or Noce de village. is a 1635–38 painting by Peter Paul Rubens, now held in the Louvre Museum. It shows a 'kermesse' or village wedding.Västerbotten County
Västerbotten County (Västerbottens län) is a county or län in the north of Sweden. It borders the counties of Västernorrland, Jämtland, and Norrbotten, as well as the Norwegian county of Nordland and the Gulf of Bothnia.