1611 (MDCXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1611th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 611th year of the 2nd millennium, the 11th year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1611, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1611 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2364|
|Balinese saka calendar||1532–1533|
|English Regnal year||8 Ja. 1 – 9 Ja. 1|
|Chinese calendar||庚戌年 (Metal Dog)|
4307 or 4247
— to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
4308 or 4248
|- Vikram Samvat||1667–1668|
|- Shaka Samvat||1532–1533|
|- Kali Yuga||4711–4712|
|Japanese calendar||Keichō 16|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||301 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2153–2154|
1737 or 1356 or 584
— to —
1738 or 1357 or 585
Events from the year 1611 in France.1611 in Ireland
Events from the year 1611 in Ireland.1611 in Norway
Events in the year 1611 in Norway.1611 in Quebec
Events from the year 1611 in Quebec.1611 in Sweden
Events from the year 1611 in SwedenBaron Leigh
Baron Leigh has been created twice as an hereditary title, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first creation came in the Peerage of England 1643 when Sir Thomas Leigh, 2nd Baronet, was created Baron Leigh, of Stoneleigh in the County of Warwick. The Leigh Baronetcy, of Stoneleigh in the County of Warwick, had been created in 1611 for his grandfather and namesake Thomas Leigh. The latter was the second son of Sir Thomas Leigh (d. 1571), Lord Mayor of London in 1558, whose third son Sir William Leigh was the grandfather of Francis Leigh, 1st Earl of Chichester. The titles became extinct on the death of the fifth Baron Leigh in 1786.
The barony was revived in 1839 when the poet Chandos Leigh was created Baron Leigh, of Stoneleigh in the County of Warwick, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. He was a descendant of Rowland Leigh, eldest son of the aforementioned Sir Thomas Leigh (d. 1571), himself of a cadet branch of the ancient Leighs of West Hall, High Legh. Both Lord Leigh's son, the second Baron, and grandson, the third Baron, served as Lord Lieutenant of Warwickshire. The third Baron was succeeded by his nephew, the fourth Baron. As of 2017 the title is held by the latter's grandson, the sixth Baron, who succeeded his father in 2003.
The Honourable Sir Edward Chandos Leigh, second son of the first Baron, was a cricketer and barrister. The Honourable and Very Reverend James Wentworth Leigh, third son of the first Baron, was Dean of Hereford. The Honourable Gilbert Leigh, eldest son and heir of the second Baron, who sat as Member of Parliament for Warwickshire South predeceased his father. Theophilus Leigh, who belonged to a junior branch of the family, married The Hon. Mary Brydges, sister of The 1st Duke of Chandos, and was the father of Thomas Leigh (died 1764): Thomas in turn was the father of Cassandra Leigh, mother of Jane Austen.
The family seat is Stoneleigh Abbey, near Kenilworth, Warwickshire.Charles IX of Sweden
Charles IX, also Carl (Swedish: Karl IX; 4 October 1550 – 30 October 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. He was the youngest son of King Gustav I and his second wife, Margaret Leijonhufvud, brother of Eric XIV and John III, and uncle of Sigismund who was king of both Sweden and Poland. By his father's will he got, by way of appanage, the Duchy of Södermanland, which included the provinces of Närke and Värmland; but he did not come into actual possession of them till after the fall of Eric and the succession to the throne of John in 1568.
The Swedish kings Eric XIV (1560–68) and Charles IX (1604–1611) took their numbers according to a fictitious history of Sweden. He was actually the third Swedish king called Charles.He came into the throne by championing the Protestant cause during the increasingly tense times of religious strife between competing sects of Christianity. In just over a decade, these would break out as the Thirty Years' War. These conflicts had already caused the dynastic squabble rooted in religious freedom that deposed his nephew and brought him to rule as king of Sweden.
His reign marked the start of the final chapter (dated 1648 by some) of both the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. With his brother's death in November 1592, the throne of Sweden went to his nephew and Habsburg ally, Sigismund of Poland and Sweden. During these tense political times, Charles viewed the inheritance of the throne of Protestant Sweden by his devout Roman Catholic nephew with alarm. Thus, several years of religious controversy and discord followed.
During the period, Charles and the Swedish privy council ruled in Sigismund's name while he stayed in Poland. After various preliminaries, the Riksdag of the Estates forced Sigismund to abdicate the throne to Charles IX in 1595. This eventually kicked off nearly seven decades of sporadic warfare as the two lines of the divided House of Vasa both continued to attempt to remake the union between the Polish and Swedish thrones with opposing counter-claims and dynastic wars.
Quite likely, the dynastic outcome between Sweden and Poland's House of Vasa exacerbated and radicalized the later actions of Europe's Catholic princes in the German states such as the Edict of Restitution. In fact, it worsened European politics to the abandonment or prevention of settling events by diplomacy and compromise during the vast bloodletting that was the Thirty Years' war.Dionysios Skylosophos
Dionysios Skylosophos (Greek: Διονύσιος ὁ Σκυλόσοφος; c. 1560–1611), "the Dog-Philosopher" or "Dogwise" ("skylosophist"), as called by his rivals, was a Greek Orthodox bishop who led two farmer revolts against the Ottoman Empire, in Thessaly (1600) and Ioannina (1611), with Spanish aid.Earl of Kimberley
Earl of Kimberley, of Kimberley in the County of Norfolk, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1866 for the prominent Liberal politician John Wodehouse, 3rd Baron Wodehouse. During his long political career he notably held office as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Secretary of State for the Colonies, Secretary of State for India and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. At first a Liberal like his father, he later joined the Labour Party, becoming the first Labour member of the House of Lords. His eldest son, the third Earl, represented Norfolk Mid in the House of Commons as a Liberal. Since 2002, the titles are held by the latter's grandson, the fifth Earl.The title of Baron Wodehouse, of Kimberley in the County of Norfolk, was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1797 for Sir John Wodehouse, 6th Baronet, of Wilberhall. He had previously represented Norfolk in Parliament. His son, the second Baron, sat as Member of Parliament for Great Bedwyn and Marlborough. He was succeeded by his grandson, the aforementioned third Baron (the son of the Hon. Henry Wodehouse), who was created Earl of Kimberley in 1866.The Baronetcy, of Wilberhall in the County of Norfolk, was created in the Baronetage of England in 1611 for Philip Wodehouse, previously Member of Parliament for Castle Rising. His son, the second Baronet, was Member of Parliament for Thetford. He was succeeded by his son, the third Baronet, who represented Thetford as well as Norfolk in the House of Commons. His grandson, the fourth Baronet, was also Member of Parliament for these constituencies. His son, the fifth Baronet, represented Norfolk in Parliament. He was succeeded by his son, the aforementioned sixth Baronet, who was elevated to the peerage in 1797.Several other members of the Wodehouse family have also gained distinction. The author P. G. Wodehouse was the great-grandson of Reverend Philip Wodehouse, second son of the fifth Baronet. The politician Edmond Wodehouse was the son of Thomas Wodehouse, third son of the fifth Baronet. His eldest son was the colonial administrator Sir Philip Wodehouse, Governor of Bombay from 1872 to 1877. Sir Philip Wodehouse's son Edmond Wodehouse represented Bath in the House of Commons as a Unionist. The Hon. Armine Wodehouse, younger son of the first Earl, was a civil servant and Liberal politician.The family seat is Hailstone House, near Cricklade, Wiltshire.Hatfield House
Hatfield House is a country house set in a large park, the Great Park, on the eastern side of the town of Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England. The present Jacobean house, a leading example of the prodigy house, was built in 1611 by Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Chief Minister to King James I and has been the home of the Cecil family ever since. It is a prime example of Jacobean architecture. The estate includes extensive grounds and surviving parts of an earlier palace. The house, currently the home of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 7th Marquess of Salisbury, is open to the public.Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson (c. 1565 – 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.In 1607 and 1608, Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a rumored Northeast Passage to Cathay (China) via a route above the Arctic Circle. In 1609 he landed in North America and explored the region around the modern New York metropolitan area, looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. He sailed up the Hudson River, which was later named after him, and thereby laid the foundation for Dutch colonization of the region.
Hudson discovered the Hudson Strait and the immense Hudson Bay on his final expedition, while still searching for the Northwest Passage. In 1611, after wintering on the shore of James Bay, Hudson wanted to press on to the west, but most of his crew mutinied. The mutineers cast Hudson, his son, and seven others adrift; the Hudsons and their companions were never seen again.
Besides being the namesake of numerous geographical features, Hudson is also the namesake of the Hudson's Bay Company that explored and traded in the vast Hudson Bay watershed in the following centuries.History of Sweden (1523–1611)
The Early Vasa era is a period that in Swedish and Finnish history lasted between 1523–1611. It began with the reconquest of Stockholm by Gustav Vasa and his men from the Danes in 1523, Which was triggered by the event known as the Stockholm Bloodbath in 1520, and then was followed up by Sweden's secession from the Kalmar Union, and continued with the reign of Gustav's sons Eric XIV, John III, John's son Sigismund, and finally Gustav's youngest son Charles IX. The era was followed by a period commonly referred to as the Swedish Empire, or Stormaktstiden in Swedish, which means “Era Of Great Power”.
Gustav's reign was marked by internal political and religious reforms, including the Protestant Reformation, where he converted to Protestantism and seized Catholic Church property and wealth, and unification of the provinces. At the death of Gustav in 1560, he was succeeded by his oldest son Eric. Eric was intelligent and skilled, but was in a constant strain with his brother and other noblemen. He engaged in warfare against both Denmark, Russia and Poland, but suffered periods of insanity in 1567. In 1568 he was dethroned and succeeded by his brother John.
John stabilized the international situation and made peace. He also wanted to partially restore Roman Catholicism but the idea did not come through in the end.
At the death of John in 1592, his son Sigismund succeeded him. Sigismund was already ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, through his mother, and he would rule Poland from 1587 to 1632. He set up a regency and continued to reside in Poland. On learning about the Uppsala Synod, that finally declared Sweden's Lutheran doctrines, he returned home to protest. He found that the Riksdag of the Estates had already dethroned him and replaced him by Gustav Vasa's youngest son, his uncle, Charles IX. A brief civil war ensued that Sigismund lost in 1598, where after he fled the country never to return.History of Sweden (1611–48)
During the 17th century, despite having scarcely more than 1 million inhabitants, Sweden emerged to have greater foreign influence, after winning wars against Denmark–Norway, the Holy Roman Empire, Russia, and the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania. Its contributions during the Thirty Years' War under Gustavus Adolphus helped determine the political, as well as the religious, balance of power in Europe.King James Version
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Authorized Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed as well as published in 1611 under the sponsorship of King James I of England. The books of the King James Version include the 39 books of the Old Testament, an intertestamental section containing 14 books of the Apocrypha, and the 27 books of the New Testament. The translation is noted for its "majesty of style", and has been described as one of the most important books in English culture and a driving force in the shaping of the English-speaking world.It was first printed by Robert Barker, the King's Printer, and was the third translation into English approved by the English Church authorities: The first had been the Great Bible, commissioned in the reign of King Henry VIII (1535), and the second had been the Bishops' Bible, commissioned in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1568). On the European continent, the first generation of Calvinists had produced the Geneva Bible of 1560 from the original
Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, which was influential in the writing of the Authorized King James Version. In January 1604, King James convened the Hampton Court Conference, where a new English version was conceived in response to the problems of the earlier translations perceived by the Puritans, a faction of the Church of England.James gave the translators instructions intended to ensure that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology of, and reflect the episcopal structure of, the Church of England and its belief in an ordained clergy. The translation was done by 47 scholars, all of whom were members of the Church of England. In common with most other translations of the period, the New Testament was translated from Greek, the Old Testament from Hebrew and Aramaic, and the Apocrypha from Greek and Latin. In the Book of Common Prayer (1662), the text of the Authorized Version replaced the text of the Great Bible for Epistle and Gospel readings (but not for the Psalter, which substantially retained Coverdale's Great Bible version), and as such was authorised by Act of Parliament.By the first half of the 18th century, the Authorized Version had become effectively unchallenged as the English translation used in Anglican and English Protestant churches, except for the Psalms and some short passages in the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England. Over the course of the 18th century, the Authorized Version supplanted the Latin Vulgate as the standard version of scripture for English-speaking scholars. With the development of stereotype printing at the beginning of the 19th century, this version of the Bible became the most widely printed book in history, almost all such printings presenting the standard text of 1769 extensively re-edited by Benjamin Blayney at Oxford, and nearly always omitting the books of the Apocrypha. Today the unqualified title "King James Version" usually indicates this Oxford standard text.Kuyucu Murad Pasha
Kuyucu Murad Pasha (Turkish for "Murad Pasha the Well-digger", i.e. "Gravedigger"; Bosnian: Murat-paša Kujudžić born in 1535, Bosnia, died 1611, Diyarbakır ) was an Ottoman statesman of Croatian origin who served as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Ahmed I between December 9, 1606 and August 5, 1611. He died during the Ottoman-Safavid War (1603-1618).Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain
Margaret of Austria (25 December 1584 – 3 October 1611) was Queen consort of Spain and Portugal by her marriage to King Philip III and II.Polish–Swedish War (1600–11)
The Polish–Swedish War (1600–11) was a continuation of struggle between Sweden and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth over control of Livonia and Estonia, as well as the dispute over the Swedish throne between Charles IX of Sweden and Sigismund III of Poland.Rotglà i Corberà
Rotglà i Corberà (Valencian: [roˈɡːla j koɾbeˈɾa] is a municipality in the comarca of Costera in Valencia, Spain.Swedish Empire
The Swedish Empire (Swedish: Stormaktstiden, "the Era of Great Power") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries. The beginning of the Empire is usually taken as the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, who ascended the throne in 1611, and its end as the loss of territories in 1721 following the Great Northern War.After the death of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, the empire was controlled for lengthy periods by part of the high nobility, most prominently the Oxenstierna family, acting as tutors for minor regents. The interests of the high nobility contrasted with the uniformity policy (i.e., upholding the traditional equality in status of the Swedish estates favoured by the kings and peasantry). In territories acquired during the periods of de facto noble rule, serfdom was not abolished, and there was also a trend to set up respective estates in Sweden proper. The Great Reduction of 1680 put an end to these efforts of the nobility and required them to return estates once gained from the crown to the king. Serfdom, however, remained in force in the dominions acquired in the Holy Roman Empire and in Swedish Estonia, where a consequent application of the uniformity policy was hindered by the treaties by which they were gained.
After the victories in the Thirty Years' War, Sweden reached the climax of the great-power era during the Second Northern War, when its primary adversary, Denmark, was neutralized by the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. However, in the further course of this war, as well as in the subsequent Scanian War, Sweden was able to maintain her empire only with the support of her closest ally, France. Charles XI of Sweden consolidated the empire. But a decline began with his son, Charles XII. After initial Swedish victories, Charles secured the empire for some time in the Peace of Travendal (1700) and the Treaty of Altranstädt (1706), before the disaster that followed the king's war in Russia. The Russian victory at the Battle of Poltava put an end to Sweden's eastbound expansion, and by the time of Charles XII's death in 1718 only a much-weakened and far smaller territory remained. The last traces of occupied continental territory vanished during the Napoleonic Wars, and Finland went to Russia in 1809.
In older Swedish history telling, Gustavus Adolphus and especially Charles XII were heroic warriors.