1610 (MDCX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1610th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 610th year of the 2nd millennium, the 10th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1610, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Some have suggested that 1610 may mark the beginning of the Anthropocene, or the 'Age of Man', marking a fundamental change in the relationship between humans and the Earth system, but earlier starting dates (ca. 1000 C.E.) have received broader consensus, based on high resolution pollution records that show the massive impact of human activity on the atmosphere.
|1610 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2363|
|Balinese saka calendar||1531–1532|
|English Regnal year||7 Ja. 1 – 8 Ja. 1|
|Chinese calendar||己酉年 (Earth Rooster)|
4306 or 4246
— to —
庚戌年 (Metal Dog)
4307 or 4247
|- Vikram Samvat||1666–1667|
|- Shaka Samvat||1531–1532|
|- Kali Yuga||4710–4711|
|Japanese calendar||Keichō 15|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||302 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2152–2153|
1736 or 1355 or 583
— to —
1737 or 1356 or 584
The following radio stations broadcast on AM frequency 1610 kHz.AM 1610 is reserved in the United States for low-power travelers' information stations. The frequency is sparsely used elsewhere in North America, where it is classified as a "regional" frequency; only two stations in central Canada use the frequency, with one Mexican station (XEUACH-AM in the State of Mexico) operating on it between 1997 and 2018.1610 in France
Events of the year 1610 in France.1610 in Ireland
Events from the year 1610 in Ireland.1610 in Norway
Events in the year 1610 in Norway.1610 in Quebec
Events from the year 1610 in Quebec.1610 in Sweden
Events from the year 1610 in SwedenArchduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1610–1665)
Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (German: Maria Anna von Habsburg, Erzherzogin von Österreich, also known as Maria Anna von Bayern or Maria-Anna, Kurfürstin von Bayern; 13 January 1610 – 25 September 1665), was a German regent, Electress of Bavaria by marriage to Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, and co-regent of the Electorate of Bavaria during the minority of her son Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria from 1651 to 1654.Caravaggio
Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (, US: , Italian pronunciation: [mikeˈlandʒelo meˈriːzi da (k)karaˈvaddʒo]; 28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610. His paintings combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, which had a formative influence on Baroque painting.Caravaggio employed close physical observation with a dramatic use of chiaroscuro that came to be known as tenebrism. He made the technique a dominant stylistic element, darkening shadows and transfixing subjects in bright shafts of light. Caravaggio vividly expressed crucial moments and scenes, often featuring violent struggles, torture and death. He worked rapidly, with live models, preferring to forgo drawings and work directly onto the canvas. His influence on the new Baroque style that emerged from Mannerism was profound. It can be seen directly or indirectly in the work of Peter Paul Rubens, Jusepe de Ribera, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, and Rembrandt, and artists in the following generation heavily under his influence were called the "Caravaggisti" or "Caravagesques", as well as tenebrists or tenebrosi ("shadowists").
Caravaggio trained as a painter in Milan before moving in his twenties to Rome. He developed a considerable name as an artist, and as a violent, touchy and provocative man. A brawl led to a death sentence for murder and forced him to flee to Naples. There he again established himself as one of the most prominent Italian painters of his generation. He traveled in 1607 to Malta and on to Sicily, and pursued a papal pardon for his sentence. In 1609 he returned to Naples, where he was involved in a violent clash; his face was disfigured and rumours of his death circulated. Questions about his mental state arose from his erratic and bizarre behavior. He died in 1610 under uncertain circumstances while on his way from Naples to Rome. Reports stated that he died of a fever, but suggestions have been made that he was murdered or that he died of lead poisoning.
Caravaggio's innovations inspired Baroque painting, but the Baroque incorporated the drama of his chiaroscuro without the psychological realism. The style evolved and fashions changed, and Caravaggio fell out of favor. In the 20th century interest in his work revived, and his importance to the development of Western art was reevaluated. The 20th-century art historian André Berne-Joffroy stated, "What begins in the work of Caravaggio is, quite simply, modern painting."Galilean moons
The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. They were first seen by Galileo Galilei in December 1609 or January 1610, and recognized by him as satellites of Jupiter in March 1610. They were the first objects found to orbit another planet.
They are among the largest objects in the Solar System with the exception of the Sun and the eight planets, with a radius larger than any of the dwarf planets. Ganymede is the largest moon in the Solar System, and is even bigger than the planet Mercury, though only around half as massive. The three inner moons—Io, Europa, and Ganymede—are in a 4:2:1 orbital resonance with each other. Because of their much smaller size, and therefore weaker self-gravitation, all of Jupiter's remaining moons have irregular forms rather than a spherical shape.
The Galilean moons were observed in either 1609 or 1610 when Galileo made improvements to his telescope, which enabled him to observe celestial bodies more distinctly than ever. Galileo's observations showed the importance of the telescope as a tool for astronomers by proving that there were objects in space that cannot be seen by the naked eye. The discovery of celestial bodies orbiting something other than Earth dealt a serious blow to the then-accepted Ptolemaic world system, a geocentric theory in which everything orbits around Earth.
Galileo initially named his discovery the Cosmica Sidera ("Cosimo's stars"), but the names that eventually prevailed were chosen by Simon Marius. Marius discovered the moons independently at nearly the same time as Galileo, and gave them their present names, derived from the lovers of Zeus, which were suggested by Johannes Kepler, in his Mundus Jovialis, published in 1614.Henry IV of France
Henry IV (French: Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre [ɑ̃ʁi katʁ]; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother. He inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on his mother's death. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. He later led Protestant forces against the royal army.Henry IV and his predecessor Henry III of France are both direct descendants of the Saint-King Louis IX. Henry III belonged to the House of Valois, descended from Philip III of France, elder son of Saint Louis; Henry IV belonged to the House of Bourbon, descended from Robert, Count of Clermont, younger son of Saint Louis. As Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was "first prince of the blood." Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law.
He initially kept the Protestant faith (the only French king to do so) and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, he found it prudent to abjure the Calvinist faith. As a pragmatic politician (in the parlance of the time, a politique), he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion.
Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became target of at least 12 assassination attempts. An unpopular king among his contemporaries, Henry gained more status after his death. He was admired for his repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The "Good King Henry" (le bon roi Henri) was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects. An active ruler, he worked to regularise state finance, promote agriculture, eliminate corruption and encourage education. During his reign, the French colonization of the Americas truly began with the foundation of the colony of Acadia and its capital Port-Royal. He was celebrated in the popular song "Vive le roi Henri" (which later became an anthem for the French monarchy during the reigns of his successors) and in Voltaire's Henriade.Henry Wilkinson (1610–1675)
Henry Wilkinson (1610–1675) was an English clergyman, in the Commonwealth period a canon of Christ Church, Oxford, Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity, and member of the Westminster Assembly. Later he was a nonconformist preacher.Holmshurst Manor
Holmshurst Manor is a Jacobean country house located near Burwash in East Sussex, England. In 1970 it was purchased by Roger Daltrey of The Who.Ingrian War
The Ingrian War (Swedish: Ingermanländska kriget) between Sweden and Russia, which lasted between 1610 and 1617 and can be seen as part of Russia's Time of Troubles, is mainly remembered for the attempt to put a Swedish duke on the Russian throne. It ended with a large Swedish territorial gain in the Treaty of Stolbovo, which laid an important foundation to Sweden's Age of Greatness.Louis XIII of France
Louis XIII (French pronunciation: [lwi tʁɛz]; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who was King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated. His mother, Marie de' Medici, acted as regent during his minority. Mismanagement of the kingdom and ceaseless political intrigues by Marie and her Italian favourites led the young king to take power in 1617 by exiling his mother and executing her followers, including Concino Concini, the most influential Italian at the French court.
Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied heavily on his chief ministers, first Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes and then Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the Kingdom of France. King and cardinal are remembered for establishing the Académie française, and ending the revolt of the French nobility. They systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence (dueling, carrying weapons, and maintaining private armies). By the end of 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the ruling doctrine. The reign of Louis "the Just" was also marked by the struggles against the Huguenots and Habsburg Spain.Newfoundland Colony
Newfoundland Colony was the name for an English and later British colony established in 1610 on the island of the same name off the Atlantic coast of Canada, in what is now the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. This followed decades of sporadic English settlement on the island, at first seasonal rather than permanent. It was made a Crown colony in 1854 and a Dominion of the British Empire in 1907. The economy collapsed during the Great Depression and Newfoundland relinquished its dominion status, becoming once again a Crown colony, governed by appointees from the Colonial Office in Whitehall in London. American forces occupied much of the colony in World War II, and prosperity returned. In 1949 the colony voted to join Canada as the Province of Newfoundland, but in 2001 its name was officially changed to Newfoundland and Labrador.Nokia 1610
Nokia 1610 is a mobile phone model manufactured by Nokia. It complemented the Nokia 2110 business model, but had significantly fewer features. It was introduced in April 1996 and released in May and became highly popular at the time.
The phone had a monochromatic display which could show two rows of text at a time. The operating manual did not mention a possibility to send text messages, but at least units sold from 1996 and onwards included the function. The SMS capable version was called 1610 Plus. The phone used an external rigid antenna, but had a groove on the inside of the battery to accommodate a pull-out type antenna. The 1610 used a credit card size SIM-card, and was powered by a NiMH type battery with a capacity of 600 mAh.Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary
The Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary ( V.H.M., Latin: Ordo Visitationis Beatissimae Mariae Virginis) or the Visitation Order is an enclosed Roman Catholic religious order for women. Members of the order are also known as the Salesian Sisters (not to be confused with the Salesian Sisters of Don Bosco) or, more commonly, as the Visitandines or Visitation Sisters.In 1905 a group of the sisters from St. Louis came to Springfield, Missouri, to start St. de Chantal Academy, a boarding school for girls, at the Elfindale Mansion. They stayed until 1980 when they moved to the Pacific Northwest taking their buried sisters with them.Richard Bancroft
Richard Bancroft (1544 – 2 November 1610) was an English churchman who was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1604 to 1610 and the "chief overseer" of the production of the King James Bible.Vespro della Beata Vergine
Vespro della Beata Vergine (Vespers for the Blessed Virgin; SV 206 and 206a) – more properly in Latin Vesperæ in Festis Beatæ Mariæ Virginis, or casually Vespers of 1610 – is a musical composition by Claudio Monteverdi. The liturgical vespers is an evening service following the Catholic Liturgy of the Hours. In scale, Monteverdi's Vespers was the most ambitious work of religious music before Bach. This 90-minute piece includes soloists, chorus, and orchestra and has both liturgical and extra-liturgical elements.
The text is compiled from several biblical texts that are traditionally used as part of the liturgy of vespers and for Marian feasts in the Catholic Church: the introductory Deus in adiutorium (Psalm 70), five psalm settings, sacred motets (called Concerti) between the psalms, a traditional Marian hymn, a setting of the Magnificat text and the concluding Benedicamus Domino.