161

Year 161 (CLXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Caesar and Aurelius (or, less frequently, year 914 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 161 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
161 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar161
CLXI
Ab urbe condita914
Assyrian calendar4911
Balinese saka calendar82–83
Bengali calendar−432
Berber calendar1111
Buddhist calendar705
Burmese calendar−477
Byzantine calendar5669–5670
Chinese calendar庚子(Metal Rat)
2857 or 2797
    — to —
辛丑年 (Metal Ox)
2858 or 2798
Coptic calendar−123 – −122
Discordian calendar1327
Ethiopian calendar153–154
Hebrew calendar3921–3922
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat217–218
 - Shaka Samvat82–83
 - Kali Yuga3261–3262
Holocene calendar10161
Iranian calendar461 BP – 460 BP
Islamic calendar475 BH – 474 BH
Javanese calendar37–38
Julian calendar161
CLXI
Korean calendar2494
Minguo calendar1751 before ROC
民前1751年
Nanakshahi calendar−1307
Seleucid era472/473 AG
Thai solar calendar703–704
Tibetan calendar阳金鼠年
(male Iron-Rat)
287 or −94 or −866
    — to —
阴金牛年
(female Iron-Ox)
288 or −93 or −865

Events

By place

Roman Empire

  • March 7
    • Emperor Antoninus Pius dies, and is succeeded by Marcus Aurelius, who shares imperial power with Lucius Verus, although Marcus retains the title Pontifex Maximus.
    • Marcus Aurelius, a Spaniard like Trajan and Hadrian, is a stoical disciple of Epictetus, and an energetic man of action. He pursues the policy of his predecessor, and maintains good relations with the Senate. As a legislator, he endeavours to create new principles of morality and humanity, particularly favouring women and slaves.
  • Aurelius reduces the weight of a goldpiece, the aureus, from 7.81 grams to 7.12 grams.
  • Autumn

By topic

Arts and sciences

  • Gaius' Institutiones are published.

Commerce

  • The silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 68 percent under Emperor Marcus Aurelius, down from 75 percent under Antoninus Pius.

Births

Deaths

Alberich Glacier

Alberich Glacier (77°36′S 161°36′E) is a small glacier that drains west from Junction Knob toward the east flank of Sykes Glacier, in the Asgard Range, Victoria Land, Antarctica. It is one in a group of features in the range named by New Zealand Antarctic Place-Names Committee mainly from Norse mythology. In German legend, Alberich is the all-powerful king of the dwarfs and chief of the Nibelungen.

Ant Hill Glacier

Ant Hill Glacier (78°49′S 161°30′E) is a glacier in Antarctica, between Ant Hill and Bareface Bluff, rising in the Worcester Range and flowing northeast into Skelton Glacier. It was surveyed and named, in association with Ant Hill, in 1957 by the New Zealand party of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1956–58.

Anu Whakatoro Glacier

Anu Whakatoro Glacier (77°17′25″S 161°42′0″E) is an Antarctic glacier 0.7 nautical miles (1.3 km) long, between Tūkeri Peak and Spain Peak on the headwall of Ringer Valley in the Saint Johns Range, Victoria Land. “Anu Whakatoro” is a Māori word, meaning force of wind, and was applied descriptively to this glacier by the New Zealand Geographic Board in 2005.

Atka Glacier

Atka Glacier (76°41′S 161°33′E) is the glacier immediately east of Flagship Mountain, draining north into Fry Glacier in Victoria Land. It was discovered and named in 1957 by the New Zealand Northern Survey Party of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1956–58, and named after USS Atka, an American icebreaker in the convoy to McMurdo Sound in the 1956–57 season.

Baronick Glacier

Baronick Glacier (78°36′S 161°50′E) is a glacier 6 nautical miles (11 km) southwest of Mount Cocks, in the Royal Society Range, draining into the Skelton Glacier to the west. It was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names in 1963 for Chief Aviation Ordnanceman Michael P. Baronick, of U.S. Navy Squadron VX-6, who wintered at Williams Air Operating Facility at McMurdo Sound in 1956 and was in Antarctica for several summer seasons. Baronick, with a party of three, was in command of the Beardmore Air Operating Facility established on October 28, 1956, at 84°56′S 166°0′W.

Baxter Glacier

Baxter Glacier (76°40′S 161°51′E) is a glacier nurtured by icefalls from Flight Deck Neve, flowing northeast between Flagship Mountain and Mount Davidson to enter Fry Glacier, in Convoy Range, Victoria Land. It was named by a 1976–77 Victoria University of Wellington Antarctic Expedition (VUWAE) field party after James K. Baxter, New Zealand poet and social critic.

Commodus

Commodus (; 31 August 161 – 31 December 192), born Lucius Aurelius Commodus and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 to his father's death in 180, and solely until 192.

During his father's reign, he accompanied Marcus Aurelius during the Marcomannic Wars in 172 and on a tour of the Eastern provinces in 176. He was made the youngest consul in Roman history in 177 and later that year elevated to co-emperor with his father. His accession was the first time a son had succeeded his biological father since Titus succeeded Vespasian in 79. He was also the first emperor to have both a father and grandfather (who had adopted his father) as the two preceding emperors. Commodus was the first (and until 337, the only) emperor "born in the purple", i.e. during his father's reign.

During his solo reign, the Empire enjoyed a period of reduced military conflict compared with the reign of Marcus Aurelius, but intrigues and conspiracies abounded, leading Commodus to an increasingly dictatorial style of leadership that culminated in a God-like personality cult. His assassination in 192 marked the end of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. He was succeeded by Pertinax, the first emperor in the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors.

D-161

D-161 is a chemical known in research circles as a triple reuptake inhibitor. Although this compound has lent support to the inclusion of dopamine in the monoamine hypothesis of depression, D-161 has not been tested in clinical trials.

Epler Glacier

Epler Glacier (86°15′S 161°0′W) is a tributary glacier, 10 nautical miles (19 km; 12 mi) long, draining west from Nilsen Plateau in the Queen Maud Mountains to enter Amundsen Glacier just south of the Olsen Crags. It was mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and U.S. Navy air photos, 1960–64, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Charles F. Epler, a storekeeper with U.S. Navy Squadron VX-6 on Operation Deep Freeze 1966 and 1967.

JWH-161

JWH-161 is a cannabinoid derivative that was designed by Dr John W. Huffman's team as a hybrid between the dibenzopyran "classical" cannabinoid drugs and the novel indole derivatives, in an attempt to unravel the differences in their binding modes to the CB1 receptor. While retaining structural elements from both families, JWH-161 has a CB1 Ki of 19.0nM, although it was found to be slightly weaker than THC in animal tests.

List of generation II Pokémon

The second generation (Generation II) of the Pokémon franchise features 100 fictional creatures introduced to the core video game series in the 1999 Game Boy Color games Pokémon Gold and Silver. Some Pokémon in this generation were introduced in animated adaptations before Gold and Silver, such as number 175 Togepi, which was a recurring character in the Pokémon anime series in 1998 and 1999, and number 183 Marill, which was a recurring character from the anime in 1999.

The following list details the 100 Pokémon of Generation II in order of their National Pokédex number. The first Pokémon, Chikorita, is number 152 and the last, Celebi, is number 251. Alternate forms that result in type changes and Mega Evolutions are included for convenience, although Mega Evolutions were not added until Generation VI.

Lunar Saros 161

Saros cycle series 161 for lunar eclipses occurs at the moon's descending node, repeats every 18 years 11 and 1/3 days. It contains 73 events (48 listed by 3000).

Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius ( or ; Latin: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180), called the Philosopher, was a Roman emperor from 161 to 180. He ruled the Roman Empire with his adoptive brother Lucius Verus (who took Verus as a regnal name) until Lucius' death in 169. He was the last of the rulers traditionally known as the Five Good Emperors. He is also seen as the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace and stability for the Empire. His personal philosophical writings, now commonly known as Meditations, are a significant source of the modern understanding of ancient Stoic philosophy. They have been praised by fellow writers, philosophers, and monarchs – as well as by poets and politicians – centuries after his death.

Marcus was born into a Roman patrician family. His father was a praetor, after whose death in 124 Marcus was raised by his paternal grandfather, and his mother was a wealthy heiress. He was educated at home, as children from Roman aristocratic families often were, and later credited his maternal grandmother's step-father Lucius Catilius Severus – who helped Marcus' grandfather to raise him – for his education. His tutors included the artist Diognetus, who may have sparked his interest in philosophy, and Tuticius Proclus. Marcus was betrothed to the daughter of Lucius Aelius, his relative Emperor Hadrian's first adopted son and heir. Aelius died in 138 and Hadrian chose as his new heir Antoninus Pius, the husband of Marcus' aunt, on the condition that Antoninus adopt Marcus and the son of Aelius, Lucius Commodus. Antoninus became emperor later that year upon Hadrian's death, and Marcus and Lucius became joint heirs to the throne. While imperial heir, Marcus studied Greek and Latin. His tutors included Herodes Atticus and Marcus Cornelius Fronto. He kept in close correspondence with Fronto for many years afterwards. Marcus was introduced to Stoicism by Quintus Junius Rusticus and perhaps by other philosophers such as Apollonius of Chalcedon. He was made a quaestor and the symbolic head of the Roman equites (also known as the knight class). He was appointed consul with Antoninus in 140 and 145, the year he married Antoninus' daughter Faustina the Younger, and with his adoptive brother Lucius in 161. On 7 March 161, Antoninus died and the two succeeded to the imperial throne.

Marcus' reign was marked by military conflict. In the East, the Roman Empire fought successfully with a revitalized Parthian Empire and the rebel Kingdom of Armenia. Marcus defeated the Marcomanni, Quadi, and Sarmatians in the Marcomannic Wars. However, these and other Germanic peoples began to represent a troubling reality for the Empire. Marcus modified the silver purity of the Roman currency, the denarius. Persecution of Christians is believed to have increased during his reign. The Antonine Plague that broke out in 165 or 166 devastated the population of the Roman Empire. It caused the deaths of five million people, a quarter of those it affected. Marcus never adopted an heir unlike some of his predecessors; he and Faustina had at least thirteen children, including Lucilla – who married Lucius Verus – and Commodus – whom Marcus named as his co-ruler in 177. Marcus became the first emperor to die with a living, adult son since Titus succeeded his father Vespasian a century earlier, but Commodus is considered a disappointment as emperor and his succession has long been the subject of debate among both contemporary and modern historians. The Column and Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius still stand in Rome, where they were erected in celebration of Marcus' military victories.

NGC 161

NGC 161 is a lenticular galaxy in the Cetus constellation. It was discovered on November 21, 1886, by Lewis A. Swift.

National Highway 161 (India)

National Highway 161, (may be referred to as NH 161), is a National Highway in India running through the states of Maharashtra and Telangana of India. The National Highway 161 joins the cities of Akola, Washim, Hingoli, Nanded, Degloor, Sangareddy and Hyderabad in Central-Southern India with each other.

No. 161 Squadron RAF

No. 161 (Special Duties) Squadron was a highly secretive unit of the Royal Air Force, performing missions as part of the Royal Air Force Special Duties Service. It was tasked with missions of the Special Operations Executive (SOE) and the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) during the Second World War. Their primary role was to drop and collect secret agents and equipment into and from Nazi-occupied Europe. The squadron had a secondary role in acting as the King's Flight.

RIM-161 Standard Missile 3

The RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) is a ship-based missile system used by the United States Navy to intercept short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles as a part of Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System. Although primarily designed as an anti-ballistic missile, the SM-3 has also been employed in an anti-satellite capacity against a satellite at the lower end of low Earth orbit. The SM-3 is primarily used and tested by the United States Navy and also operated by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.

Solar Saros 161

Saros cycle 161, repeating every 18 years, 11 days, containing 46 events before 3000 AD.

UFC 161

UFC 161: Evans vs. Henderson was a mixed martial arts event held on June 15, 2013, at the MTS Centre in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

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