160th meridian east

The meridian 160° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 160th meridian east forms a great circle with the 20th meridian west.

In Antarctica, the meridian defines the border between the Australian Antarctic Territory and the Ross Dependency.

Line across the Earth
160°
160th meridian east

From Pole to Pole

Starting at the North Pole and heading south to the South Pole, the 160th meridian east passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes
90°0′N 160°0′E / 90.000°N 160.000°E Arctic Ocean
76°20′N 160°0′E / 76.333°N 160.000°E East Siberian Sea
70°26′N 160°0′E / 70.433°N 160.000°E  Russia Sakha Republic
70°9′N 160°0′E / 70.150°N 160.000°E East Siberian Sea
69°45′N 160°0′E / 69.750°N 160.000°E  Russia Sakha Republic
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug — from 68°15′N 160°0′E / 68.250°N 160.000°E
Magadan Oblast — from 65°31′N 160°0′E / 65.517°N 160.000°E
61°47′N 160°0′E / 61.783°N 160.000°E Sea of Okhotsk Shelikhov Gulf
61°22′N 160°0′E / 61.367°N 160.000°E  Russia Magadan Oblast
60°57′N 160°0′E / 60.950°N 160.000°E Sea of Okhotsk Shelikhov Gulf
59°11′N 160°0′E / 59.183°N 160.000°E  Russia Kamchatka KraiKamchatka Peninsula
54°7′N 160°0′E / 54.117°N 160.000°E Pacific Ocean
53°15′N 160°0′E / 53.250°N 160.000°E  Russia Kamchatka KraiKamchatka Peninsula
53°6′N 160°0′E / 53.100°N 160.000°E Pacific Ocean Passing just east of Mokil atoll,  Federated States of Micronesia (at 6°42′N 159°46′E / 6.700°N 159.767°E)
Passing just east of Santa Isabel Island,  Solomon Islands (at 8°33′S 159°54′E / 8.550°S 159.900°E)
8°53′S 160°0′E / 8.883°S 160.000°E  Solomon Islands Nggela Islands
8°55′S 160°0′E / 8.917°S 160.000°E Ironbottom Sound
9°25′S 160°0′E / 9.417°S 160.000°E  Solomon Islands Guadalcanal Island
9°49′S 160°0′E / 9.817°S 160.000°E Solomon Sea
11°28′S 160°0′E / 11.467°S 160.000°E  Solomon Islands Rennell Island
11°35′S 160°0′E / 11.583°S 160.000°E Coral Sea
29°9′S 160°0′E / 29.150°S 160.000°E Pacific Ocean
60°0′S 160°0′E / 60.000°S 160.000°E Southern Ocean
69°44′S 160°0′E / 69.733°S 160.000°E Antarctica Border between the Australian Antarctic Territory, claimed by  Australia, and the Ross Dependency, claimed by  New Zealand

See also

159th meridian east

The meridian 159° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Australasia, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 159th meridian east forms a great circle with the 21st meridian west.

160th meridian

160th meridian may refer to:

160th meridian east, a line of longitude east of the Greenwich Meridian

160th meridian west, a line of longitude west of the Greenwich Meridian

161st meridian east

The meridian 161° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 161st meridian east forms a great circle with the 19th meridian west.

2009–10 Australian region cyclone season

The 2009–10 Australian region cyclone season was a below average tropical cyclone season, with eight tropical cyclones forming compared to an average of 12. The season began on 1 November 2009 and ran through until it end on 30 April 2010. The Australian region is defined as being to south of the equator, between the 90th meridian east and 160th meridian east. Tropical cyclones in this area are monitored by five Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWC's): Jakarta, Port Moresby, Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane, each of which have the power to name a tropical cyclone. The TCWC's in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane are run by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, who designate significant tropical lows with a number and the U suffix. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center also issues unofficial warnings for the region, designating significant tropical cyclones with the "S" suffix when they form west of 135°E, and the "P" suffix when they form east of 135°E.

Torrential rains produced by Tropical Cyclones Olga and Paul resulted in widespread flooding and damage in northern Australia. The combined losses from these storms reached A$508 million (US$500 million).

2010–11 Australian region cyclone season

The 2010–11 Australian region cyclone season was a near average tropical cyclone season, with eleven tropical cyclones forming compared to an average of 12. The season was also the costliest recorded in the Australian region basin, with a total of $3.62 billion (2011 USD) in damages, mostly from the destructive Cyclone Yasi. The season began on 1 November 2010 and ended on 30 April 2011, although the first tropical cyclone formed on 28 October. The Australian region is defined as being to the south of the equator, between the 90th meridian east and 160th meridian east. Tropical cyclones in this area are monitored by five Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWC's): Jakarta, Port Moresby, Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane, each of which have the power to name a tropical cyclone. The TCWC's in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane are run by the Bureau of Meteorology, who designate significant tropical lows with a number and the U suffix. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center also issues unofficial warnings for the region, designating significant tropical cyclones with the "S" suffix when they form west of 135°E, and the "P" suffix when they form east of 135°E.

20th meridian west

The meridian 20° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 20th meridian west forms a great circle with the 160th meridian east.

In Antarctica, the meridian defines the border between the British Antarctic Territory and Queen Maud Land. Between the 5th parallel north and the 60th parallel south it forms the eastern boundary of the Latin American Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone.

Cold-core low

A cold-core low, also known as an upper level low or cold-core cyclone, is a cyclone aloft which has an associated cold pool of air residing at high altitude within the Earth's troposphere. It is a low pressure system that strengthens with height in accordance with the thermal wind relationship. If a weak surface circulation forms in response to such a feature at subtropical latitudes of the eastern north Pacific or north Indian oceans, it is called a subtropical cyclone. Cloud cover and rainfall mainly occurs with these systems during the day. Severe weather, such as tornadoes, can occur near the center of cold-core lows. Cold lows can help spawn cyclones with significant weather impacts, such as polar lows, and Kármán vortices. Cold lows can lead directly to the development of tropical cyclones, owing to their associated cold pool of air aloft or by acting as additional outflow channels to aid in further development.

Cyclone Rewa

Severe Tropical Cyclone Rewa affected six countries and caused 22 deaths on its 28-day journey across the South Pacific Ocean in December 1993 and January 1994. Cyclone Rewa developed from a tropical disturbance on 28 December south of Nauru. After forming, Rewa moved southwest through the Solomon Islands, crossing the 160th meridian east from the South Pacific basin into the Australian region. The cyclone began to strengthen steadily and turned southward, paralleling the eastern Australian coast through 31 December. Rewa reached its initial peak intensity as a Category 4 tropical cyclone on 2 January. It maintained this intensity for about 12 hours before an increase in wind shear induced its weakening by 3 January. The cyclone turned southeastward and moved back into the South Pacific basin on 4 January, before it passed over New Caledonia between 5–6 January. After affecting New Caledonia, Rewa weakened to a tropical depression and turned northwestward before re-entering the Australian basin on 10 January.

Over the following days, the cyclone showed signs of restrengthening and executed an elongated cyclonic loop to the southeast of Papua New Guinea. Rewa subsequently entered a phase of quick intensification while proceeding southeastward, peaking in intensity as a Category 5 severe tropical cyclone. It recurved toward the southwest while gradually weakening for several days. Although forecasters had predicted Rewa to make landfall near Mackay, Queensland, the cyclone began interacting with an upper-level trough on 18 January, causing it to divert to the southeast and move along the Queensland coast. Rewa transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on 20 January, with its remnants bringing heavy rain to New Zealand three days later.

The cyclone caused the deaths of 22 people on its course, affecting parts of the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Eastern Australia, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and New Zealand. Nine people in a banana dinghy en route to Rossel Island went missing at the height of the storm; they were presumed drowned after wreckage from their boat turned up at the island. In Queensland, three people died in traffic accidents caused by the storm, and another fatality occurred when a boy became trapped in a storm pipe. One death took place in New Caledonia, while flooding caused eight drownings in Papua New Guinea. After this usage of the name Rewa, the name was retired.

Fiji Meteorological Service

The Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) is a Department of the government of Fiji responsible for providing weather forecasts and is based in Nadi. The current director of Fiji Meteorological Service is Ravind Kumar. Since 1985, FMS has been responsible for naming and tracking tropical cyclones in the Southwest Pacific region. Current Meteorologists working at FMS have a Graduate Diploma in Meteorology from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.

Marine weather forecasting

Marine weather forecasting is the process by which mariners and meteorological organizations attempt to forecast future weather conditions over the Earth's oceans. Mariners have had rules of thumb regarding the navigation around tropical cyclones for many years, dividing a storm into halves and sailing through the normally weaker and more navigable half of their circulation. Marine weather forecasts by various weather organizations can be traced back to the sinking of the Royal Charter in 1859 and the RMS Titanic in 1912.

The wind is the driving force of weather at sea, as wind generates local wind waves, long ocean swells, and its flow around the subtropical ridge helps maintain warm water currents such as the Gulf Stream. The importance of weather over the ocean during World War II led to delayed or secret weather reports, in order to maintain a competitive advantage. Weather ships were established by various nations during World War II for forecasting purposes, and were maintained through 1985 to help with transoceanic plane navigation.

Voluntary observations from ships, weather buoys, weather satellites, and numerical weather prediction have been used to diagnose and help forecast weather over the Earth's ocean areas. Since the 1960s, numerical weather prediction's role over the Earth's seas has taken a greater role in the forecast process. Weather elements such as sea state, surface winds, tide levels, and sea surface temperature are tackled by organizations tasked with forecasting weather over open oceans and seas. Currently, the Japan Meteorological Agency, the United States National Weather Service, and the United Kingdom Met Office create marine weather forecasts for the Northern Hemisphere.

Timeline of the 2009–10 Australian region cyclone season

The 2009–10 Australian region cyclone season was a below average tropical cyclone season, with eight tropical cyclones forming compared to an average of 12. The season began on 1 November 2009 and ran through until it end on 30 April 2010. The Australian region is defined as being to south of the equator, between the 90th meridian east and 160th meridian east. Tropical cyclones in this area are monitored by five Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWC's): Jakarta, Port Moresby, Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane, each of which have the power to name a tropical cyclone. The TCWC's in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane are run by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, who designate significant tropical lows with a number and the U suffix. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center also issues unofficial warnings for the region, designating significant tropical cyclones with the "S" suffix when they form west of 135°E, and the "P" suffix when they form east of 135°E.

Typhoon Vera (1983)

Typhoon Vera, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Bebeng, brought significant flooding to the Philippines in July 1983. The monsoon trough spawned a tropical depression on July 12 east of the Philippines. Although the depression was initially slow to organize, the system headed west-northwestward, strengthening to a tropical storm the following day and a typhoon on the July 14. Vera moved onshore early the next day as a minimal typhoon in the Philippines before weakening slightly over the islands. However, Vera managed to restrengthen over the South China Sea while accelerating, later attaining winds of 85 mph (135 km/h). After crossing Hainan while still at peak intensity and moving into the northern portion of the Gulf of Tonkin, Vera gradually weakened before moving ashore in northern Vietnam on July 18. By July 19, Vera had dissipated inland.

Across the Philippines, Typhoon Vera killed 123 and left 60 missing and 45 hurt. Approximately 200,000 people were homeless. The typhoon destroyed 29,054 dwellings and "badly" damaged 5,558 others. A total of 76,346 homes were "partially" damaged. Moreover, 24,280 people sought shelter due to Vera. Around 80% of Manila's residents lost power. Many low-lying areas of Manila were underwater while strong winds damaged homes and trees. The province of Bataan sustained the worst damage from the storm and 10 nearby villages were destroyed. Throughout the province, 50 people perished, primarily due to drownings. In all, damage totaled $42 million (1983 USD). In addition to the impact on the Philippines, Typhoon Vera claimed three lives in Vietnam and damaged 2,500 houses. Offshore China, a swimmer drowned due to rough seas caused by Vera.

USS Vega (AF-59)

USS Vega (AF-59) was a Rigel-class stores ship acquired by the U.S. Navy. Her task was to carry stores, refrigerated items, and equipment to ships in the fleet, and to remote stations and staging areas. She served during the entire Vietnam War and returned home proudly with numerous battle stars and commendations.

The third ship to be named Vega by the Navy, AF-59 was laid down on 7 June 1954 at Pascagoula, Mississippi, by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Corp.; launched on 28 April 1955; sponsored by Mrs. Theodore C. Lonnquest; and commissioned on 10 November 1955, Capt. Floyd T. Thompson in command.

Upper tropospheric cyclonic vortex

An upper tropospheric cyclonic vortex is a vortex, or a circulation with a definable center, that usually moves slowly from east-northeast to west-southwest and is prevalent across Northern Hemisphere's warm season. Its circulations generally do not extend below 6,080 metres (19,950 ft) in altitude, as it is an example of a cold-core low. A weak inverted wave in the easterlies is generally found beneath it, and it may also be associated with broad areas of high-level clouds. Downward development results in an increase of cumulus clouds and the appearance of circulation at ground level. In rare cases, a warm-core cyclone can develop in its associated convective activity, resulting in a tropical cyclone and a weakening and southwest movement of the nearby upper tropospheric cyclonic vortex. Symbiotic relationships can exist between tropical cyclones and the upper level lows in their wake, with the two systems occasionally leading to their mutual strengthening. When they move over land during the warm season, an increase in monsoon rains occurs.

Western Hemisphere

The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian. The other half is called the Eastern Hemisphere.

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