1604 (MDCIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1604th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 604th year of the 2nd millennium, the 4th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1604, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1604 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2357|
|Balinese saka calendar||1525–1526|
|English Regnal year||1 Ja. 1 – 2 Ja. 1|
|Chinese calendar||癸卯年 (Water Rabbit)|
4300 or 4240
— to —
甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)
4301 or 4241
|- Vikram Samvat||1660–1661|
|- Shaka Samvat||1525–1526|
|- Kali Yuga||4704–4705|
|Japanese calendar||Keichō 9|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||308 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2146–2147|
1730 or 1349 or 577
— to —
1731 or 1350 or 578
Events from the year 1604 in Denmark.1604 in France
Events from the year 1604 in France1604 in Ireland
Events from the year 1604 in Ireland.1604 in Norway
Events in the year 1604 in Norway.1604 in Sweden
Events from the year 1604 in SwedenAnglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
The Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared. The war was punctuated by widely separated battles, and began with England's military expedition in 1585 to the Netherlands under the command of the Earl of Leicester in support of the resistance of the States General to Spanish Habsburg rule.
The English enjoyed some victories at Cádiz in 1587, and saw the Spanish Armada retreat in 1588, but then suffered severe defeats of the English Armada in 1589 and the Drake–Hawkins and Essex–Raleigh expeditions in 1595 and 1597 respectively. Two further Spanish armadas were sent in 1596 and 1597 but were frustrated in their objectives mainly because of adverse weather and poor planning.
The war became deadlocked around the turn of the 17th century during campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland. It was brought to an end with the Treaty of London, negotiated in 1604 between representatives of the new King of Spain, Philip III, and the new King of England, James I. England and Spain agreed to cease their military interventions in the Spanish Netherlands and Ireland, respectively, and the English ended high seas privateering.Battle of Gembloux (1578)
The Battle of Gembloux took place at Gembloux, near Namur, Low Countries, between the Spanish forces led by Don John of Austria (Spanish: Don Juan de Austria), Governor-General of the Spanish Netherlands, and a rebel army composed of Dutch, Flemish, English, Scottish, German, French and Walloon soldiers under Antoine de Goignies, during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). On 31 January 1578 the Spanish cavalry commanded by John's nephew, Don Alexander Farnese, Prince of Parma (Italian: Alessandro Farnese, Spanish: Alejandro Farnesio), after pushing back the Netherlandish cavalry, attacked the Netherlandish army, causing an enormous panic amongst the rebel troops. The result was a crushing victory for the Spanish forces. The battle hastened the disintegration of the unity of the rebel provinces, and meant the end of the Union of Brussels.Battle of Guadalupe Island (1595)
The Battle of Guadalupe Island, also known as the Battle of Guadalupe, was a naval action that took place off Guadalupe Island (French: Guadeloupe), Caribbean Sea, on 8 November 1595, between a Spanish force of five frigates commanded by Don Pedro Tello de Guzmán and Don Gonzalo Méndez de Cancio (who was appointed Admiral on 19 August 1595), and an English squadron of nine ships (rear of Francis Drake's fleet), during the unsuccessful English military expedition of 1595 against Spain and their possessions, led by Sir Francis Drake himself, Sir John Hawkins and Sir Thomas Baskerville, as the context of the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). The result was a Spanish victory. One of the English ships, the Francis, was captured and the others fled from the battle. Then, knowing Drake's plans, the Spanish flotilla took advantage over the bulk of Drake's fleet, and arrived at San Juan on 13 November, reinforcing the town with 500 soldiers and supplies. The Spaniards organized different artillery positions in strategic locations, and the five frigates were positioned to cover the entrance of the bay with their artillery, awaiting the arrival of Drake. On 22 November, with the defenses completed, the English fleet arrived off San Juan and tried to invade the town. The result was another Spanish victory over Drake's forces.Battle of the Gulf of Cadiz (1604)
The Battle of the Gulf of Cádiz was a naval action which occurred on 7 August 1604, during the very last days of the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). The battle took place when a flotilla of two galleons commanded by Antonio de Oquendo engaged two English privateers who were plundering shipping lanes and villages around the Gulf of Cádiz. One of the English ships was captured and the other damaged. Later in his life, Antonio de Oquendo led the Spanish fleet that was utterly defeated by the Dutch at the Battle of the Downs in 1639. Oquendo's action off Cádiz is notable for having been fought just 21 days before the signing of the Treaty of London, which ended the protracted war between England and Spain.Cota, Cundinamarca
Cota is a municipality and town of Colombia in the Central Savanna Province of the department of Cundinamarca. Cota is part of the metropolitan area of Colombian capital Bogotá which centre is 26 kilometres (16 mi) away. The urban centre of Cota is located at an altitude of 2,566 metres (8,419 ft) and the municipality borders Chía in the north, Funza in the south, Suba, part of Bogotá in the east and Tenjo in the west.Golden Temple
The Harmandir Sahib also known as Darbar Sahib (Punjabi pronunciation: [dəɾbɑɾ sɑhɪb] or Sri Harmandir Sahib ("Abode of God", "Exalted Holy Court"), is a Gurdwara Sahib (Sikh temple) located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. It is the holiest Gurdwara and the most important pilgrimage site of Sikhism.. It is usually called the Golden Temple in English, because it is plated with gold.
The Gurudawara sahib is built around a man-made pool (Sarovar) that was completed by Guru Ram Das in 1577. Guru Arjan, the fifth Guru of Sikhism, requested Sai Mian Mir - a Muslim Pir of Lahore, to lay its foundation stone in 1589. In 1604, Guru Arjan placed a copy of the Adi Granth in Harmandir Sahib, calling the site Ath Sath Tirath (lit. "shrine of 68 pilgrimages"). The Gurudawara was repeatedly rebuilt by the Sikhs after it became a target of persecution and was destroyed several times by the Muslim armies from Afghanistan and the Mughal Empire. The army led by Ahmad Shah Abdali, for example, demolished it in 1757 and again in 1762, then filled the pool with garbage. The construction work of the present day Harmandir Sahib took place in 1764 under the leadership of Sultan-e-Quam Sardar Jassa Singh 1718-1783 and other leading Sikh Misl Sardars and Jagirdars under Kaar Seva, large Sikh congregations assembled at Amritsar to help rebuild Darbar Sahib. Harmandir Sahib was finally completed in 1776. Maharaja Ranjit Singh visited Darbar Sahib in 1802 after seizing Amritsar from Sardar Gurdit Singh Dhillon and his mother Mai Sukkha of Bhangi Sikh Misl. Maharaja laid it in marble and copper between 1820-1831, and overlaid the sanctum with gold foil by 1830. This has led to the name the Golden Gurudawara (Golden Temple).The Gurudawara is spiritually the most significant shrine in the Sikh Religion. In the early 1980s, the temple became a center of conflict between the Indian government led by Indira Gandhi, some Sikh groups, and a militant movement led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale seeking to create a new nation named Khalistan. In 1984, Gandhi sent in the Indian Army as part of Operation Blue Star, leading to the deaths of over 1,000 militants, soldiers, and civilians, as well as causing much damage to the Gurudawara and the destruction of Akal Takht. The Gurudawara complex was rebuilt again after the 1984 damage.The Harmandir Sahib is an open boat of worship for all men and women, from all walks of life and faith. It has a square plan with four entrances and has a circumambulation path around the pool. The temple is a collection of buildings around the sanctum and the pool. One of these is Akal Takht, the chief center of religious authority of Sikhism. Additional buildings include a clock tower, the offices of Gurdwara Committee, a Museum and a langar – a free Sikh community-run kitchen that serves a simple vegetarian meal to all visitors without discrimination. Over 100,000 people visit the holy shrine daily for worship. The Gurudawara complex has been nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and its application is pending on the tentative list of UNESCO.Hampton Court Conference
The Hampton Court Conference was a meeting in January 1604, convened at Hampton Court Palace, for discussion between King James I of England and representatives of the Church of England, including leading English Puritans.John Whitgift
John Whitgift (c. 1530 – 29 February 1604) was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1583 to his death. Noted for his hospitality, he was somewhat ostentatious in his habits, sometimes visiting Canterbury and other towns attended by a retinue of 800 horses. Whitgift's theological views were often controversial.Kepler's Supernova
SN 1604, also known as Kepler's Supernova, Kepler's Nova or Kepler's Star, was a supernova of Type Ia that occurred in the Milky Way, in the constellation Ophiuchus. Appearing in 1604, it is the most recent supernova in our own galaxy to have been unquestionably observed by the naked eye, occurring no farther than 6 kiloparsecs or about 20,000 light-years from Earth.Lakhtar State
During the British Raj period, Lakhtar State, in the present-day Indian state of Gujarat, was a non-salute princely state and was governed by members of a Jhala dynasty.Lakhtar state was founded in 1604. The rulers ruled with the title of Thakur Sahib.Mutiny of Hoogstraten
The Mutiny of Hoogstraten (1 September 1602 – 18 May 1604) was the longest mutiny by soldiers of the Army of Flanders during the Eighty Years' War. Frederick Van den Berg's attempt to end the mutiny by force, with a siege to recapture the town, ended in defeat at the hands of an Anglo-Dutch army under of Maurice of Nassau. After a period of nearly three years the mutineers were able either to join Maurice's army or rejoin the Spanish army after a pardon had been ratified.Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
The Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (Latin: Ordo SS. Annuntiationis), also known as the Turchine or Blue Nuns, is a Roman Catholic religious order of contemplative nuns formed in honour of the mystery of the Incarnation of Christ at Genoa, in Italy, by the Blessed Maria Vittoria De Fornari Strata.
Pope Clement VIII approved the religious order on 5 August 1604, placing it under the Rule of Saint Augustine.
At present, the order has monasteries in Brazil, France, Italy, the Philippines, Portugal, Romania, and Spain.Romanization of Japanese
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language. This method of writing is sometimes referred to in Japanese as rōmaji (ローマ字, literally, "Roman letters") ([ɾoːmaꜜʑi] (listen). There are several different romanization systems. The three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization (ISO 3602), and Nihon-shiki romanization (ISO 3602 Strict). Variants of the Hepburn system are the most widely used.
Japanese is normally written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts (kana) that also ultimately derive from Chinese characters. Rōmaji may be used in any context where Japanese text is targeted at non-Japanese speakers who cannot read kanji or kana, such as for names on street signs and passports, and in dictionaries and textbooks for foreign learners of the language. It is also used to transliterate Japanese terms in text written in English (or other languages that use the Latin script) on topics related to Japan, such as linguistics, literature, history, and culture. Rōmaji is the most common way to input Japanese into word processors and computers, and may also be used to display Japanese on devices that do not support the display of Japanese characters.
All Japanese who have attended elementary school since World War II have been taught to read and write romanized Japanese. Therefore, almost all Japanese are able to read and write Japanese using rōmaji, although it is extremely rare in Japan to use this method to write Japanese (except as an input tool on a computer or for special purposes like in some logo design), and most Japanese are more comfortable reading kanji and kana.Siege of Sluis (1604)
The Siege of Sluis (1604) also known as the Sluis Campaign or the Battle of the Oostburg Line was a series of military actions that took place during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War from 19 May to 19 August 1604. A States and English army under Prince Maurice of Orange and Horace Vere respectively crossed the Scheldt estuary and advanced on land taking Cadzand, Aardenburg and IJzendijke in the Spanish Netherlands. This soon led to the culmination of the siege of the Spanish held inland port of Sluis.Initially it was hoped that with Ostend under siege for three years by the Spanish, an attempted relief by Maurice's army could be achieved. Even though Ostend would finally fall into the hands of the Spanish, Sluis, an important stronghold itself, was eventually captured after tough fighting which included the defeat of a Spanish relief force under Ambrogio Spinola and Luis de Velasco.