1599 (MDXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1599th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 599th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 16th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1599, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1599 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1599
Ab urbe condita2352
Armenian calendar1048
Assyrian calendar6349
Balinese saka calendar1520–1521
Bengali calendar1006
Berber calendar2549
English Regnal year41 Eliz. 1 – 42 Eliz. 1
Buddhist calendar2143
Burmese calendar961
Byzantine calendar7107–7108
Chinese calendar戊戌(Earth Dog)
4295 or 4235
    — to —
己亥年 (Earth Pig)
4296 or 4236
Coptic calendar1315–1316
Discordian calendar2765
Ethiopian calendar1591–1592
Hebrew calendar5359–5360
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1655–1656
 - Shaka Samvat1520–1521
 - Kali Yuga4699–4700
Holocene calendar11599
Igbo calendar599–600
Iranian calendar977–978
Islamic calendar1007–1008
Japanese calendarKeichō 4
Javanese calendar1519–1520
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3932
Minguo calendar313 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar131
Thai solar calendar2141–2142
Tibetan calendar阳土狗年
(male Earth-Dog)
1725 or 1344 or 572
    — to —
(female Earth-Pig)
1726 or 1345 or 573




Date unknown






Date unknown


1590s in Denmark

Events from the year 1590s in Denmark.

1599 in France

Events from the year 1599 in France

1599 in India

Events from the year 1599 in India.

1599 in Ireland

Events from the year 1599 in Ireland.

1599 in Japan

Events in the year 1599 in Japan.

1599 in Scotland

Events from the year 1599 in the Kingdom of Scotland.

1599 in Sweden

Events from the year 1599 in Sweden

Chamber of commerce

A chamber of commerce (or board of trade) is a form of business network, for example, a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses. Business owners in towns and cities form these local societies to advocate on behalf of the business community. Local businesses are members, and they elect a board of directors or executive council to set policy for the chamber. The board or council then hires a President, CEO or Executive Director, plus staffing appropriate to size, to run the organization.

A chamber of commerce is a voluntary association of business firms belonging to different trades and industries. They serve as spokesmen and representatives of business community. They differ from country to country.

The first chamber of commerce was founded in 1599 in Marseille, France. Another official chamber of commerce would follow 65 years later, probably in Bruges, then part of the Spanish Netherlands.

The world's oldest English-speaking chamber of commerce is the Jersey Chamber founded in February 1768, the same year the New York City Chamber was founded, The oldest known existing chamber in the English-speaking world with continuous records, the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce, was founded in 1783. However, Hull Chamber of Commerce is the UK's oldest, followed by those of Leeds and of Belfast in present day Northern Ireland.As a non-governmental institution, a chamber of commerce has no direct role in the writing and passage of laws and regulations that affect businesses. It may however, lobby in an attempt to get laws passed that are favorable to businesses.

Geneva Bible

The Geneva Bible is one of the most historically significant translations of the Bible into English, preceding the King James Version by 51 years. It was the primary Bible of 16th-century English Protestantism and was used by William Shakespeare, Oliver Cromwell, John Knox, John Donne, and John Bunyan, author of The Pilgrim's Progress (1678). It was one of the Bibles taken to America on the Mayflower (Pilgrim Hall Museum has collected several Bibles of Mayflower passengers). The Geneva Bible was used by many English Dissenters, and it was still respected by Oliver Cromwell's soldiers at the time of the English Civil War, in the booklet "Cromwell's Soldiers' Pocket Bible".This version of the Bible is significant because, for the very first time, a mechanically printed, mass-produced Bible was made available directly to the general public which came with a variety of scriptural study guides and aids (collectively called an apparatus), which included verse citations that allow the reader to cross-reference one verse with numerous relevant verses in the rest of the Bible, introductions to each book of the Bible that acted to summarize all of the material that each book would cover, maps, tables, woodcut illustrations and indices.

Because the language of the Geneva Bible was more forceful and vigorous, most readers strongly preferred this version to the Great Bible. In the words of Cleland Boyd McAfee, "it drove the Great Bible off the field by sheer power of excellence".

Globe Theatre

The Globe Theatre was a theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare. It was built in 1599 by Shakespeare's playing company, the Lord Chamberlain's Men, on land owned by Thomas Brend and inherited by his son, Nicholas Brend and grandson Sir Matthew Brend, and was destroyed by fire on 29 June 1613. A second Globe Theatre was built on the same site by June 1614 and closed by an Ordinance issued on 6 September 1642.A modern reconstruction of the Globe, named "Shakespeare's Globe", opened in 1997 approximately 750 feet (230 m) from the site of the original theatre. From 1909, the current Gielgud Theatre was called "Globe Theatre", until it was renamed (in honour of John Gielgud) in 1994.

Julius Caesar (play)

The Tragedy of Julius Caesar (First Folio title: The Tragedie of Iulius Cæsar) is a history play and tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599. It is one of several plays written by Shakespeare based on true events from Roman history, which also include Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra.

Although the play is named Julius Caesar, Brutus speaks more than four times as many lines as the title character; and the central psychological drama of the play focuses on Brutus' struggle between the conflicting demands of honour, patriotism, and friendship.


Malabon, officially the City of Malabon, (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Malabon), or simply known as Malabon City, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in Metro Manila, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 365,525 people.Located just north of Manila, it is primarily a residential and industrial town and is one of the most densely populated cities in the metropolis. It has a total land area of 15.96 square kilometers.

Malabon is part of the sub-region of Metro Manila informally called CAMANAVA, which consists of CAloocan, MAlabon, NAvotas, and VAlenzuela cities. Caloocan lies to the south and east, Navotas to the west, and Valenzuela to the north. Malabon also borders the town of Obando in the province of Bulacan to the northwest.

Raid on Tabasco (1599)

The Raid on Tabasco, Capture of Tabasco or Newport's 2nd Expedition of 1599 was an English military expedition during the Anglo–Spanish War that captured the Spanish port settlement of Tabasco in New Spain. The English under Christopher Newport then occupied the town and gained a significant amount of booty before heading home.Christopher Newport was no stranger to raiding the Spanish New world and had been doing so since 1587 and was successful in every venture. He even lost half of his arm during his successful 1590 expedition when seizing a ship from the Spaniards off Hispaniola. After returning from an expedition in 1598 with two valuable Spanish prizes, Newport immediately decided to venture out again in mid 1599. He resumed his command of the vessels the Neptune, Blessing and the Triton being of 300–350 tons apiece.


Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia, Germany, with its capital at Rudolstadt.


Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small principality in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with its capital at Sondershausen.

Siege of Rees (1599)

The Siege of Ress of 1599, also known as the Relief of Ress (Socorro de Rees in Spanish), was an unsuccessful attempt by Protestant-German forces led by Count Simon VI of Lippe, and Anglo-Dutch forces sent by Prince Maurice of Nassau (Dutch: Maurits van Oranje), commanded by Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and the Count Ernst of Solms, to capture the strategic stronghold of Rees, Lower Rhine, Duchy of Cleves (present-day Germany) from the Spanish forces of Don Francisco de Mendoza, Admiral of Aragon, second-in-command of the Army of Flanders, and Governor Don Ramiro de Guzmán, between 10–12 September 1599, during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). This Spanish victory was part of the campaign of Francisco de Mendoza and Cardinal Andrew of Austria of 1598-1599, also called the Spanish Winter of 1598-99.

Siege of Schenckenschans (1599)

The Siege of Schenkenschans was a siege that took place from 28 April to 2 May 1599 as part of the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War. Schenkenschans was garrisoned largely by English troops and was besieged by a Spanish force led by Francesco de Mendoza. The Siege failed with losses and the Spanish were forced to retreat when a relief force arrived.

The Passionate Pilgrim

The Passionate Pilgrim (1599) is an anthology of 20 poems collected and published by William Jaggard that were attributed to "W. Shakespeare" on the title page, only five of which are considered authentically Shakespearean. These are two sonnets, later to be published in the 1609 collection of Shakespeare's Sonnets, and three poems extracted from the play Love's Labour's Lost. Internal and external evidence contradicts the title page attribution to Shakespeare. Five were attributed to other poets during his lifetime, and two were published in other collections anonymously. While most critics disqualify the rest as not Shakespearean on stylistic grounds, stylometric analysis by Ward Elliott and Robert Valenza put two blocks of the poems (4, 6, 7 and 9, and 10, 12, 13 and 15) within Shakespeare's stylistic boundaries. Jaggard later published an augmented edition with poems he knew to be by Thomas Heywood.

Timeline of pre–United States history

This section of the timeline of United States history concerns events from before the lead up to the American Revolution (c. 1760).

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