1595 (MDXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1595th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 595th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 16th century, and the 6th year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1595, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1595 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2348|
|Balinese saka calendar||1516–1517|
|English Regnal year||37 Eliz. 1 – 38 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||甲午年 (Wood Horse)|
4291 or 4231
— to —
乙未年 (Wood Goat)
4292 or 4232
|- Vikram Samvat||1651–1652|
|- Shaka Samvat||1516–1517|
|- Kali Yuga||4695–4696|
|Japanese calendar||Bunroku 4|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||317 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2137–2138|
1721 or 1340 or 568
— to —
1722 or 1341 or 569
Events from the year 1590s in Denmark.1595 in France
Events from the year 1595 in France1595 in India
Events from the year 1595 in India.1595 in Ireland
Events from the year 1595 in Ireland.1595 in Norway
Events in the year 1595 in Norway.1595 in Scotland
Events from the year 1595 in the Kingdom of Scotland.1595 in Sweden
Events from the year 1595 in SwedenBattle of Guadalupe Island (1595)
The Battle of Guadalupe Island, also known as the Battle of Guadalupe, was a naval action that took place off Guadalupe Island (French: Guadeloupe), Caribbean Sea, on 8 November 1595, between a Spanish force of five frigates commanded by Don Pedro Tello de Guzmán and Don Gonzalo Méndez de Cancio (who was appointed Admiral on 19 August 1595), and an English squadron of nine ships (rear of Francis Drake's fleet), during the unsuccessful English military expedition of 1595 against Spain and their possessions, led by Sir Francis Drake himself, Sir John Hawkins and Sir Thomas Baskerville, as the context of the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). The result was a Spanish victory. One of the English ships, the Francis, was captured and the others fled from the battle. Then, knowing Drake's plans, the Spanish flotilla took advantage over the bulk of Drake's fleet, and arrived at San Juan on 13 November, reinforcing the town with 500 soldiers and supplies. The Spaniards organized different artillery positions in strategic locations, and the five frigates were positioned to cover the entrance of the bay with their artillery, awaiting the arrival of Drake. On 22 November, with the defenses completed, the English fleet arrived off San Juan and tried to invade the town. The result was another Spanish victory over Drake's forces.Battle of Las Palmas
The Battle of las Palmas was an unsuccessful English naval expedition in 1595 during the Anglo-Spanish War against the Spanish island of Gran Canaria. The English Fleet was originally directed towards Puerto Rico, but had taken a detour in hopes of an easy victory and taking supplies. The English expeditionary fleet under Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and Sir Thomas Baskerville failed to achieve victory and was forced to withdraw from the Canary Islands towards the Spanish Caribbean, where Francis Drake died of dysentery at Mosquito Gulf.Battle of San Juan (1595)
The Battle of San Juan (1595) was a Spanish victory during the Anglo–Spanish War. This war broke out in 1585 and was fought not only in the European theatre but in Spain's American colonies.
After emerging from six years of disgrace following the resounding defeat of the English Armada at Lisbon in 1589, Francis Drake embarked on a long and disastrous campaign against Hispanic America, suffering several consecutive defeats there. On 22 November 1595 Drake and John Hawkins tried to invade San Juan with 27 ships and 2,500 men. After failing to be able to land at the Ensenada del Escambron on the eastern end of San Juan Islet, he attempted to sail into San Juan Bay with the intention of sacking the city. Unable to capture the island, following the death of his comrade, John Hawkins, Drake abandoned San Juan, and set sail for Panama where he died from disease and received a burial at sea after failing to establish an English settlement in America.Capture of Recife (1595)
The Capture of Recife also known as James Lancaster's 1595 Expedition or Lancaster's Pernambucan expedition was an English military expedition during the Anglo–Spanish War in which the primary objective was the capture of the town and port of Recife in Pernambuco on the Portuguese colony of Brazil (then within the Iberian Union with Spain) in April 1595. An English expedition of ships led by James Lancaster sailed via the Atlantic capturing numerous prizes before he captured Recife. He held the place for nearly a month and then proceeded to defeat a number of Portuguese counterattacks before leaving. The booty captured was substantial, Lancaster chartered Dutch and French ships that were also present there thus making the expedition a military and financial success.Dhrol State
Dhrol State was one of the 562 princely states of British India. It was a 9 gun salute state belonging to the Kathiawar Agency of the Bombay Presidency.
Its capital was in the town of Dhrol, located in the historical Halar region of Kathiawar.French Wars of Religion
The French Wars of Religion were a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598. It is estimated that three million people perished in this period from violence, famine, or disease in what is considered the second deadliest religious war in European history (surpassed only by the Thirty Years' War, which took eight million lives).Much of the conflict took place during the long regency of Queen Catherine de' Medici, widow of Henry II of France, for her minor sons. It also involved a dynastic power struggle between powerful noble families in the line for succession to the French throne: the wealthy, ambitious, and fervently Roman Catholic ducal House of Guise (a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine, who claimed descent from Charlemagne) and their ally Anne de Montmorency, Constable of France (i.e., commander in chief of the French armed forces) versus the less wealthy House of Condé (a branch of the House of Bourbon), princes of the blood in the line of succession to the throne who were sympathetic to Calvinism. Foreign allies provided financing and other assistance to both sides, with Habsburg Spain and the Duchy of Savoy supporting the Guises, and England supporting the Protestant side led by the Condés and by the Protestant Jeanne d'Albret, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, and her son, Henry of Navarre.
Moderates, primarily associated with the French Valois monarchy and its advisers, tried to balance the situation and avoid open bloodshed. This group (pejoratively known as Politiques) put their hopes in the ability of a strong centralized government to maintain order and harmony. In contrast to the previous hardline policies of Henri II and his father Francis I, they began introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. A most notable moderate, at least initially, was the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici. Catherine, however, later hardened her stance and, at the time of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572, sided with the Guises. This pivotal historical event involved a complete breakdown of state control resulting in series of riots and massacres in which Catholic mobs killed between 5,000 and 30,000 Protestants over a period of weeks throughout the entire kingdom.
At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, the Protestant Henry of Navarre, heir to the French throne, converted to Catholicism and was crowned Henry IV of France. He issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted Huguenots substantial rights and freedoms though this did not end Catholic hostility towards them or towards him, personally. The wars of religion threatened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Catherine's three sons and the last Valois kings: Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III. This changed under the reign of their Bourbon successor Henry IV. The edict of Nantes was revoked later in 1685 with the Edict of Fontainebleau by Louis XIV of France. Henry IV's wise governance and selection of able administrators did leave a legacy of a strong centralized government, stability, and economic prosperity that has gained him the reputation as France's best and most beloved monarch, earning him the designation "Good King Henry".Lala Mehmed Pasha
Lala Mehmed Pasha (died 28 November 1595) was an Ottoman military commander and grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire under the reign of Mehmed III.Born in Gölmarmara in western Anatolia, he became a lala (tutor) to the sultan Murad III and then to his son Mehmed III, hence his nickname. After having married the daughter of Mehmed III's daye (wet nurse) Halime Hatun, Mehmed Pasha rose to serve as grand vizier in 1595, the first year of Mehmed III's reign, although only for a matter of few days before he suddenly died. His lineage continued for centuries, coming all the way to Huseyin Avni Pasha.Murad III
Murad III (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثالث Murād-i sālis, Turkish: III.Murat) (4 July 1546 – 16 January 1595) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death in 1595.Raghavendra Tirtha
Shri Raghavendra (Śrī Rāghavēndra Tīrtha) (c.1595–c.1671) was a Hindu scholar, theologian and saint. He was also known as Sudha Parimalacharya (Sudhā Parimaḷācārya). His diverse oeuvre include commentaries on the works of Madhva, Jayatirtha and Vyasatirtha, interpretation of the Principal Upanishads from the standpoint of Dvaita and a treatise on Purva Mimamsa. He served as the pontiff of the Madhvacharya Mutt at Kumbakonam from 1624 to 1671. Raghavendra was also an accomplished player of the Veena and he composed several songs under the name of Venu Gopala. His tomb at Mantralayam (Brindavana) attracts thousands of visitors every year.Russo-Swedish War (1590–1595)
The Russo-Swedish War of 1590–1595 was instigated by Boris Godunov in the hope of gaining the territory of the Duchy of Estonia along the Gulf of Finland belonging to Sweden since the previous Livonian War.
As soon as the Truce of Plussa expired early in 1590, a large Russian army led by Godunov and his sickly brother-in-law, Fyodor I of Russia, marched from Moscow towards Novgorod. On 18 January they crossed the Narva River and laid siege to the Swedish castle of Narva, commanded by Arvid Stålarm. Another important fortress, Jama (Jamburg), fell to Russian forces within two weeks. Simultaneously, the Russians ravaged Estonia as far as Reval (Tallinn) and Finland as far as Helsingfors (Helsinki).
On 25 February, the local Swedish governor Carl Henriksson Horn af Kanckas was compelled to sign an armistice, which obliged Sweden to surrender the territories won by the Treaty of Plussa — namely Jama, Koporye, and Ivangorod. This peace settlement displeased John III of Sweden, who sent a fleet to take hold of Ivangorod, but this attempt to besiege the fortress was checked by a Russian castellan. Matters then remained quiet until summer 1591, when the Swedes struck against Gdov, capturing a local governor, Prince Vladimir Dolgorukov.
The other war theatre was Eastern Karelia, where the Swedes sacked Kola and other Russian settlements bordering the White Sea. A raiding party allegedly led by Finnish peasant chief Pekka Vesainen, destroyed the Pechenga Monastery on December 25, 1589, killing 50 monks and 65 lay brothers. He then turned his troops to Kola Fjord but could not manage to destroy the Kola Fortress due to lack of men. Instead he captured and burned Kandalaksha (Kantalahti) and a small Russian settlement in Kem. Again, due to lack of men, he could not capture the Solovetsky Monastery on the Solovetsky Islands.
Godunov's government gradually overcame these setbacks, as Prince Volkonsky was sent to pacify Karelia, while the noblest Russian generals — Bogdan Belsky, Fyodor Mstislavsky and Prince Trubetskoy — devastated Finland. After that, the war settled into indecisive skirmishing from which it would not subsequently emerge. Three years elapsed before Sweden, in May 1595, agreed to sign the Treaty of Teusina (Tyavzino, Tyavzin, Täyssinä). The treaty restored to Russia all territory ceded in the Truce of Plussa of 1583 to Sweden except for Narva. Russia had to renounce all claims on Estonia, including Narva, and Sweden's sovereignty over Estonia from 1561 was confirmed.Siege of Huy (1595)
The Siege of Huy of 1595, also known as the Assault of Huy, was a Spanish victory that took place between 7 and 20 March 1595, at Huy, Archbishopric of Liège, Low Countries, as part of the Eighty Years' War, the French Wars of Religion, and the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). Despite the promises of Prince Maurice of Orange to relieve Huy, the forces of the new Governor-General of the Spanish Netherlands, Don Pedro Henríquez de Acevedo, Count of Fuentes (Spanish: Conde de Fuentes), led by Don Valentín Pardieu de la Motte, after a short siege and low resistance, captured the town and the citadel from the combined Protestant troops of Charles de Héraugière. Thirteen days later, on March 20, Héraugière, unable to keep the defense, agreed the terms of the capitulation between the Protestant forces and the Spaniards.The Spanish forces were composed by two Spanish tercios led by Don Luis de Velasco and Don Antonio de Zúñiga, two German regiments, three Walloon regiments, and some pieces of artillery. The majority of the Protestant forces were composed by Dutch troops, about 1,800 infantry and cavalry, which included a regiment of Scots commanded by General Barthold Balfour, and a contingent of Huguenots.Although Huy was declared neutral in the war, during the occupation by the forces of Héraugière, the population endured great abuses by the Protestant soldiers, and several churches and lots of houses were looted. The Spanish forces retired on March 23, leaving the citadel of Huy in the hands of Captain Juan de Zornoza, with 150 Spanish soldiers, until repair the batteries and the return of the garrison of the Prince-Elector Ernest of Bavaria.The occupation of Huy by the United Provinces, and consequently the violation of the rights of neutral zones, was the failure of a plan of Philip of Nassau for controlled an advantageous position from which to open a short route and aid the operations of the French troops commanded by the Duke of Bouillon in the borders of Luxembourg.William Wickham (bishop)
William Wickham (Wykeham) (1539 – 11 June 1595) was an English bishop.