1594 (MDXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1594th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 594th year of the 2nd millennium, the 94th year of the 16th century, and the 5th year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1594, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1594 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1594
Ab urbe condita2347
Armenian calendar1043
Assyrian calendar6344
Balinese saka calendar1515–1516
Bengali calendar1001
Berber calendar2544
English Regnal year36 Eliz. 1 – 37 Eliz. 1
Buddhist calendar2138
Burmese calendar956
Byzantine calendar7102–7103
Chinese calendar癸巳(Water Snake)
4290 or 4230
    — to —
甲午年 (Wood Horse)
4291 or 4231
Coptic calendar1310–1311
Discordian calendar2760
Ethiopian calendar1586–1587
Hebrew calendar5354–5355
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1650–1651
 - Shaka Samvat1515–1516
 - Kali Yuga4694–4695
Holocene calendar11594
Igbo calendar594–595
Iranian calendar972–973
Islamic calendar1002–1003
Japanese calendarBunroku 3
Javanese calendar1514–1515
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3927
Minguo calendar318 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar126
Thai solar calendar2136–2137
Tibetan calendar阴水蛇年
(female Water-Snake)
1720 or 1339 or 567
    — to —
(male Wood-Horse)
1721 or 1340 or 568
Linschotens nordenkart, 1601 (12067624705)
June 5: First voyage of Willem Barents in search of the Northeast Passage.




Date unknown




Date unknown




  1. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 233–238. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
1590s in Denmark

Events from the year 1590s in Denmark.

1594 in India

Events from the year 1594 in India.

1594 in Ireland

Events from the year 1594 in Ireland.

1594 in Scotland

Events from the year 1594 in the Kingdom of Scotland.

1594 in Sweden

Events from the year 1594 in Sweden

Action of San Mateo Bay

The Action of San Mateo Bay was a naval engagement which took place from 24 June to 1 July 1594 between the discovery ship Dainty under the command of English privateer Richard Hawkins and a Spanish squadron of three galleons commanded by Beltrán de Castro at the mouth of the Esmeraldas river, nowadays Ecuador.

Archduchess Eleanor of Austria

Archduchess Eleanor of Austria (2 November 1534 – 5 August 1594) was a Duchess of Mantua by marriage to William I, Duke of Mantua. She was the daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary.

Dota Gozen

Dota Gozen (土田 御前, 1511 – February 26, 1594) was married to Oda Nobuhide and was the mother of Oda Nobunaga, a major feudal warlord in the Sengoku period of Japan. She was also the mother of three of his brothers, Nobuyuki, Nobukane and Hidetaka; and two of his sisters, Oinu and Oichi. It is assumed that she is the daughter of Dota Masahisa, but that is unclear because her real name is unknown. She is buried at Shitennō-ji in modern-day Tsu, Mie Prefecture.

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

Gustavus Adolphus (9/19 December 1594 – 6/16 November 1632, O.S./N.S.), also known in English as Gustav II Adolf or Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Swedish: Stormaktstiden). He led Sweden to military supremacy during the Thirty Years' War, helping to determine the political as well as the religious balance of power in Europe. He was formally and posthumously given the name Gustavus Adolphus the Great (Swedish: Gustav Adolf den store, Latin: Gustavus Adolphus Magnus) by the Riksdag of the Estates in 1634.He is often regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time, with innovative use of combined arms. His most notable military victory was the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631). With a superb military machine, good weapons, excellent training, and effective field artillery, backed by an efficient government that could provide necessary funds, Gustavus Adolphus was poised to make himself a major European leader. He was killed a year later, however, at the Battle of Lützen (1632). He was ably assisted in his efforts by Count Axel Oxenstierna, the Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, who also acted as regent after his death.

In an era characterized by almost endless warfare, Gustavus Adolphus inherited three simultaneous and ongoing wars of his father at the age of sixteen. Two of these were border wars with Russia and Denmark, and a more personal war (at least for his father) with Gustavus' first cousin, King Sigismund III Vasa of Poland. Of these three wars that were passed onto his rule, the Danish war was the most acute one.During his reign, Sweden rose from the status of a Baltic Sea basin regional power to one of the great powers of Europe and a model of early modern era government. Gustavus Adolphus is famously known as the "father of modern warfare", or the first great modern general. Under his tutelage, Sweden and the Protestant cause developed a number of excellent commanders, such as Lennart Torstensson, who would go on to defeat Sweden's enemies and expand the boundaries and the power of the empire long after Gustavus Adolphus' death in battle. Spoils of Adolphus' enemies meant he became a successful bookraider in Europe, specifically with Jesuit Collections.Called "The Golden King" and "The Lion of the North", he made Sweden one of the great powers of Europe, in part by reforming the administrative structure. For example, he began parish registration of the population, so that the central government could more efficiently tax and conscript the people. Historian Christer Jorgensen argues that his achievement in the field of economic reform, trade, modernization, and the creation of the modern bureaucratic autocracy was as great as his exploits on the battlefields. His domestic reforms, which transformed a backward, almost medieval economy and society, were in fact not only the foundations for his victories in Germany, but also absolutely crucial for the creation and survival of the Swedish Empire.He is widely commemorated by Protestants in Europe as the main defender of their cause during the Thirty Years' War, with multiple churches, foundations and other undertakings named after him, including the Gustav-Adolf-Werk.

He became a symbol of Swedish pride and even had a song composed for him, "Lion From The North."

Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales

Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales (19 February 1594 – 6 November 1612) was the elder son of James VI and I, King of England and Scotland, and his wife, Anne of Denmark. His name derives from his grandfathers: Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and Frederick II of Denmark. Prince Henry was widely seen as a bright and promising heir to his father's thrones. However, at the age of 18, he predeceased his father when he died of typhoid fever. His younger brother Charles succeeded him as heir apparent to the English, Irish and Scottish thrones.

John Piers

John Piers (Peirse) (1522/3 – 1594) was Archbishop of York between 1589–1594. Previous to that he had been Bishop of Rochester and Bishop of Salisbury.

Lord Chamberlain's Men

The Lord Chamberlain's Men was a company of actors, or a "playing company" as it would have been known, for which Shakespeare wrote for most of his career. Richard Burbage played most of the lead roles, including Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth while Shakespeare himself performed some secondary roles. Formed at the end of a period of flux in the theatrical world of London, it had become, by 1603, one of the two leading companies of the city and was subsequently patronized by James I.

It was founded during the reign of Elizabeth I of England in 1594 under the patronage of Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon, then the Lord Chamberlain, who was in charge of court entertainments. After Carey's death on 23 July 1596, the company came under the patronage of his son, George Carey, 2nd Baron Hunsdon, for whom it was briefly known as Lord Hunsdon's Men. When George Carey in turn became Lord Chamberlain on 17 March 1597, it reverted to its previous name. The company became the King's Men in 1603 when King James ascended the throne and became the company's patron. The company held exclusive rights to perform Shakespeare's plays.

Louis de Revol

Louis De Revol (1531 – 24 September 1594) was the first French Foreign Minister from 1589 until his death in 1594. He is considered world's first foreign minister entrusted with all foreign relations.

Robert Douglas (minister)

Robert Douglas (1594–1674) was the only minister of the Church of Scotland to be Moderator of the General Assembly five times.

Douglas officiated at the coronation of Charles II at Scone in 1651. During the ceremony he preached a sermon which said that it was the monarch's duty to maintain the established religion of Scotland and to bring the other religions in Britain into conformity with it. Douglas assisted in the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, and afterwards was offered the bishopric of Edinburgh if he would accept the introduction of episcopacy into Scotland. He refused, and was latterly simply Pastor of Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh and then Minister of the Parish of Pencaitland until his death.

Siege of Groningen (1594)

The Siege of Groningen was a two-month siege which commenced on May 19, 1594 took place during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War. The Spanish held city of Groningen was besieged by a Dutch and English army led by Prince Maurice of Orange. The Spanish surrendered the city on July 22 after a failed relief attempt by the Count of Fuentes.In a period of more than five years before Groningen fell, all the key strategic positions which led or connected the city in vital ways were taken one by one. The capture was decisive for the Dutch Republic as the last of the Spanish forces had been pushed out of the Northern provinces ending their domination. The city was then merged with the surrounding district and the transition to the new Protestant regime was followed by the expulsion of all property of the Roman Catholics as well as a complete ban on Catholicism.

Siege of Morlaix (1594)

The Siege of Morlaix took place from 6 September to 17 September 1594 during the French Wars of Religion and the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). The siege was fought between the French Royal army under Jean VI d'Aumont reinforced by an English contingent under Sir John Norreys who besieged the town of Morlaix, which was held by the combined forces of Spain and the Catholic League of France. A relief force of Spanish troops under the Juan del Águila and another of Leaguers under the Duke of Mercœur were turned back by an English force under John Norreys. With the arrival of a fleet of English ships under Martin Frobisher the garrison swiftly surrendered.

The Rape of Lucrece

The Rape of Lucrece (1594) is a narrative poem by William Shakespeare about the legendary Lucretia. In his previous narrative poem, Venus and Adonis (1593), Shakespeare had included a dedicatory letter to his patron, the Earl of Southampton, in which he promised to compose a "graver labour". Accordingly, The Rape of Lucrece has a serious tone throughout.

The poem begins with a prose dedication addressed directly to the Earl of Southampton, which begins, "The love I dedicate to your Lordship is without end." It refers to the poem as a pamphlet, which describes the form of its original publication of 1594.

The dedication is followed by "The Argument", a prose paragraph that summarizes the events preceding the start of the poem, which begins in media res.

The poem contains 1,855 lines, divided into 265 stanzas of seven lines each. The meter of each line is iambic pentameter. The rhyme scheme for each stanza is ABABBCC, a format known as "rhyme royal", which has been used by Geoffrey Chaucer, John Milton and John Masefield.

Thomas Cooper (bishop)

Thomas Cooper (or Couper; c. 1517 – 29 April 1594) was an English bishop, lexicographer, theologian, and writer.

Uprising in Banat

The Uprising in Banat was a rebellion organized and led by Serbian Orthodox bishop Teodor of Vršac and Sava Temišvarac against the Ottomans in the Eyalet of Temeşvar. The uprising broke out in 1594, in the initial stage of the Long Turkish War, and was fought by local Serbs, numbering some 5,000, who managed to quickly take over several towns in the region before being crushed by the Ottoman army. The relics of Saint Sava were burnt by the Ottomans as a retaliation. Although short-lived, it inspired future rebellions.

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