1590s

The 1590s decade ran from January 1, 1590, to December 31, 1599.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
Categories:
  • Births
  • Deaths
  • By country
  • By topic
  • Establishments
  • Disestablishments

Events

1590

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1591

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1592

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1593

January–December

Date unknown

1594

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1595

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1596

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1597

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1598

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1599

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 233–238. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  2. ^ "R. Durtnell & Sons Ltd - History". Durtnell. Archived from the original on May 30, 2014. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  3. ^ Commentarii Collegii Conimbricensis Societatis Jesu in octo libros physicorum Aristotelis Stagyritæ.
  4. ^ "Historical Events for Year 1593 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
  5. ^ a b Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 163–165. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  6. ^ Emily C. Bartels (April 2006). "Too Many Blackamoors: Deportation, Discrimination, and Elizabeth I". SEL: Studies in English Literature 1500–1900. 46 (2). Rice University: 305–322. JSTOR 3844644. In 1596, Queen Elizabeth issued an 'open letter' to the Lord Mayor of London, announcing that 'there are of late divers black-moores brought into this realme, of which kinde of people there aire allready here to manie,' and ordering that they be deported from the country.
  7. ^ Stratton, J.M. (1969). Agricultural Records. John Baker. ISBN 0-212-97022-4.
  8. ^ "Historical Events for Year 1597 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
  9. ^ "From liquid to vapor and back: origins". Special Collections Department. University of Delaware Library. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
  10. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (2002). Samurai Invasion: Japan's Korean War. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-35948-6.
  11. ^ Ottavio Rinuccini's libretto survives complete but only fragments of the music are known.
  12. ^ MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2013). Silence: A Christian History. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 9781846144264.
1590 in Ireland

Events from the year 1590 in Ireland.

1590s in Denmark

Events from the year 1590s in Denmark.

1590s in England

Events from the 1590s in England.

1591 in Ireland

Events from the year 1591 in Ireland.

1591 in Norway

Events in the year 1591 in Norway.

1592 in Ireland

Events from the year 1592 in Ireland.

1592 in Norway

Events in the year 1592 in Norway.

1593 in Ireland

Events from the year 1593 in Ireland.

1594 in Ireland

Events from the year 1594 in Ireland.

1595 in Ireland

Events from the year 1595 in Ireland.

1595 in Norway

Events in the year 1595 in Norway.

1596 in Ireland

Events from the year 1596 in Ireland.

1597 in Ireland

Events from the year 1597 in Ireland.

1598 in Ireland

Events from the year 1598 in Ireland.

1599 in Ireland

Events from the year 1599 in Ireland.

1599 in Japan

Events in the year 1599 in Japan.

Long Turkish War

The Long Turkish War or Thirteen Years' War was an indecisive land war between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, primarily over the Principalities of Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia. It was waged from 1593 to 1606 but in Europe it is sometimes called the Fifteen Years War, reckoning from the 1591–92 Turkish campaign that captured Bihać.

In the series of Ottoman wars in Europe it was the major test of force between the Ottoman–Venetian War (1570–73) and the Cretan War (1645–69). The next of the major Ottoman-Habsburg wars was the Great Turkish War of 1683-99. Overall, the conflict consisted in a great number of costly battles and sieges, but with very little result for either side.

Roanoke Colony

The Roanoke Colony (), also known as the Lost Colony, was the first attempt at founding a permanent English settlement in North America. It was established in 1585 on Roanoke Island in what is today's Dare County, North Carolina. The colony was sponsored by Sir Walter Raleigh, although he himself never set foot in it.

The initial settlement was established in the summer of 1585, but a lack of supplies and bad relations with the local Native Americans caused many of its members to return to England with Sir Francis Drake a year later, leaving behind a small detachment. These men had all disappeared by the time a second expedition led by John White, who also served as the colony's governor, arrived in July 1587. White, whose granddaughter Virginia Dare was born there shortly thereafter (making her the first English child born in the New World), left for England in late 1587 to request assistance from the government, but was prevented from returning to Roanoke until August 1590 due to the Anglo-Spanish War. Upon his arrival, the entire colony was missing with only a single clue to indicate what happened to them: the word "CROATOAN" carved into a tree.

For many years, it was widely accepted that the colonists were massacred by local tribes, but no bodies were ever discovered, nor any other archaeological evidence. The most prevalent hypothesis now is that environmental circumstances forced the colonists to take shelter with local tribes, but that is mostly based on oral histories and also lacks conclusive evidence. Some artifacts were discovered in 1998 on Hatteras Island where the Croatan tribe was based, but researchers could not definitively say these were from the Roanoke colonists.

Russo-Swedish War (1590–1595)

The Russo-Swedish War of 1590–1595 was instigated by Boris Godunov in the hope of gaining the territory of the Duchy of Estonia along the Gulf of Finland belonging to Sweden since the previous Livonian War.

As soon as the Truce of Plussa expired early in 1590, a large Russian army led by Godunov and his sickly brother-in-law, Fyodor I of Russia, marched from Moscow towards Novgorod. On 18 January they crossed the Narva River and laid siege to the Swedish castle of Narva, commanded by Arvid Stålarm. Another important fortress, Jama (Jamburg), fell to Russian forces within two weeks. Simultaneously, the Russians ravaged Estonia as far as Reval (Tallinn) and Finland as far as Helsingfors (Helsinki).

On 25 February, the local Swedish governor Carl Henriksson Horn af Kanckas was compelled to sign an armistice, which obliged Sweden to surrender the territories won by the Treaty of Plussa — namely Jama, Koporye, and Ivangorod. This peace settlement displeased John III of Sweden, who sent a fleet to take hold of Ivangorod, but this attempt to besiege the fortress was checked by a Russian castellan. Matters then remained quiet until summer 1591, when the Swedes struck against Gdov, capturing a local governor, Prince Vladimir Dolgorukov.

The other war theatre was Eastern Karelia, where the Swedes sacked Kola and other Russian settlements bordering the White Sea. A raiding party allegedly led by Finnish peasant chief Pekka Vesainen, destroyed the Pechenga Monastery on December 25, 1589, killing 50 monks and 65 lay brothers. He then turned his troops to Kola Fjord but could not manage to destroy the Kola Fortress due to lack of men. Instead he captured and burned Kandalaksha (Kantalahti) and a small Russian settlement in Kem. Again, due to lack of men, he could not capture the Solovetsky Monastery on the Solovetsky Islands.

Godunov's government gradually overcame these setbacks, as Prince Volkonsky was sent to pacify Karelia, while the noblest Russian generals — Bogdan Belsky, Fyodor Mstislavsky and Prince Trubetskoy — devastated Finland. After that, the war settled into indecisive skirmishing from which it would not subsequently emerge. Three years elapsed before Sweden, in May 1595, agreed to sign the Treaty of Teusina (Tyavzino, Tyavzin, Täyssinä). The treaty restored to Russia all territory ceded in the Truce of Plussa of 1583 to Sweden except for Narva. Russia had to renounce all claims on Estonia, including Narva, and Sweden's sovereignty over Estonia from 1561 was confirmed.

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