|1575 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2328|
|Balinese saka calendar||1496–1497|
|English Regnal year||17 Eliz. 1 – 18 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||甲戌年 (Wood Dog)|
4271 or 4211
— to —
乙亥年 (Wood Pig)
4272 or 4212
|- Vikram Samvat||1631–1632|
|- Shaka Samvat||1496–1497|
|- Kali Yuga||4675–4676|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 3|
|Minguo calendar||337 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2117–2118|
1701 or 1320 or 548
— to —
1702 or 1321 or 549
Events from the year 1575 in France1575 in India
Events from the year 1575 in India.1575 in Ireland
Events from the year 1575 in Ireland.1575 in Norway
Events in the year 1575 in Norway.Alexander Gordon (bishop of Galloway)
Alexander Gordon (c. 1516–1575) was a 16th-century Scottish churchman who was successively archbishop of Glasgow, titular archbishop of Athens, bishop of the Isles and bishop of Galloway. His father was John Gordon, Lord Gordon and his mother was Margaret Stewart, an illegitimate daughter of James IV of Scotland. He was the brother of George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly, the ex-Chancellor of Scotland. He acquired his first ecclesiastic appointment, as administrator of Caithness, despite competition with Robert Stewart, brother of the Earl of Lennox. He was provided and consecrated to the archdiocese of Glasgow in the year 1550. This see was resigned to the pope in 1551, and he was given a pension and the title archbishop of Athens in partibus, along with the commendam of Inchaffray. In 1553, he was translated to the bishopric of the Isles (Sodor) at Iona. In 1559, after the death of the bishop of Galloway, Alexander was translated that bishopric. Alexander became a Protestant, and died on 11 November 1575.
In 1544, Alexander described himself as a servant of Francis I of France, and he was a loyal and well rewarded servant to the Queen Dowager, Mary of Guise. Apart from his ecclesiastical preferments, Guise gave him a yearly pension of £200 on 17 January 1547. The next year Alexander claimed poverty because Robert Stewart had possession of his Caithness rents, but he wrote that he would not tempted by English offers, 'for suppose poverty banish me from your grace's service, riches shall not cause me offend.' Alexander sent Mary of Guise a vivid account of the capture of Ferniehirst Castle from the French in February 1549. He was there in the company of his brother George, Earl of Huntly.Alexander travelled through England to Scotland with a retinue of 12 followers in April 1553. Alexander preached at the wedding of his niece Jean Gordon to the Earl of Bothwell on 24 February 1566. A year later, Alexander was a signatory to Ainslie's Tavern Band in April 1567, agreeing to the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots to Bothwell.John Gordon, future Bishop of Galloway, was the son of Alexander Gordon and his wife Barbara Logie. John seems to have been illegitimate; his parents married, perhaps clandestinely, only in 1546, before Alexander obtained ecclesiastical preferment.Battle of Nagashino
The Battle of Nagashino (長篠の戦い, Nagashino no Tatakai) took place in 1575 near Nagashino Castle on the plain of Shitarabara in the Mikawa Province of Japan. Takeda Katsuyori attacked the castle when Okudaira Sadamasa rejoined the Tokugawa, and when his original plot with Oga Yashiro for taking Okazaki Castle, the capital of Mikawa, was discovered.Takeda Katsuyori attacked the castle on 16 June, using Takeda gold miners to tunnel under the walls, rafts to ferry samurai across the rivers, and siege towers. On 22 June the siege became a blockade, complete with palisades and cables strewn across the river. The defenders then sent Torii Suneemon to get help. He reached Okazaki, where Ieyasu and Nobunaga promised help. Conveying that message back to the castle, Torii was captured and hung on a cross before the castle walls. However, he was still able to shout out that relief was on the way before he was killed.Both Tokugawa Ieyasu and Oda Nobunaga sent troops to assist Sadamasa and break the siege, and their combined forces defeated Katsuyori. Nobunaga's skillful use of firearms to defeat Takeda's cavalry tactics is often cited as a turning point in Japanese warfare; many cite it as the first "modern" Japanese battle. In fact, the cavalry charge had been introduced only a generation earlier by Katsuyori's father, Takeda Shingen. Furthermore, firearms had already been used in other battles. Nobunaga's innovation was the wooden stockades and rotating volleys of fire, which led to a decisive victory at Nagashino.Beta Monocerotis
Beta Monocerotis (Beta Mon, β Monocerotis, β Mon) is a triple star system in the constellation of Monoceros. To the naked eye, it appears as a single star with an apparent visual magnitude of approximately 3.74, making it the brightest visible star in the constellation. A telescope shows a curved line of three pale blue stars (or pale yellow stars, depending on the scope's focus). William Herschel who discovered it in 1781 commented that it is "one of the most beautiful sights in the heavens". The star system consists of three Be stars, β Monocerotis A, β Monocerotis B, and β Monocerotis C. There is also an additional visual companion star that is probably not physically close to the other three stars.Claude of France (1547–1575)
Claude of France (12 November 1547, Fontainebleau – 21 February 1575, Nancy) was a French princess as the second daughter of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici, and Duchess of Lorraine by marriage to Charles III, Duke of Lorraine.Henry III of France
Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Polish: Henryk Walezy, Lithuanian: Henrikas Valua) was King of France from 1574 until his death and also King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575. Henry was the thirteenth king from the House of Valois, the sixth from the Valois-Orléans branch, the fifth from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch, and the last male of his dynasty.
As the fourth son of King Henry II of France, he was not expected to inherit the French throne and thus was a good candidate for the vacant throne of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he was elected King/Grand Duke in 1573. During his brief rule, he signed the Henrician Articles into law, recognizing the Polish nobility's right to freely elect their monarch. Aged 22, Henry abandoned Poland-Lithuania upon inheriting the French throne when his brother, Charles IX, died without issue.
France was at the time plagued by the Wars of Religion, and Henry's authority was undermined by violent political parties funded by foreign powers: the Catholic League (supported by Spain and the Pope), the Protestant Huguenots (supported by England and the Dutch) and the Malcontents, led by Henry's own brother, the Duke of Alençon, which was a party of Catholic and Protestant aristocrats who jointly opposed the absolutist ambitions of the king. Henry III was himself a politique, arguing that a strong and religiously tolerant monarchy would save France from collapse.
After the death of Henry's younger brother Francis, Duke of Anjou, and when it became apparent that Henry would not produce an heir, the Wars of Religion developed into a succession crisis, the War of the Three Henrys. Henry III's legitimate heir was his distant cousin, King Henry III of Navarre, a Protestant. The Catholic League, led by Henry I, Duke of Guise, sought to exclude Protestants from the succession and championed the Catholic Charles, Cardinal of Bourbon, as Henry III's heir.
In 1589, Jacques Clément, a Catholic fanatic, murdered Henry III. He was succeeded by the King of Navarre who, as Henry IV, assumed the throne of France after converting to Catholicism, as the first French king of the House of Bourbon.John Hall (physician)
John Hall (1575 – 25 November 1635) was a physician and son-in-law of William Shakespeare.Leiden University
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Dutch: Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. The university was founded in 1575 by William, Prince of Orange, leader of the Dutch Revolt in the Eighty Years' War. The Dutch Royal Family and Leiden University have a close association: Queen Juliana, Queen Beatrix and King Willem-Alexander are former students. The university came into particular prominence during the Dutch Golden Age, when scholars from around Europe were attracted to the Dutch Republic due to its climate of intellectual tolerance and Leiden's international reputation. During this time Leiden was home to such figures as René Descartes, Rembrandt, Christiaan Huygens, Hugo Grotius, Baruch Spinoza and Baron d'Holbach.
Leiden University has seven faculties (six in Leiden and one in The Hague) and over 50 departments. The university is a member of the Coimbra Group, the Europaeum and the League of European Research Universities. Leiden University houses more than 40 national and international research institutes.
The University is associated with ten leaders and Prime Ministers of the Netherlands including the current Prime Minister Mark Rutte, nine foreign leaders, among them the 6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams, a Secretary General of NATO, a President of the International Court of Justice, a Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and sixteen recipients of the Nobel Prize (including renowned physicists Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi).Martín de Goiti
Martín de Goiti (c. 1534 - 1575) was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the East Indies and the Pacific, in 1565. From his main base in Mexico City, he was the leader of the expedition to Manila, ordered by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1569. There, he fought a number of battles against the Muslim, Tariq Suleiman/Soliman (Arabic سليمان), the Hindu Rajah Matanda (Hindi ऋअज ंअतन्द), and the Taoist Lakandula (trad. Chinese 王 杜拉) of the kingdoms in Luzon; for control of the lands and its settlements. He is also known for his statesmanship by betrothing his sister to Batang Dula, the eldest son and successor apparent of Lakan Dula of Tondo (trad. Chinese"東都" pronounced Dongdu), the paramount ruler of Manila. Eventually their descendants unified the 3 royal houses of Tariq Suleiman, Rajah Matanda and Lakan Dula with the Basque Goiti family. The Dula y Goiti family eventually married with the Mendoza family who came over from Latin-America, who were Sephardic Hebrews that were practicing Catholics. Afterwards, the Dula y Goiti surname was shortened to Dulay. However, during the Spanish era, some descendants changed their surnames even further in order to avoid persecution and among which; the Salonga and Macapagal families are known descendants of these royal houses albeit only through a different family name.Matthew Parker
Matthew Parker (6 August 1504 – 17 May 1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559 until his death in 1575. He was also an influential theologian and arguably the co-founder (with Thomas Cranmer and Richard Hooker) of a distinctive tradition of Anglican theological thought.
Parker was one of the primary architects of the Thirty-nine Articles, the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. The Parker collection of early English manuscripts, including the book of St Augustine Gospels and Version A of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, was created as part of his efforts to demonstrate that the English Church was historically independent from Rome, creating one of the world's most important collections of ancient manuscripts.Negev
The Negev (Hebrew: הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization: han-Néḡeḇ ; Arabic: النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel. The region's largest city and administrative capital is Beersheba (pop. 207,551), in the north. At its southern end is the Gulf of Aqaba and the resort city of Eilat. It contains several development towns, including Dimona, Arad and Mitzpe Ramon, as well as a number of small Bedouin cities, including Rahat and Tel as-Sabi and Lakyah. There are also several kibbutzim, including Revivim and Sde Boker; the latter became the home of Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, after his retirement from politics.
The desert is home to the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, whose faculties include the Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research and the Albert Katz International School for Desert Studies, both located on the Midreshet Ben-Gurion campus adjacent to Sde Boker.
Although historically a separate region, the Negev was added to the proposed area of Mandatory Palestine, later to become Israel, on 10 July 1922, having been conceded by British representative St John Philby ”in Trans-Jordan’s name”.In October 2012, global travel guide publisher Lonely Planet rated the Negev second on a list of the world's top ten regional travel destinations for 2013, noting its current transformation through development.Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa. In the same context, it is also occasionally referred to as Portuguese West Africa.
Initially ruling along the coast and engaging in military conflicts with the Kingdom of Kongo, in the 18th century Portugal gradually managed to colonise the interior Highlands. However, full control of the entire territory was not achieved until the beginning of the 20th century, when agreements with other European powers during the Scramble for Africa fixed the colony's interior borders. In 1975, Portuguese Angola became the independent People's Republic of Angola.Raid of the Redeswire
The Raid of the Redeswire, also known as the Redeswire Fray, was a border skirmish between England and Scotland on 7 July 1575 which took place at Carter Bar, the Cheviot pass which enters Redesdale. The skirmish was between (on the English side) the English Warden of the Middle Marches, Sir John Forster, with Sir George Heron, Keeper of Redesdale, Keeper of Liddesdale and Scottish Warden and (on the Scottish side) Sir John Carmichael, the Lord Warden of the Marches, with George Douglas of Bonjedworth. It was the last major battle between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland.Real Audiencia of Concepción
Before 1565, the highest court of Chile was the justicia mayor, whose sentences were appealed before the Royal Audiencia of Lima. In 1560 local authorities formally requested the president of the Audiencia of Lima for the creation of an audiencia for Chile. It was argued that it would serve to control the actions of the governors of Chile, improve royal treasury's collection of revenue and hasten the end of the Arauco War.
In 1565 King Phillip II ordered the creation of a Chilean audiencia in his decree of May 18. The audiencia had four oidores, one of them serving as president; a fiscal or public prosecutor; and the related subordinate officials, such as an alguacil mayor (greater bailiff) and his lieutenants, notaries public, an interpreter, a chaplain and a doorman.
In cases when the office of the governor of Chile went vacant, the oidores of the Audiencia were to assume administration of the government. Due to various problems in its operation, the Audiencia was dissolved less than a decade later by the royal decree of August 26, 1573, which took effect on June 25, 1575, a month after it received notification of the decree. After it was dissolved the judicial functions of the Audiencia were entrusted to the lieutenant governor and capitán general of Chile.Siege of Schoonhoven (1575)
The Siege of Schoonhoven of 1575, also known as the Capture of Schoonhoven, was a Spanish victory that took place between 11 and 24 August 1575, at Schoonhoven, Spanish Netherlands (present-day South Holland, the Netherlands), during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). On June 28, 1575, the Spanish forces, between 8,000 and 10,000 soldiers, led by Gilles de Berlaymont, Lord of Hierges, and Stadtholder of Guelders, Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht, captured Buren, and on August 7, Oudewater. The Spanish commander continued its successful progress and arrived at Schoonhoven on August 11. After 13 days of siege, and a courageous but futile resistance, the rebel forces led by De La Garde, composed by Dutch, English, Scottish, French and Walloon soldiers (about 800 men), surrendered to the more experienced Spanish troops, on August 24. The population of the town, that were unwilling to help the rebel forces, received Berlaymont with great joy.Two weeks later, the Spanish forces under Charles de Brimeu, Count of Megen, marched towards Woerden, and laid siege to the town on September 8.Walter Curle
Walter Curle (or Curll; 1575 – 1647) was an English bishop, a close supporter of William Laud. Born in Hatfield, Hertfordshire, he was educated at St Albans School and at Christ's College, Cambridge (matriculated c. 1592), transferring to Peterhouse (BA c. 1595; MA in 1598), of which college he later was elected Fellow.He was bishop of Winchester from 1632 to 1647. When in 1645 Parliamentary forces under Oliver Cromwell captured Winchester, he went into exile at Soberton.He was bishop of Rochester in 1628, and bishop of Bath and Wells from 1629 to 1632. His translation caused the vacancy as Rector of Bemerton that gave the poet George Herbert a living there. He was Dean of Lichfield 1622 to 1628. Curll's son Walter Curll was created a baronet in 1678 (see Curll baronets).