1568

Year 1568 (MDLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1568 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1568
MDLXVIII
Ab urbe condita2321
Armenian calendar1017
ԹՎ ՌԺԷ
Assyrian calendar6318
Balinese saka calendar1489–1490
Bengali calendar975
Berber calendar2518
English Regnal year10 Eliz. 1 – 11 Eliz. 1
Buddhist calendar2112
Burmese calendar930
Byzantine calendar7076–7077
Chinese calendar丁卯(Fire Rabbit)
4264 or 4204
    — to —
戊辰年 (Earth Dragon)
4265 or 4205
Coptic calendar1284–1285
Discordian calendar2734
Ethiopian calendar1560–1561
Hebrew calendar5328–5329
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1624–1625
 - Shaka Samvat1489–1490
 - Kali Yuga4668–4669
Holocene calendar11568
Igbo calendar568–569
Iranian calendar946–947
Islamic calendar975–976
Japanese calendarEiroku 11
(永禄11年)
Javanese calendar1487–1488
Julian calendar1568
MDLXVIII
Korean calendar3901
Minguo calendar344 before ROC
民前344年
Nanakshahi calendar100
Thai solar calendar2110–2111
Tibetan calendar阴火兔年
(female Fire-Rabbit)
1694 or 1313 or 541
    — to —
阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
1695 or 1314 or 542

Events

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Polybius: "The Rise Of The Roman Empire", Page 36, Penguin, 1979.
1568 in France

Events from the year 1568 in France

1568 in Ireland

Events from the year 1568 in Ireland.

1568 in Sweden

Events from the year 1568 in Sweden

Ashikaga Yoshiaki

Ashikaga Yoshiaki (足利 義昭, December 5, 1537 – October 19, 1597) was the 15th and final shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate in Japan who reigned from 1568 to 1573. His father, Ashikaga Yoshiharu was the twelfth shōgun, and his brother, Ashikaga Yoshiteru was the thirteenth shōgun.

Ashikaga Yoshihide

Ashikaga Yoshihide (足利 義栄, 1538 – October 28, 1568) was the 14th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate who held nominal power for a few months in 1568 during the Muromachi period of Japan. When he became shōgun, he changed his name to Yoshinaga, but he is more conventionally recognized today by the name Yoshihide.

Eiroku 11, in the 2nd month (1568): Yoshihide became Sei-i Taishōgun three years after the death of his cousin, the thirteenth shōgun Ashikaga Yoshiteru.

Azuchi–Momoyama period

The Azuchi–Momoyama period (安土桃山時代, Azuchi–Momoyama jidai) is the final phase of the Sengoku period (戦国時代, Sengoku jidai) in Japan. These years of political unification led to the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate. It spans the years from c. 1573 to 1600, during which time Oda Nobunaga and his successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, imposed order upon the chaos that had pervaded since the collapse of the Ashikaga shogunate.

Although a start date of 1573 is often given, this period in broader terms begins with Nobunaga's entry into Kyoto in 1568, when he led his army to the imperial capital in order to install Ashikaga Yoshiaki as the 15th – and ultimately final – shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate. The era lasts until the coming to power of Tokugawa Ieyasu after his victory over supporters of the Toyotomi clan at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600.During this period, a short but spectacular epoch, Japanese society and culture underwent the transition from the medieval era to the early modern era.

The name of this period is taken from two castles: Nobunaga's Azuchi Castle (in Azuchi, Shiga) and Hideyoshi's Momoyama Castle (also known as Fushimi Castle, in Kyoto).Shokuhō period (織豊時代, Shokuhō jidai), a term used in some Japanese-only texts, is abridged from the surnames of the period's two leaders (in the on-reading):

Shoku (織) for Oda (織田) plus Hō (豊) for Toyotomi (豊臣).

Battle of Heiligerlee (1568)

Not to be confused with the earlier Battle of Heiligerlee (1536)

The Battle of Heiligerlee (Heiligerlee, Groningen, 23 May 1568) was fought between Dutch rebels and the Spanish army of Friesland. This was the first Dutch victory during the Eighty Years' War.

The Groningen province of the Spanish Netherlands was invaded by an army consisting of 3,900 infantry led by Louis of Nassau and 200 cavalry led by Adolf of Nassau. Both were brothers of William I of Orange. The intention was to begin an armed uprising against the Spanish rulers of the Netherlands.

The Stadtholder of Friesland and also Duke of Aremberg, Johan de Ligne, had an army of 3,200 infantry and 20 cavalry.

Aremberg initially avoided confrontation, awaiting reinforcements from the Count of Meghem. However, on 23 May, Adolf's cavalry lured him to an ambush at the monastery of Heiligerlee. Louis' infantry, making up the bulk of the army, defeated the Spanish force which lost 1,500–2,000 men, while the invading force lost 50, including Adolf. The rebels captured seven cannons.

The invading force however, did not capture any cities and was soon defeated at the Battle of Jemmingen.

The death of Adolf of Nassau is mentioned in the Dutch national anthem (4th verse):

Graef Adolff is ghebleven, In Vriesland in den slaech,

"Count Adolf stayed behind, in Friesland, in the battle"

Battle of Jemmingen

After the Battle of Heiligerlee, the Dutch rebel leader Louis of Nassau (brother of William the Silent) failed to capture the city Groningen. Louis was driven away by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba and defeated at the Battle of Jemmingen (also known as Battle of Jemgum, at Jemgum in East Frisia - now part of Germany) on 21 July 1568.

Battle of Langside

The Battle of Langside, fought on 13 May 1568, was one of the most unusual contests in Scottish history, bearing a superficial resemblance to a grand family quarrel, in which a woman fought her brother who was defending the rights of her infant son. In 1567, Mary, Queen of Scots' short period of personal rule ended in recrimination, intrigue and disaster when, after her capture at Carberry Hill, she was forced to abdicate in favour of James VI, her infant son. Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, while her Protestant half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray was appointed Regent on behalf of his nephew. In early May 1568 Mary escaped, heading west to the country of the Hamiltons, high among her remaining supporters, and the safety of Dumbarton Castle with the determination to restore her rights as queen. Mary was defeated and went into exile and captivity in England. The battle can be regarded as the start of the Marian civil war.

Battle of San Juan de Ulúa (1568)

The Battle of San Juan de Ulúa was a battle between English privateers and Spanish forces at San Juan de Ulúa (in modern Veracruz). It marked the end of the campaign carried out by an English flotilla of six ships that had systematically conducted what the Spanish considered to be illegal trade in the Caribbean Sea, including the slave trade, at times imposing it by force.

Elisabeth of Valois

Elisabeth of Valois (Spanish: Isabel de Valois; French: Élisabeth de France) (2 April 1545 – 3 October 1568) was a Spanish queen consort as the third spouse of Philip II of Spain. She was the eldest daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici.

Habsburg-Ottoman wars in Hungary (1526-1568)

Habsburg-Ottoman wars in Hungary, from 1526 to 1568, were wars between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, waged on the on the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary and several adjacent lands in Southeastern Europe. The Habsburgs and the Ottomans engaged in a series of military campaigns against one another in Hungary between 1526 and 1568. While overall the Ottomans had the upper hand, the war failed to produce any decisive result. The Ottoman army remained very powerful in the open field but it often lost a significant amount of time besieging the many fortresses of the Hungarian frontier and its communication lines were now dangerously overstretched. At the end of the conflict, Hungary had been split into several different zones of control, between the Ottomans, Habsburgs, and Transylvania, an Ottoman vassal state.

Murad Pasha Mosque, Damascus

The Murad Pasha Mosque (Arabic: جامع مراد باشا‎, transliteration: Jami Murad Pasha) is an early Ottoman-era mosque and mausoleum in Damascus, Syria, located in the Suwayqa sector of the Al-Midan quarter. The mosque was erected and named after Murad Pasha, who served as the Ottoman governor ("wali") of Damascus between 1568-1569. The mosque was built in 1568. The mosque is also known as the Naqshbandi Mosque (Arabic: جامع النقشبندي‎) after the Naqshbandi sufi order which it served as a center for.

Old Gorhambury House

Old Gorhambury House located near St Albans, Hertfordshire, England, is a ruined Elizabethan mansion, a leading and early example of the Elizabethan prodigy house. It was built in 1563–68 by Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper, and was visited a number of times by Queen Elizabeth. It is a Grade I listed building.

The house was built partly from bricks taken from the old Abbey buildings at St Albans, then in process of demolition following the Benedictine priory's dissolution some 25 years earlier. It was used as a residence by his youngest son, the polymath (scientist, philosopher, statesman and essayist) Sir Francis Bacon, before being bequeathed by him to his former secretary, Sir Thomas Meautys, who married Anne Bacon, the great-granddaughter of Sir Nicholas.

The estate passed in 1652 to Anne's second husband Sir Harbottle Grimston, Master of the Rolls and Speaker in the Convention Parliament of 1660. The estate is owned by the Grimston family to the present day, having been passed via Harbottle Grimston's son Samuel, who died childless in 1700, to his great-nephew William Luckyn, who in turn became the first Viscount Grimston in 1719.

The surviving remains include a two-storey porch, chapel and clock tower.

The site is maintained by English Heritage and is free to visit.

Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1568–71)

The rebellion of the Alpujarras of 1568–71, sometimes called the War of the Alpujarras or the Morisco Revolt, was the second such revolt against the Castilian Crown in the mountainous Alpujarra region. The rebels were Moriscos, the nominally Catholic descendants of the Mudéjares (Muslims under Castilian rule) following the first rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501).

By 1250, the Reconquest of Spain by the Catholic powers had left only the Emirate of Granada, in southern Spain. In 1491 Granada city fell to the "Catholic Monarchs"—Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel of Castile—and under the terms of capitulation the whole Muslim-majority region came under Christian rule.

However, the Muslim inhabitants of the city soon revolted against Christian rule in 1499, followed by the mountain villages: this revolt was suppressed by 1501. The Muslims under Christian rule (until then known as Mudejares) were then obliged to convert to Christianity, becoming a nominally Catholic population known as "Moriscos".

Discontent among the new "Moriscos" led to a second rebellion, led by a Morisco known as Aben Humeya, starting in December 1568 and lasting till March 1571. This violent conflict took place mainly in the mountainous Alpujarra region, on the southern slopes of the Sierra Nevada, between Granada city and the Mediterranean coast and is often known as the War of the Alpujarras.Most of the Morisco population was then expelled from the Kingdom of Granada and was dispersed throughout the Kingdom of Castille (modern day Castile, Extremadura and Andalusia). As this left many smaller settlements in Granada almost empty, Catholic settlers were brought in from other parts of the country to repopulate them.

Siege of Chittorgarh (1567–1568)

The Siege of Chittorgarh (20 October 1567 – 23 February 1568) was a part of the campaign of the Mughal Empire against the kingdom of Mewar in 1567. Forces led by Akbar surrounded and besieged 8,000 Rajputs and around 40,000 peasants under the command of Jaimal in Chittorgarh.

Siege of Szigetvár

The Siege of Szigetvár or Battle of Szigeth (pronunciation: [ˈsiɡɛtvaːr] Hungarian: Szigetvár ostroma, Croatian: Bitka kod Sigeta; Sigetska bitka, Turkish: Zigetvar Kuşatması) was a siege of the fortress of Szigetvár, Kingdom of Hungary, that blocked Suleiman's line of advance towards Vienna in 1566 AD. The battle was fought between the defending forces of the Habsburg Monarchy under the leadership of Nikola Šubić Zrinski (Hungarian: Zrínyi Miklós), former Ban of Croatia, and the invading Ottoman army under the nominal command of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (Ottoman Turkish: سليمان‎ Süleymān).After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, which resulted in the end of the independent Kingdom of Hungary, Ferdinand I was elected King by the nobles of both Hungary and Croatia. This was followed by a series of conflicts with the Habsburgs and their allies, fighting against the Ottoman Empire. In the Little War in Hungary both sides exhausted themselves after sustaining heavy casualties. The Ottoman campaign in Hungary ceased until the offensive against Szigetvár.In January 1566 Suleiman went to war for the last time. The siege of Szigetvár was fought from 5 August to 8 September 1566 and, though it resulted in an Ottoman victory, there were heavy losses on both sides. Both commanders died during the battle—Zrinski in the final charge and Suleiman in his tent from natural causes. More than 20,000 Turks had fallen during the attacks and almost all of Zrinski's 2,300 man garrison was killed, with most of the final 600 men killed on the last day. Although the battle was an Ottoman victory, it stopped the Ottoman push to Vienna that year. Vienna was not threatened again until the Battle of Vienna in 1683.The importance of the battle was considered so great that the French clergyman and statesman Cardinal Richelieu was reported to have described it as "the battle that saved civilization." The battle is still famous in Croatia and Hungary and inspired both the Hungarian epic poem The Siege of Sziget and the Croatian opera Nikola Šubić Zrinski.

Stanislaus Kostka

Stanisław Kostka S.J. (28 October 1550 – 15 August 1568) was a Polish novice of the Society of Jesus. He is venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Stanislaus Kostka (as distinct from his namesake, the 11th-century Bishop of Kraków Stanislaus the Martyr).

He was born at Rostkowo, Przasnysz County, Poland, on 28 October 1550, and died at Rome during the night of 14–15 August 1568. He entered the Society of Jesus in Rome on his 17th birthday (28 October 1567), and is said to have foretold his death a few days before it occurred.

William Barlow (bishop of Chichester)

William Barlow (also spelled Barlowe; c. 1498 – 13 August 1568) was an English Augustinian prior turned bishop of four dioceses, a complex figure of the Protestant Reformation. Aspects of his life await scholarly clarification. Labelled by some a "weathercock reformer", he was in fact a staunch evangelical, an anti-Catholic and collaborator in the Dissolution of the Monasteries and dismantling of church estates; and largely consistent in his approach, apart from an early anti-Lutheran tract and a supposed recantation under Mary I.

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