1550s decade ran from January 1, 1550, to December 31, 1559.
Events 1550 January–June July–December Date unknown 1551 January–June July–December
July – Invasion of Gozo: Ottoman Turks and Barbary pirates invade the Mediterranean island of Gozo, enslaving all inhabitants (estimated at 5,000 to 6,000) and transporting them to Tarhuna Wa Msalata (in modern-day Libya). 
August 15 – The Siege of Tripoli ends, with the Knights of Malta surrendering Tripoli to the Ottoman Empire.
September 21 – The Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico is founded in Mexico City ( Mexico), being the second officially established university in the Americas.
September 30 – Tainei-ji incident: A coup in Yamaguchi, by the military establishment of the Ōuchi clan, forces their lord Ōuchi Yoshitaka to commit suicide, and the city is burned. October 11 – John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, de facto Lord Protector of the Kingdom of England, is created Duke of Northumberland.  Date unknown Qizilbash forces under the command of
Tahmasp I raid and destroy the cave monastery of Vardzia in Georgia. In
Henan province, China, during the Ming Dynasty, a severe frost in the spring destroys the winter wheat crop. Torrential rains in mid summer cause massive flooding of farmland and villages (by some accounts submerged in a metre of water). In the fall, a large tornado demolishes houses and flattens much of the buckwheat in the fields. Famine victims either flee, starve, or resort to cannibalism. This follows a series of natural disasters in Henan in the years 1528, 1531, 1539, and 1545. The fifth outbreak of
sweating sickness occurs in England. John Caius of Shrewsbury writes the first full contemporary account of the symptoms of the disease. In
Slovakia, Guta (modern-day Kolárovo) receives town status.
Portugal founds a sugar colony at Bahia.
Juan de Betanzos begins to write his Narrative of the . Incas The new edition of the Genevan psalter, Pseaumes octantetrois de David, is published, with Louis Bourgeois as supervising composer, including the first publication of the hymn tune known as the . Old 100th 1552 January–June
January 15 – Henry II of France and Maurice, Elector of Saxony, sign the Treaty of Chambord.
February 12 – Pedro de Valdivia founds the Chilean city of Valdivia, as Santa María la Blanca de Valdivia.
February 24 – The privileges of the Hanseatic League are abolished in England.
March – The Act of Uniformity imposes the Protestant Book of Common Prayer on England.
March 26 – Guru Amar Das becomes the Third Sikh Guru.
April – War breaks out between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades the Duchy of Lorraine, and captures Toul, Metz and Verdun.
April 11 – Metz Cathedral is consecrated.
April 16 – Pedro de Valdivia founds the city of La Imperial, Chile. May – Maurice, Elector of Saxony, captures Augsburg, and almost seizes Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor at Innsbruck, leading to the suspension of the Council of Trent. July–December Date unknown 1553 January–June July–December
July 9 – Battle of Sievershausen: Prince-elector Maurice of Saxony defeats the Catholic forces of Margrave Albert of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. Maurice is mortally wounded.
July 10 – Four days after the death of her cousin King Edward VI of England, Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England – a position she holds for the next nine days.
July 19 – The Lord Mayor of London proclaims Mary I the rightful Queen, following a change of allegiance by the Privy Council; Lady Jane Grey voluntarily abdicates. 
August – English explorer Richard Chancellor enters the White Sea and reaches Arkhangelsk, going on to the court of Ivan IV of Russia, opening up trade between England and Russia.
August 3 – Queen Mary I of England arrives in London from East Anglia.
August 18 – John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, is tried and convicted of treason for his role in putting his daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, on the throne. 
September – Anglican bishops in England are arrested, and Roman Catholic bishops are restored.
October 6 – Şehzade Mustafa, oldest son of Suleiman the Magnificent, is executed in Konya by order of his father. 
September 23 – The Sadians consolidate their power in Morocco, by defeating the last of their enemies.
October 27 – Geneva's governing council burns Michael Servetus at the stake, as a heretic. December 25 – Battle of Tucapel: Mapuche rebels under Lautaro defeat the Spanish conquistadors, and execute Pedro de Valdivia, the first Royal Governor of Chile. Date unknown 1554 January–June July–December Date unknown 1555 January–June
January 22 – The Kingdom of Ava in Upper Burma falls.
February 2 – The Diet of Augsburg begins.
February 4 – John Rogers, burned at the stake in London, becomes the first Protestant martyr under Mary I of England.
February 8 – Laurence Saunders becomes the second Marian Protestant martyr in England, being led barefoot to his execution by burning at the stake.
February 9 – Rowland Taylor, Rector of Hadleigh, Suffolk, and John Hooper, deposed Bishop of Gloucester, are burned at the stake in England.
April 10 – Pope Marcellus II succeeds Julius III as the 222nd pope. He will reign for 22 days.
April 17 – After 18 months of siege, the Republic of Siena surrenders to the Florentine– Imperial army.
May 23 – Pope Paul IV succeeds Marcellus II, as the 223rd pope.
May 25 – Jeanne d'Albret succeeds Henri II, on the Navarrese throne. June 1 – The Treaty of Amasya between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia concludes the Ottoman–Safavid War (1532–1555). July–December Date unknown
Russia breaks a 60-year-old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland.
Humayun resumes the rule of the Mughal Empire.
Bairam Khan defeats Hindu forces at the Second Battle of Panipat. The
Adal Sultanate in the Horn of Africa collapses. The
Muscovy Company is chartered in England to trade with Muscovy, and  Richard Chancellor negotiates with the Tsar. English captain
John Lok returns from Guinea, with five Africans to train as interpreters for future trading voyages.
Richard Eden publishes The Decades of the Newe Worlde or West India, a translation into English of parts of Pietro Martire d'Anghiera's , De orbe novo decades Gonzalo Oviedo's Natural hystoria de las Indias and others including the first recorded use in English of the country name 'China'. 
Negro – the Spanish term for black person – is coined.
Gresham's School is founded by Sir John Gresham, at Holt, Norfolk in England.
William Annyas becomes the Mayor of Youghal, Ireland, the first Jew to hold such a position in Ireland. 
John Dee is charged, but cleared, of treason in England.
Orlande de Lassus' first book of madrigals is published, in Antwerp.
Lorenzo de' Medici orders a violin from Andrea Amati of Cremona. Ripon Grammar School re-established 1556 January–June
January 16 – Charles I, having already abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor, resigns the Kingdom of Spain in favour of his son, Philip II, and retires to a monastery.
January 23 – The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China; 830,000 people may have been killed.
February 5 – Truce of Vaucelles: Fighting temporarily ends between France and Spain.
February 22 (approx.) – Sophia Jagiellon marries Henry V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.  March 21 – In Oxford, Thomas Cranmer is burned at the stake for treason. July–December Date unknown 1557 January–June July–December Date unknown 1558 January–June
January 7 – French troops, led by Francis, Duke of Guise, take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England.
January 9 – Geneva becomes independent from the Canton of Bern.
January 22 – The Livonian War begins.
February 2 – The University of Jena is founded in Thuringia, Germany.
February 5 – Arauco War: Pedro de Avendaño, with sixty men, captures Caupolicán (the Mapuche Gran Toqui), who is leading their first revolt against the Spanish Empire (near Antihuala), encamped with a small band of followers. April 24 – Mary, Queen of Scots, marries Francis, Dauphin of France, at Notre Dame de Paris. July–December Date unknown 1559 January–June
January – King Philip II of Spain marries his third wife, 14-year-old Elisabeth of Valois.
January 15 – Elizabeth I of England is crowned, in Westminster Abbey.
February 27 – Queen Elizabeth I of England establishes the Church of England, with the Act of Uniformity 1558 and the Act of Supremacy 1558. The Oath of Supremacy is reinstated.
March 23 – Emperor Gelawdewos of Ethiopia, defending his lands against the invasion of Nur ibn Mujahid, Sultan of Harar, is killed in battle. His brother, Menas, succeeds him as king.
April 2– 3 – Peace of Cateau Cambrésis: France makes peace with England and Spain, ending the Italian War of 1551–59. France gives up most of its gains in Italy (including Savoy), retaining only Saluzzo, but keeps the three Lorraine bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun, and the formerly English town of Calais.
May 2 – John Knox returns from exile to Scotland, to become the leader of the beginning Scottish Reformation.
May 13 – At Basel, the body of Dutch Anabaptist leader David Joris is exhumed and burned, following his posthumous conviction of heresy.
June 2 – A royal edict in France makes heresy punishable by death. June 11 – Scottish Reformation: A Protestant mob, incited by the preaching of John Knox, sacks St Andrews Cathedral. July–December
July 10 – Francis II becomes King of France, following the death of his father, Henry II, in a jousting accident.
August 15 – Led by Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano, a Spanish missionary colony of 1,500 men, on 13 ships, arrives from Vera Cruz at Pensacola Bay, founding the oldest European settlement in the mainland U.S. ( St. Augustine is founded in 1565.)
September 4 – Gorkha state is established by Dravya Shah, beating local Khadka kings, which is the origin of current country Nepal.
September 19 – Just weeks after arrival at Pensacola, the Spanish missionary colony is decimated by a hurricane that kills hundreds, sinks five ships, with a galleon, and grounds a caravel; the 1,000 survivors divide to relocate/resupply the settlement, but suffer famine & attacks, and abandon the effort in 1561.
September 21 – The 15-year-old King Francis II of France is crowned at Reims. The crown is too heavy for him, and has to be held in place by his nobles.  December 25 – Pope Pius IV succeeds Pope Paul IV, as the 224th pope. Date unknown References
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Austin, Gregory. "Chronology of Psychoactive Substance Use". Drugs & Society. Comitas Institute for Anthropological Study. Archived from the original on October 12, 2011 . Retrieved . 2011-10-07 1550 in Ireland
Events from the year 1550 in Ireland.
1550s in Denmark
Events from the year 1550s in Denmark.
1550s in England
Events from the 1550s in England. This decade marks the beginning of the Elizabethan era.
1551 in Ireland
Events from the year 1551 in Ireland.
1552 in Ireland
Events from the year 1552 in Ireland.
1553 in Ireland
Events from the year 1553 in Ireland.
1554 in Ireland
Events from the year 1554 in Ireland.
1555 in Ireland
Notable things that happened in Ireland in 1555.
1556 in Ireland
Events from the year 1556 in Ireland.
1556 in Japan
Events in the year 1556 in Japan.
1557 in Ireland
Events from the year 1557 in Ireland.
1557 in Norway
Events in the year 1557 in Norway.
1558 in Ireland
Events from the year 1558 in Ireland.
1558 in Norway
Events in the year 1558 in Norway.
1559 in Ireland
Events from the year 1559 in Ireland.
Eiroku (永禄) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name") after Kōji and before Genki. This period spanned the years from February 1558 through April 1570. The reigning emperor was Ōgimachi-tennō (正親町天皇).
Italian War of 1551–1559
The Italian War of 1551 (1551–59), sometimes known as the Habsburg–Valois War and the Last Italian War, began when Henry II of France, who had succeeded Francis I to the throne, declared war against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V with the intent of recapturing Italy and ensuring French, rather than Habsburg, domination of European affairs. The war was the last of a series of wars between the same parties since 1521. Historians have emphasized the importance of gunpowder technology, new styles of fortification to resist cannon fire, and the increased professionalization of the soldiers.
Kubat Pasha Madrasa
Kubat Pasha Madrasa (Turkish: Kubat Paşa Medresesi) is a historic madrasa building in Tarsus district of Mersin Province, southern Turkey.
Russo-Swedish War (1554–1557)
The Russo-Swedish War of 1554–1557, considered a prelude to the Livonian War of 1558–1583, arose out of border skirmishes. It ended when the parties agreed on a truce in the Treaty of Novgorod (1557).
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