|1539 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2292|
|Balinese saka calendar||1460–1461|
|English Regnal year||30 Hen. 8 – 31 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||戊戌年 (Earth Dog)|
4235 or 4175
— to —
己亥年 (Earth Pig)
4236 or 4176
|- Vikram Samvat||1595–1596|
|- Shaka Samvat||1460–1461|
|- Kali Yuga||4639–4640|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 8|
|Minguo calendar||373 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2081–2082|
1665 or 1284 or 512
— to —
1666 or 1285 or 513
Events from the year 1539 in India.1539 in Ireland
Events from the year 1539 in Ireland.1539 in Norway
Events in the year 1539 in Norway.1539 in Sweden
Events from the year 1539 in SwedenAnkokuji Ekei
Ankokuji Ekei (安国寺 恵瓊, 1539 – November 6, 1600) was a diplomat of Mōri clan, a powerful feudal clan in the Chūgoku region, Japan, as well as a Rinzai Buddhist monk following the Azuchi-Momoyama period of the 16th century. He fought in the Shikoku campaign for Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and was given a fiefdom of 23,000 koku in Iyo Province as a reward. He participated in the Imjin War, and lost the Battle of Uiryong to Gwak Jae-u.When he fought against Tokugawa Ieyasu at the Battle of Sekigahara (1600), he was taken prisoner and later decapitated in Kyoto, along with Ishida Mitsunari and Konishi Yukinaga.Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak ([ˈɡʊɾu ˈnɑnək], pronunciation, IAST: Gurū Nānak) (29 November 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab on Kartik Pooranmashi, the full-moon day in the month of Katak, October–November.Guru Nanak travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one of His creations and constitutes the eternal Truth. He set up a unique spiritual, social, and political platform based on equality, fraternal love, goodness, and virtue.Guru Nanak's words are registered in the form of 974 poetic hymns in the holy text of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, with some of the major prayers being the Japji Sahib, the Asa di Var and the Sidh-Ghost. It is part of Sikh religious belief that the spirit of Guru Nanak's sanctity, divinity and religious authority descended upon each of the nine subsequent Gurus when the Guruship was devolved on to them.Huánuco
Huánuco (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈwanuko]) is a city in central Peru. It had a population of 75,000 as of 2007 and in 2014 it had a population of 172,924. It is the capital of the Huánuco Region and the Huánuco District. It is the seat of the diocese of Huánuco. The metropolitan city of Huanuco is 170,000 hab (2011, urban pop, INEI). It has three districts, Huanuco (head), Amarilis, and Pillco Marca. In this city, the Higueras river meets the Huallaga river, one of the largest rivers in the country.Isabella d'Este
Isabella d'Este (19 May 1474 – 13 February 1539) was Marchioness of Mantua and one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance as a major cultural and political figure. She was a patron of the arts as well as a leader of fashion, whose innovative style of dressing was copied by women throughout Italy and at the French court. The poet Ariosto labeled her as the "liberal and magnanimous Isabella", while author Matteo Bandello described her as having been "supreme among women". Diplomat Niccolò da Correggio went even further by hailing her as "The First Lady of the world".She served as the regent of Mantua during the absence of her husband, Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua, and the minority of her son, Federico, Duke of Mantua. In 1500 she met King Louis XII of France in Milan on a diplomatic mission to persuade him not to send his troops against Mantua.
She was a prolific letter-writer and maintained a lifelong correspondence with her sister-in-law Elisabetta Gonzaga. Lucrezia Borgia was another sister-in-law; she later became the mistress of Isabella's husband.
She was described as having been physically attractive, albeit slightly plump; however, she also possessed "lively eyes" and was "of lively grace".
Isabella d'Este grew up in a cultured family in the city-state of Ferrara. She received a fine classical education and as a girl met many famous humanist scholars and artists.
Due to the vast amount of extant correspondence between Isabella and her family and friends, her life is unusually well documented. She was born on Tuesday 19 May 1474 at nine o'clock in the evening in Ferrara, to Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, and Eleanor of Naples. Eleanor was the daughter of Ferdinand I, the Aragonese King of Naples, and Isabella of Clermont.One year later on 29 June 1475, her sister Beatrice was born, and in 1476 and 1477 two brothers, Alfonso and Ferrante, arrived. In 1479 and 1480 two more brothers were born; they were Ippolito and Sigismondo. Of all the children, Isabella was considered to have been the favourite.In the year of Ferrante's birth, Isabella travelled to Naples with her mother. When her mother returned to Ferrara, Isabella accompanied her, while the other children stayed behind with their grandfather for eight years. It was during the journey with her mother that Isabella acquired the art of diplomacy and statecraft.Isabella of Portugal
Isabella of Portugal (24 October 1503 – 1 May 1539) was Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Spain, Germany, Italy, Naples and Sicily and Duchess of Burgundy by her marriage to Emperor Charles V, and regent of Spain during the absences of her husband during 1529-1532, 1535-1536 and 1538-1539.
Isabella was the granddaughter of the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. Throughout her life, many compared her to her grandmother for her character and her determination in politics. A woman of great beauty and intelligence, Isabella was undoubtedly the Spanish soul of Charles V who, because of his travels in Europe, spent little time in Spain due to political affairs abroad. It was thanks to the governorships of Empress Isabella that Spain was able to remain independent of imperial policies.James Beaton
James Beaton (or Bethune) (1473–1539) was a Scottish church leader, the uncle of David Cardinal Beaton and the Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland.Nicholas Hare
Sir Nicholas Hare of Bruisyard, Suffolk (c. 1484 – 31 October 1557) was Speaker of the House of Commons of England between 1539 and 1540.Siege of Castelnuovo
The Siege of Castelnuovo was an engagement during the Ottoman-Habsburg struggle for control of the Mediterranean, which took place in July 1539 in the walled town of Castelnuovo, present-day Herceg Novi, Montenegro. Castelnuovo had been conquered by elements of various Spanish tercios the year before during the failed campaign of the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire in Eastern Mediterranean waters. The walled town was besieged by land and sea by a powerful Ottoman army under Hayreddin Barbarossa, who offered an honorable surrender to the defenders. These terms were rejected by the Spanish commanding officer Francisco de Sarmiento and his captains even though they knew that the Holy League's fleet, defeated at the Battle of Preveza, could not relieve them. During the siege Barbarossa's army suffered heavy losses due to the stubborn resistance of Sarmiento's men. However, Castelnuovo eventually fell into Ottoman hands and almost all the Spanish defenders, including Sarmiento, were killed. The loss of the town ended the Christian attempt to regain control of the Eastern Mediterranean. The courage displayed by the Old Tercio of Naples during this last stand, however, was praised and admired throughout Europe and was the subject of numerous poems and songs.Sopwell Priory
Sopwell Priory (also known as Sopwell Nunnery) was built c. 1140 in Hertfordshire, England by the Benedictine abbot of St Albans Abbey, Geoffrey de Gorham. It was founded as the Priory of St Mary of Sopwell and was a cell of St Albans Abbey.
Juliana Berners was the prioress during the 15th century, believed to be the author of the Boke of St Albans published in 1486.
Following the dissolution of St Albans Abbey in 1539, Sopwell Priory was bought by Sir Richard Lee (a military engineer and commander of King Henry VIII). He tore the priory down and built a house which he named Lee Hall on the site. The house was later renamed Sopwell House, the ruins of which remain today along Cottonmill Lane near the centre of St Albans.Takayutpi
Thushin Takayutpi (သုရှင်တကာရွတ်ပိ, pronounced [θṵʃɪ̀ɴ dəɡàjʊʔpḭ], or Taka Yut Pi or Taka Rat Pi; 1511–1539) was king of Hanthawaddy Pegu from 1526 to 1539. At his accession, the 15-year-old inherited the most prosperous and powerful kingdom of all post-Pagan kingdoms. But he never had control of his vassals who scarcely acknowledged him. A dozen years later, due to the young king's inexperience and mismanagement, the Mon-speaking kingdom founded in 1287 fell to a smaller Toungoo.Thirty-nine Articles
The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion (commonly abbreviated as the Thirty-nine Articles or the XXXIX Articles) are the historically defining statements of doctrines and practices of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation. The Thirty-nine Articles form part of the Book of Common Prayer used by both the Church of England and the Episcopal Church. Several versions are available online.
When Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church and was excommunicated, he formed a new Church of England, which would be headed by the monarch (himself) rather than the pope. At this point, he needed to determine what its doctrines and practices would be in relation to the Roman Catholic Church and the new Protestant movements in continental Europe. A series of defining documents were written and replaced over a period of 30 years as the doctrinal and political situation changed from the excommunication of Henry VIII in 1533, to the excommunication of Elizabeth I in 1570. These positions began with the Ten Articles in 1536, and concluded with the finalisation of the Thirty-nine articles in 1571. The Thirty-nine articles ultimately served to define the doctrine of the Church of England as it related to Calvinist doctrine and Roman Catholic practice.The articles went through at least five major revisions prior to their finalisation in 1571. The first attempt was the Ten Articles in 1536, which showed some slightly Protestant leanings – the result of an English desire for a political alliance with the German Lutheran princes. The next revision was the Six Articles in 1539 which swung away from all reformed positions, and then the King's Book in 1543, which re-established most of the earlier Roman Catholic doctrines. During the reign of Edward VI, Henry VIII's only son, the Forty-Two Articles were written under the direction of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer in 1552. It was in this document that Calvinist thought reached the zenith of its influence in the English Church. These articles were never put into action, due to Edward VI's death and the reversion of the English Church to Roman Catholicism under Henry VIII's elder daughter, Mary I.
Finally, upon the coronation of Elizabeth I and the re-establishment of the Church of England as separate from the Roman Catholic Church, the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion were initiated by the Convocation of 1563, under the direction of Matthew Parker, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The articles pulled back from some of the more extreme Calvinist thinking and created the peculiar English reformed doctrine.The Thirty-nine Articles were finalised in 1571, and incorporated into the Book of Common Prayer. Although not the end of the struggle between Catholic and Protestant monarchs and citizens, the book helped to standardise the English language, and was to have a lasting effect on religion in the United Kingdom, and elsewhere through its wide use.Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire
Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, 1st Earl of Ormond, 1st Viscount Rochford KG KB (c. 1477 – 12 March 1539) was an English diplomat and politician in the Tudor era. He was born at the family home, Blickling Hall, Norfolk, which had been purchased by his grandfather Sir Geoffrey Boleyn, who was a wealthy mercer. He was buried at St. Peter's parish church in the village of Hever. His parents were Sir William Boleyn (1451 – 10 October 1505) and Lady Margaret Butler (1454–1539), daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormond. He was the father of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII, and through her, the maternal grandfather of Queen Elizabeth I of England.Tundama
Tundama (15th century - Duitama, late December 1539) was a cacique of the Muisca Confederation, a loose confederation of different rulers of the Muisca who inhabited the central highlands (Altiplano Cundiboyacense) of the Colombian Andes. The city of Tundama, currently known as Duitama and part of the Tundama Province, Boyacá, were named after the cacique. Tundama ruled over the northernmost territories of the Muisca, submitted last by the Spanish conquistadores.
Tundama was killed late December 1539 with a large hammer by Spanish conquistador Baltasar Maldonado. His successor, Don Juan was killed shortly after, ending the reign of the Muisca in the New Kingdom of Granada, the name for present-day Colombia and Venezuela in the Spanish Empire.
Knowledge about Tundama has been compiled by scholar Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita.Tunja
Tunja (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈtuŋha]) is a city on the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes, in the region known as the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, 130 km northeast of Bogotá. In 2012 it had an estimated population of 181,407 inhabitants. It is the capital of Boyacá department and the Central Boyacá Province. Tunja is an important educational centre of well-known universities. In the time before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca, Tunja was called Hunza and was conquered by the Spanish conquistadors on August 20, 1537 upon zaque Quemuenchatocha and founded by the Spanish on August 6, 1539, exactly one year after the former southern capital Bacatá. The city hosts the most remaining Muisca architecture: Hunzahúa Well, Goranchacha Temple and Cojines del Zaque.
Tunja is a tourist destination, especially for religious colonial architecture, with the Casa Fundador Gonzalo Suárez Rendón as oldest remnant. In addition to its religious and historical sites it is host to several internationally known festivals and is a jumping-off point for regional tourist destinations such as Villa de Leyva, Paipa, and Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. It is a stop on the Pan American Highway which connects Tunja to Bogotá and Santa Marta and eventually to the northern and southernmost parts of South America.William Wickham (bishop)
William Wickham (Wykeham) (1539 – 11 June 1595) was an English bishop.