1517 Hebron attacks

1517 Hebron attacks occurred in the final phases of the 1513–17 Ottoman–Mamluk War, when Turkish Ottomans had ousted the Mamluks and taken Palestine. The massacre targeted the Jewish population of the city and is also referred to as a pogrom.[1]


An account of the event, recorded by Japheth ben Manasseh in 1518, mentions how the onslaught was initiated by Turkish troops led by Murad Bey, the deputy of the Sultan from Jerusalem.[2][3] Jews were attacked, beaten and raped, and many were killed as their homes and businesses were looted and pillaged.[4] It has been suggested that the stable financial position of the Hebronite Jews at the time was what attracted the Turkish soldiers to engage in the mass plunder.[2] Others suggest the pogrom could have in fact taken place in the midst of a localised conflict, an uprising by the Arabs against the new Ottoman rulers.[5] Those who survived the calamity fled to Beirut and Jews only returned to Hebron 16 years later in 1533.[4]

See also


  1. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, ed. (2008). "Hebron". The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 436. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
  2. ^ a b Fred Skolnik; Michael Berenbaum (2007). Encyclopaedia Judaica. Macmillan Reference USA in association with the Keter Pub. House. p. 746. ISBN 978-0-02-865936-7.
  3. ^ Jerold S. Auerbach (30 July 2009). Hebron Jews: memory and conflict in the land of Israel. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-7425-6615-6.
  4. ^ a b The Solomon Goldman lectures. Spertus College of Judaica Press. 1999. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-935982-57-2. The Turks' conquest of the city in 1517, was marked by a violent pogrom of murder, rape, and plunder of Jewish homes. The surviving Jews fled to the "land of Beirut", not to return until 1533.
  5. ^ Alan David Crown (1989). The Samaritans. Mohr Siebeck. p. 114. ISBN 978-3-16-145237-6.
1517 Safed attacks

The Safed attacks were an incident that took place in Safed soon after the Turkish Ottomans had ousted the Mamluks and taken Levant during the Ottoman–Mamluk War in 1517. At the time the town had roughly 300 Jewish households. The severe blow suffered took place as Mamluks clashed bloodily with the new Ottoman authorities. The view that the riot's impact on the Jews of Safed was severe is contested.Historians link the event to the general conflict taking place in the country between the incoming Ottoman regime and its opponents and note that the Jews suffered maltreatment during the war. Accounts of the attack against the Jews in Safed were recorded by historian Rabbi Elijah Capsali of Candia, (Crete) and Rabbi Joseph Garson, who was living in Damascus at the time. According to these reports, many Jews were killed and left injured. They were compelled to flee the city and their property was plundered. Scholars debate whether or not the event led to a decline in the Jewish population of Safed, but all agree that a few years later, Jews had re-established a significant presence in the city.

The attack may have been initiated by retreating Mamluk soldiers who accused the Jews of treacherously aiding the Turkish invaders, with Arabs from the surrounding villages joining the melee. Alternatively, the attack occurred during an attempt by local Mamluk sheikhs to reassert their control after being removed from power by the incoming Turks. David suggests that the violence may have erupted after rumors of an Ottoman defeat in Egypt led to clashes between supporters of the old regime and those who backed the newly imposed Turkish authority. Supporters of the deposed Mamluk governor attacked Ottoman officials and after having murdered the Ottoman governor, the mob turned upon the Jews and rampaged through the Jewish quarter, the Jews suffering particular maltreatment.Many Jews were reportedly killed while others were wounded or had their property pillaged. According to Garson, the Jews were "evicted from their homes, robbed and plundered, and they fled naked to the villages without any provisions." Many subsequently fled the city, but the community was soon rehabilitated with the financial help of Egyptian Jewry.The Jewish community quickly recovered. The many Jews who had fled and sought refuge in neighbouring villages returned, and within 8 years the community had reestablished itself, exceeding the former level of 300 households. The Ottoman overthrow of the Mamluks brought about important changes. Under the earlier dynasty, Egyptian Jews were guided by their Nagid, a rabbi also exercising the functions of a prince-judge. This office was abolished because it represented a potential conflict with the jurisdiction of the hahambaşi or chief rabbi in Istanbul, who represented all Jews in the empire, and who had, via a Jewish officer (kahya), direct access to the sultan and his cabinet, and could raise complaints of injustices visited upon Jewish communities by governors in the provinces or Christians.

Hebron massacre (disambiguation)

The Hebron massacre was a massacre of Jews at Hebron that occurred during the 1929 Palestine riots.

Hebron massacre may also refer to:

1517 Hebron attacks

Battle of Hebron in 1834

Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in 1994

Hebron Massacre, a 1994 album by Muslimgauze

List of massacres in Ottoman Syria

The following is the List of massacres in Ottoman Syria, mass atrocities committed during the Ottoman rule in Syrian provinces (region roughly corresponding the Levant) between 1517 and 1917.

For massacres that took place in Roman Judea, see List of massacres in Roman Judea

For massacres that took place in the Mandatory Palestine, see List of killings and massacres in Mandatory Palestine.

For massacres that took place during the 1948 Palestine War, see Killings and massacres during the 1948 Palestine War.

For massacres that have occurred in Israel following its declaration of independence, see List of massacres in Israel.

For massacres that have occurred in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip since 1967, see List of massacres in Palestinian Territories.

1st – 11th century
12th – 19th century
20th century
21st century

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.