The year was seen as being especially important by many Christians in Europe, who thought it would bring the beginning of the end of the world. Their belief was based on the phrase "half-time after the time", when the apocalypse was due to occur, which appears in the Book of Revelation and was seen as referring to 1500.This time was also just after the discovery of the americas in 1492, and therefore was influenced greatly by the new world.
|1500 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2253|
|Balinese saka calendar||1421–1422|
|English Regnal year||15 Hen. 7 – 16 Hen. 7|
|Chinese calendar||己未年 (Earth Goat)|
4196 or 4136
— to —
庚申年 (Metal Monkey)
4197 or 4137
|- Vikram Samvat||1556–1557|
|- Shaka Samvat||1421–1422|
|- Kali Yuga||4600–4601|
|Japanese calendar||Meiō 9|
|Minguo calendar||412 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2042–2043|
1626 or 1245 or 473
— to —
1627 or 1246 or 474
The 1500 metres or 1,500-metre run (typically pronounced 'fifteen-hundred metres') is the foremost middle distance track event in athletics. The distance has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 and the World Championships in Athletics since 1983. It is equivalent to 1.5 kilometers or approximately 15⁄16 miles.
The demands of the race are similar to that of the 800 metres, but with a slightly higher emphasis on aerobic endurance and a slightly lower sprint speed requirement. The 1500 metre race is predominantly aerobic, but anaerobic conditioning is also required.Each lap run during the world-record race run by Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco in 1998 in Rome, Italy averaged just under 55 seconds (or under 13.8 seconds per 100 metres). 1,500 metres is three and three-quarter laps around a 400-metre track. During the 1970s and 1980s this race was dominated by British runners, along with an occasional Finn, American, or New Zealander, but through the 1990s a large number of African runners began to take over in being the masters of this race, with runners from Kenya, Morocco, and Algeria winning the Olympic gold medals.
In the Modern Olympic Games, the men's 1,500-metre race has been contested from the beginning, and at every Olympic Games since. The first winner, in 1896, was Edwin Flack of Australia, who also won the first gold medal in the 800-metre race. The women's 1,500-metre race was first added to the Summer Olympics in 1972, and the winner of the first gold medal was Lyudmila Bragina of the Soviet Union. During the Olympic Games of 1972 through 2008, the women's 1,500-metre race has been won by three Soviets plus one Russian, one Italian, one Romanian, one Briton, one Kenyan, and two Algerians. The 2012 Olympic results are still undecided as a result of multiple doping cases. The best women's times for the race were controversially set by Chinese runners, all set in the same race on just two dates 4 years apart at the Chinese National Games. At least one of those top Chinese athletes has admitted to being part of a doping program. The women's record was finally surpassed by Genzebe Dibaba of Ethiopia in 2015.
In American high schools, the mile run (which is 1609.344 metres in length) and the 1,600-metre run, also colloquially referred to as "metric mile", are more frequently run than the 1,500-metre run, since US customary units are better-known in America. Which distance is used depends on which state the high school is in, and, for convenience, national rankings are standardized by converting all 1,600-metre run times to their mile run equivalents.Bernard Lagat
Bernard Kipchirchir Lagat (born December 12, 1974) is a Kenyan-American middle and long-distance runner.
Lagat was born in Kapsabet, Kenya. Prior to his change of domicile to the USA, Lagat had an extensive competitive career representing his native country.
He is the American record holder in the 1500 m and mile run indoors, as well as the 1500 m, 3000 m, and 5000 m outdoors, and is the Kenyan record holder at 1500 m outdoors. Lagat is the second fastest 1500 m runner of all time, behind Hicham El Guerrouj.
Lagat is a five-time Olympian, having competed in the 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016 games, and is a thirteen-time medalist in World Championships and Olympics including five gold medals. Going into the Rio Olympics with the age of 41, in the 5000 m, he finished 5th among 16 starters.Lagat's long-term coach is James Li of the University of Arizona, whom he has worked with for over a decade.Bond event
Bond events are North Atlantic ice rafting events that are tentatively linked to climate fluctuations in the Holocene. Eight such events have been identified. Bond events were previously believed to exhibit a quasi c. 1,500-year cycle, but the primary period of variability is now put at c. 1,000 years.Gerard C. Bond of the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University was the lead author of the 1997 paper that postulated the theory of 1470-year climate cycles in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, mainly based on petrologic tracers of drift ice in the North Atlantic. However, more recent work has shown that these tracers provide little support for 1,500-year intervals of climate change, and the reported c. 1,500 ± 500-year period was a statistical artifact. Furthermore, following publication of the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) for the North GRIP ice core, it became clear that Dansgaard–Oeschger events also show no such pattern. The North Atlantic ice-rafting events happen to correlate with episodes of lowered lake levels in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA, the weakest events of the Asian monsoon for at least the past 9,000 years, and also correlate with most aridification events in the Middle East for the past 55,000 years (both Heinrich and Bond events).For reasons that are unclear, the only Holocene Bond event that has a clear temperature signal in the Greenland ice cores is the 8.2 kiloyear event.Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (1519-1556), King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish Empire (as Charles I, 1516-1556), Archduke of Austria (as Charles I, 1519-1521), and ruler of the Habsburg Netherlands (1506-1555). The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and Incas, and the German colonisation of Venezuela both occurred during his reign. Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy of Charlemagne and travelled from city to city, with no single fixed capital: overall he spent 28 years in the Habsburg Netherlands (primarily Bruxelles), 18 years in Spain (notably Toledo and Extremadura) and 9 years in Germany. After four decades of incessant warfare with the Kingdom of France, the Ottoman Empire, and the Protestants, Charles V abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556 in favor of his son Philip II of Spain and brother Ferdinand I of Austria. The personal union of his European and American territories, spanning over nearly 4 million square kilometres, was the first collection of realms to be defined as "the empire on which the sun never sets".Charles was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties: Valois of Burgundy, Habsburg of Austria, and Trastámara of Spain. As heir to the House of Burgundy, he inherited areas in the Netherlands and around the eastern border of France. As the head of the House of Habsburg, he inherited Austria and other lands in central Europe, and was also elected to succeed his grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor. As a grandson of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, both from the Spanish House of Trastámara he inherited the Crown of Castile, which was developing a nascent empire in the Americas and Asia, and the Crown of Aragon, which included a Mediterranean empire extending to southern Italy. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right (as a unified Spain), and as a result he is often referred to as the first king of Spain. The personal union under Charles of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire was the closest Europe has come to a universal monarchy since the time of Charlemagne in the 9th century.
Because of widespread fears that his vast inheritance would lead to the realisation of a universal monarchy and that he was trying to create a European hegemony, Charles was the object of hostility from many enemies. His reign was dominated by war, particularly by three major simultaneous prolonged conflicts: the Italian Wars with France, the struggle to halt the Turkish advance into Europe, and the conflict with the German princes resulting from the Protestant Reformation. The French wars, mainly fought in Italy, lasted for most of his reign. Enormously expensive, they led to the development of the first modern professional army in Europe, the Tercios.
The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean. The Turkish advance was halted at the Siege of Vienna in 1529, and a lengthy war of attrition, conducted on Charles' behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand (King of Hungary and archduke of Austria), continued for the rest of Charles's reign. In the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, he was unable to prevent the Ottomans' increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary pirates. Charles opposed the Reformation, and in Germany he was in conflict with Protestant nobles who were motivated by both religious and political opposition to him. He could not prevent the spread of Protestantism and was ultimately forced to concede the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, which divided Germany along denominational lines.
While Charles did not typically concern himself with rebellions, he was quick to put down three particularly dangerous rebellions; the Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile, the revolt of the Arumer Zwarte Hoop in Frisia, and, later in his reign, the Revolt of Ghent (1539). Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule.
Charles's Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, and they became increasingly important as his reign progressed. In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castilian conquistadores of the Aztec and Inca empires. Castilian control was extended across much of South and Central America. The resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain.
Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 40 years of active rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery, where he died at the age of 58. The Holy Roman Empire passed to his younger brother Ferdinand, archduke of Austria, while the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles's son Philip II of Spain. The two empires would remain allies until the extinction of the male line of the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs in 1700.Chevrolet Express
The Chevrolet Express and its mechanically identical twin GMC Savana are full-size vans from General Motors. They replaced the Chevrolet Van and GMC Vandura in 1995. The Express and Savana (which were known as the GMT600 platform),
were a major upgrade from the previous generation van which dated from the late '60s. The GMT600 featured full body on frame
construction, the new central-port injection V6 and V8 engines, and greatly improved ride & handling from its GMT400 derived chassis.
After 2003, the Express and Savana had updated front-end sheet metal similar to the GMT800 light trucks and GMT360 SUVs, and at the same time, were fitted with the LS (Gen III) engines. The remainder of the body was not modified. This redesign was designated as the GMT610. In 2004, Stability Control (Stabilitrak) was added to all passenger vans. In 2008, the interior was updated and side impact roof airbags were standard on all passenger models. They also offer the E85 Flexfuel Vortec 5.3L V8 engine in both the 2008 Express 1500 Work Van and Passenger Van. The 6.6L Duramax V8 engine Diesel was added as an option for 2006.
In 2017 a new 2.8L Duramax Diesel engine was added.
In 2018 a new 6.0L V8 gaseous CNG/LPG capable engine was added. Also for the 2018 model year a new front end with composite headlights to replace the old sealed beamsChevrolet Silverado
The Chevrolet Silverado, and its mechanically identical cousin the GMC Sierra, are a series of full-size and heavy-duty pickup trucks manufactured by General Motors and introduced in 1998 as the successor to the long-running Chevrolet C/K line. The Silverado name was taken from a trim level previously used on its predecessor, the Chevrolet C/K pickup truck from 1975 through 1998. General Motors continues to offer a GMC-badged variant of the Chevrolet full-size pickup under the GMC Sierra name, first used in 1987 for its variant of the GMT400 platform trucks.
The heavy-duty trucks are informally referred to as "Silverado HD" (and Sierra HD), while the light-duty version is referred simply to as "Silverado" (and Sierra). Perennially one of the best-selling vehicles in the United States, almost 12 million Silverados have been sold since its introduction.Freestyle swimming
Freestyle is a category of swimming competition, defined by the rules of the International Swimming Federation (FINA), in which competitors are subject to few limited restrictions on their swimming stroke. Freestyle races are the most common of all swimming competitions, with distances beginning with 50 meters (50 yards) and reaching 1500 meters (1650 yards), also known as the mile. The term 'freestyle stroke' is sometimes used as a synonym for 'front crawl', as front crawl is the fastest swimming stroke. It is now the most common stroke used in freestyle competitions.Gale (publisher)
Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, west of Detroit. Since 2007 it has been a division of Cengage Learning.
The company, formerly known as Gale Research and the Gale Group, is active in research and educational publishing for public, academic, and school libraries, and businesses. The company is known for its full-text magazine and newspaper databases, InfoTrac, and other online databases subscribed by libraries, as well as multi-volume reference works, especially in the areas of religion, history, and social science.
Founded in Detroit, Michigan in 1954 by Frederick Gale Ruffner, the company was acquired by the Thomson Corporation (as a part of the Thomson Learning division) in 1985 before its 2007 sale to Cengage.Hicham El Guerrouj
Hicham El Guerrouj (Arabic: هشام الݣروج, Hishāmu l-Karrūj; Berber: Hicam El Gerruj, ⵀⵉⵛⴰⵎ ⴻⵍ ⴳⴻⵔⵔⵓⵊ; born 14 September 1974) is a retired Moroccan middle-distance runner.
El Guerrouj is the current world record holder outdoors and a former world record holder indoors 1500 meters and mile, and outdoor 2000 meters events. He is also the only man since Paavo Nurmi to earn a gold medal in both the 1500 metres and 5000 metres at the same Olympic Games. El Guerrouj holds 7 of the fastest 9 times ever run in the 1500 meters and 7 of the 10 fastest in the mile. Given these achievements, El Guerrouj is considered by many to be the greatest middle-distance runner of all time.In November 2014 he was inducted into the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) Hall of Fame.Indian locomotive class WAP-4
WAP - 4 is a common electric locomotive used in India.
The locomotive was developed after a previous class WAP 1 was found inadequate to haul the longer, heavier express trains (24-26 coaches) that were becoming the mainstay of the Indian Railways network. It was introduced in 1994, with a similar bodyshell to the WAP-1 class, but with Hitachi traction motors. Electricals are traditional DC loco type tap changers, driving 6 traction motors arranged in Co-Co fashion. This locomotive has proved to be highly successful, with over 750 units in service. Newer examples have been fitted with Microprocessor Controlled diagnostics, Static Converter units (instead of arnos) and roof mounted Dynamic (Rheostatic) Brakes.The locomotive can be seen in service across the electrified network of Indian Railways and is homed at 14 sheds (depots).
The last locomotive produced by the Chittaranjan Locomotive Works (CLW) was numbered 25051 in December 2015 and production of this locomotive has been stoppedKelly Holmes
Dame Kelly Holmes, (born 19 April 1970) is a retired British middle distance athlete.
Holmes specialised in the 800 metres and 1500 metres events and won a gold medal for both distances at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. She set British records in numerous events and still holds the records over the 600, 800 and 1000 metre distances.
Inspired by a number of successful British middle distance runners in the late 1970s and early 1980s, Holmes began competing in middle distance events in her youth. She joined the British Army, but continued to compete at the organisation's athletics events. She turned to the professional athletics circuit in the early 1990s and in 1994 she won the 1500 m at the Commonwealth Games and took silver at the European Championships. She won a silver and a bronze medal at the 1995 Gothenburg World Championships, but suffered from various injuries over the following two years, failing to gain a medal at her first Olympics in Atlanta 1996. She won silver in the 1500 m at the 1998 Commonwealth Games and bronze in the 800 m at the 2000 Sydney Olympics, her first Olympic medal.
Holmes won the 1500 m at the 2002 Commonwealth Games and the 800 m bronze at the Munich European Championships that year. The 2003 track season saw her take silver in the 1500 m at the World Indoor Championships and the 800 m silver medals at the World Championships and first World Athletics Final.
She took part in her final major championship in 2004, with a double gold medal-winning performance at the Athens Olympics, finishing as the 800 m and 1500 m Olympic Champion. For her achievements she won numerous awards and was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBE) in 2005. She retired from athletics in 2005 and has since made a number of television appearances.Landkreuzer P. 1500 Monster
The Landkreuzer P 1500 Monster was a German pre-prototype super-heavy self-propelled gun designed during World War II, representing the apex of the German extreme artillery designs.Middle-distance running
Middle-distance running events are track races longer than sprints, up to 3000 metres. The standard middle distances are the 800 metres, 1500 metres and mile run, although the 3000 metres may also be classified as a middle-distance event. The 1500 m came about as a result of running 3 3⁄4 laps of a 400 m outdoor track or 7 1⁄2 laps of a 200 m indoor track, which were commonplace in continental Europe in the 20th century.Middle English
Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language, spoken after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. English underwent distinct variations and developments following the Old English period. Scholarly opinion varies, but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period when Middle English was spoken as being from 1150 to 1500. This stage of the development of the English language roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages.
Middle English saw significant changes to its grammar, pronunciation, and orthography. Writing conventions during the Middle English period varied widely. Examples of writing from this period that have survived show extensive regional variation. The more standardized Old English language became fragmented, localized, and was for the most part, being improvised. By the end of the period (about 1470) and aided by the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1439, a standard based on the London dialect (Chancery Standard) had become established. This largely formed the basis for Modern English spelling, although pronunciation has changed considerably since that time. Middle English was succeeded in England by the era of Early Modern English, which lasted until about 1650. Scots language developed concurrently from a variant of the Northumbrian dialect (prevalent in northern England and spoken in southeast Scotland).
During the Middle English period, many Old English grammatical features either became simplified or disappeared altogether. Noun, adjective and verb inflections were simplified by the reduction (and eventual elimination) of most grammatical case distinctions. Middle English also saw considerable adoption of Norman French vocabulary, especially in the areas of politics, law, the arts and religion. Conventional English vocabulary retained its mostly Germanic etiology, with Old Norse influences becoming more apparent. Significant changes in pronunciation took place, particularly involving long vowels and diphthongs which in the later Middle English period, began to undergo the Great Vowel Shift.
Little survives of early Middle English literature, due in part to Norman domination and the prestige that came with writing in French rather than English. During the 14th century, a new style of literature emerged with the works of writers including John Wycliffe and Geoffrey Chaucer, whose Canterbury Tales remains one of the most studied and read works of the period.Ottoman Turkish language
Ottoman Turkish (; Turkish: Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish: لسان عثمانى, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه, Türkçe or تركی, Türkî, "Turkish"; Turkish: Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, Arabic and Persian vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of the Ottoman vocabulary, while words of foreign origin heavily outnumbered native Turkish words.Consequently, Ottoman Turkish was largely unintelligible to the less-educated lower-class and rural Turks, who continued to use kaba Türkçe ("raw/vulgar Turkish", as in Vulgar Latin), which used far fewer foreign loanwords and is the basis of the modern Turkish language. The Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language (لسان عثمانی lisân-ı Osmânî or عثمانليجه Osmanlıca) and the same distinction is made in Modern Turkish (Osmanlıca and Osmanlı Türkçesi).Ram Pickup
The Ram pickup (formerly the Dodge Ram pickup) is a full-size pickup truck manufactured by FCA US LLC (formerly Chrysler Group LLC) and marketed as of 2011 onwards under the Ram Trucks brand. The current fifth-generation Ram debuted at the 2018 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Michigan.
Previously, Ram was part of the Dodge line of light trucks. The name Ram was first used in 1932–1954 Dodge Trucks, then returned on the redesigned 1981 Ram and Power Ram, following the retiring and rebadging of the Dodge D Series pickup trucks as well as B-series vans.
Ram trucks have been named Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year six times; the second-generation Ram won the award in 1994, the third-generation Ram Heavy Duty won the award in 2003, the fourth-generation Ram Heavy Duty won in 2010 and the fourth-generation Ram 1500 won in 2013 and 2014, and the current fifth-generation Ram 1500 won in 2019.Snooker world ranking points 2018/2019
The official 2018/2019 snooker world ranking points for the professional snooker players on the World Snooker Main Tour in the 2018/2019 season are based on performances in ranking tournaments over a two-year rolling period. The rankings at the start of 2018/2019 season are determined by prize money earned in the 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 seasons and are updated after every tournament carrying ranking status; the players are re-ranked at the beginning of the current season after removing players relegated at the end of the previous season from the ranking list. As points are accrued from tournaments throughout the current season, the points from the corresponding tournaments from two seasons earlier are dropped. The rankings are used to set the official tournament seedings at various points throughout the season; even though the rankings are officially updated after every tournament carrying ranking status not all the rankings are used as seedings, and only the rankings officially used as seedings are documented below. The total points accumulated by the cut-off dates for the revised seedings are based on all the points up to that date in the 2018/2019 season, all of the points from the 2017/2018 season, and the points from the 2016/2017 season that have not yet been dropped.Young LM–1500 Pairs
The Sally Young LM–1500 Pairs bridge event is held at the Summer American Contract Bridge League (ACBL) North American Bridge Championship. It is open to all players who have earned Life Master status up to 1,500 masterpoints.
The event is held at the same time as the Von Zedtwitz Life Master Pairs (open to all Life Masters) and the
Bruce LM-5000 Pairs event.
The trophy is named in honor of Sally Young (1906-1970), the first woman to achieve Life Master status in the ACBL (and #17 overall).