|1499 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2252|
|Balinese saka calendar||1420–1421|
|English Regnal year||14 Hen. 7 – 15 Hen. 7|
|Chinese calendar||戊午年 (Earth Horse)|
4195 or 4135
— to —
己未年 (Earth Goat)
4196 or 4136
|- Vikram Samvat||1555–1556|
|- Shaka Samvat||1420–1421|
|- Kali Yuga||4599–4600|
|Japanese calendar||Meiō 8|
|Minguo calendar||413 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2041–2042|
1625 or 1244 or 472
— to —
1626 or 1245 or 473
Events from the year 1499 in France1499 in Ireland
Events from the year 1499 in Ireland.Battle of Zonchio
The naval Battle of Zonchio (Turkish: Sapienza Deniz Muharebesi, also known as the Battle of Sapienza or the First Battle of Lepanto) took place on four separate days: 12, 20, 22 and 25 August 1499. It was a part of the Ottoman–Venetian War of 1499–1503. It was the first naval battle in history in which cannons were used on ships.In January 1499 Kemal Reis set sail from Constantinople with a force of 10 galleys and 4 other types of ships, and in July 1499 met with the huge Ottoman fleet which was sent to him by Davud Pasha and took over its command in order to wage a large scale war against the Republic of Venice. The Ottoman fleet consisted of 67 galleys, 20 galliots and about 200 smaller vessels.
After reaching Cape Zonchio in the Ionian Sea with the large Ottoman fleet in August 1499, Kemal Reis defeated the Venetian fleet of 47 galleys, 17 galliots and about 100 smaller vessels under the command of Antonio Grimani. Grimani was 65 and although he was a proven captain in battle, he was not an experienced leader and had never commanded large battle fleets. He had only been given command because of a donation of 16,000 ducats to the state and personally funding the arming of 10 galleys. He was not told whether to fight an offensive or defensive campaign. Many captains ignored his orders to attack the Ottomans and he did not take part in the battle. His indecisiveness and reluctance to attack led to failure during the battle.
On the second day, Grimani ordered the crews to kill any captains who refused to fight. Despite this, and the arrival of four French galleys, he sent just two galleys out of 170 against the Ottomans. Both somehow returned unharmed.
On 25 August the Venetians captured some Ottoman galleys, then discipline broke down and the Ottomans recaptured the vessels while they were being looted; the French reinforcements abandoned the Venetians in disgust and fled to Rhodes.
During the most critical stage of the battle, two Venetian carracks, captained by Andrea Loredan (a member of the influential Loredan family of Venice, and cousin of the future doge Leonardo Loredan) and by Alban d'Armer, boarded one of the command ships of the Ottoman fleet. The commander of the vessel, Burak Reis, was unable to disentangle his ship from the boarders and chose to set her aflame. The sight of the three great ships burning together dealt a severe blow to the Venetian morale.Antonio Grimani was arrested on 29 September and banished to the island of Cherso. Grimani later became the Doge of Venice in 1521. The Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II gave 10 of the captured Venetian galleys to Kemal Reis, who later stationed his fleet at the island of Cefalonia between October and December 1499.
The Ottomans and Venetians soon confronted each other for a second time at the Second Battle of Lepanto, which is also known as the Battle of Modon, and the Ottomans were victorious under Kemal Reis.California Nebula
The California Nebula (NGC 1499) is an emission nebula located in the constellation Perseus. It is so named because it appears to resemble the outline of the US State of California on long exposure photographs. It is almost 2.5° long on the sky and, because of its very low surface brightness, it is extremely difficult to observe visually. It can be observed with a Hβ filter (isolates the Hβ line at 486 nm) in a rich-field telescope under dark skies. It lies at a distance of about 1,000 light years from Earth. Its fluorescence is due to excitation of the Hβ line in the nebula by the nearby prodigiously energetic O7 star, xi Persei (also known as Menkib, seen at center below it in the inset at right).The California Nebula was discovered by E. E. Barnard in 1884.
By coincidence, the California Nebula transits in the zenith in central California as the latitude matches the declination of the object.Claude of France
Claude of France (13 October 1499 – 20 July 1524) was a queen consort of France by marriage to Francis I. She was also ruling Duchess of Brittany from 1514. She was a daughter of the French king Louis XII and Anne of Brittany.Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick
Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick (25 February 1475 – 28 November 1499) was the son of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, and a potential claimant to the English throne during the reigns of both Richard III (1483–1485) and his successor, Henry VII (1485–1509). He was also a younger brother of Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury.Italian War of 1499–1504
The Second Italian War (1499–1504), sometimes known as Louis XII's Italian War or the War over Naples, was the second of the Italian Wars; it was fought primarily by Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon, with the participation of several Italian powers. In the aftermath of the First Italian War, Louis was determined to press his claim on the thrones of Milan and Naples. And in 1499, Louis XII invaded Lombardy and seized Milan, to which he had a claim in right of his paternal grandmother Valentina Visconti, Duchess of Orléans.James Goldwell
James Goldwell (died 15 February 1499) was a medieval Dean of Salisbury and Bishop of Norwich.John Blyth (bishop)
John Blyth or John Blythe (before 1460 – 23 August 1499) was a medieval Bishop of Salisbury.
Blyth was Archdeacon of Richmond from 1485 to 1493 and was Master of the Rolls 5 May 1492 – 13 February 1494. He was nominated to Salisbury on 13 November 1493 and consecrated on 23 February 1494, serving until his death five-and-a-half years later, on 23 August 1499. His brother Geoffrey was Bishop of Lichfield.Laurentius Petri
Laurentius Petri Nericius (1499 – 27 October 1573) was a Swedish clergyman and the first Evangelical Lutheran Archbishop of Sweden. He and his brother Olaus Petri are, together with the King Gustav Vasa, regarded as the main Lutheran reformers of Sweden. They are commemorated by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on April 19.Louis XII of France
Louis XII (27 June 1462 – 1 January 1515) was King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, and Maria of Cleves, he succeeded his cousin Charles VIII, who died without a closer heir in 1498. Louis was the eighth French king from the House of Valois, and the first from the Orléans branch of that dynasty.
Before his accession to the throne of France, he was known as Louis of Orléans and was compelled to be married to his disabled and supposedly sterile cousin Joan by his second cousin, King Louis XI. By doing so, Louis XI hoped to extinguish the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois.Louis of Orléans was one of the great feudal lords who opposed the French monarchy in the conflict known as the Mad War. At the royal victory in the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier in 1488, Louis was captured, but Charles VIII pardoned him and released him. He subsequently took part in the Italian War of 1494–1498 as one of the French commanders.
When Louis XII became king in 1498, he had his marriage with Joan annulled by Pope Alexander VI and instead married Anne of Brittany, the widow of his cousin Charles VIII. This marriage allowed Louis to reinforce the personal Union of Brittany and France.
Louis persevered in the Italian Wars, initiating a second Italian campaign for the control of the Kingdom of Naples. Louis conquered the Duchy of Milan in 1500 and pushed forward to the Kingdom of Naples, which fell to him in 1501. Proclaimed King of Naples, Louis faced a new coalition gathered by Ferdinand II of Aragon and was forced to cede Naples to Spain in 1504.
Louis XII did not encroach on the power of local governments or the privileges of the nobility, in opposition with the long tradition of the French kings to attempt to impose absolute monarchy in France. A popular king, Louis was proclaimed "Father of the People" (French: Le Père du Peuple) in 1506 by the Estates-General of Tours for his reduction of the tax known as taille, legal reforms, and civil peace within France.
Louis, who remained Duke of Milan after the second Italian War, was interested in further expansion in the Italian Peninsula and launched a third Italian War (1508–1516), which was marked by the military prowess of the Chevalier de Bayard.
Louis XII died in 1515 without a male heir. He was succeeded by his cousin Francis from the Angoulême cadet branch of the House of Valois.Navalcarnero
Navalcarnero is a municipality in the Community of Madrid, Spain, located about 31 km from Madrid.
Sights include the church of Inmaculada Concepción.Ottoman–Venetian War (1499–1503)
The Second Ottoman–Venetian War was fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice for control of the lands that were contested between the two parties in the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea and the Adriatic Sea. The war lasted from 1499 to 1503.
The Turks, under the command of Admiral Kemal Reis, were victorious and forced the Venetians to recognize their gains in 1503.Pope Pius IV
Pope Pius IV (31 March 1499 – 9 December 1565), born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was Pope from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565.He is known for presiding over the final session of the Council of Trent.Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501)
The Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501) was a series of uprisings by the Muslim population of the Kingdom of Granada, Crown of Castile (formerly, the Emirate of Granada) against their Catholic rulers. They began in 1499 in the city of Granada in response to mass forced conversion of the Muslim population to the Catholic faith, which were perceived as violations of the 1491 Treaty of Granada. The uprising in the city quickly died down, but it was followed by more serious revolts in the nearby mountainous area of the Alpujarras. The Catholic forces, on some occasions led personally by King Ferdinand, succeeded in suppressing the revolts and inflicted severe punishment on the Muslim population.
The Catholic rulers used these revolts as a justification to abolish the Treaty of Granada and the rights of the Muslims guaranteed by the treaty. All Muslims of Granada were subsequently required to convert to Catholicism or be expelled, and in 1502 these forced conversions applied to all of Castile. However, they did not apply in the kingdoms of Valencia or Aragón.Russo-Swedish War (1495–1497)
The Russo-Swedish War of 1495–1497 was a result of an alliance between Grande Prince Ivan III of Moscow and Hans of Denmark, who was waging war against the Sture family of Sweden in the hope of regaining the Swedish throne. It is believed that Hans promised to concede some stretches of Finnish lands to the Muscovite prince, although he did not bother to honour the agreement after he had been crowned King of Sweden at the close of the war.
Pursuant to the agreement, Ivan III sent Princes Daniil Shchenya and Vasily Shuisky to lay siege to the Swedish castle of Viborg. The siege lasted for three months and ended when a castellan set his supply of powder on fire, thus "scaring the Muscovites out of their wits", as the Swedish records say (see below for details). The following year Russian generals Vasily Kosoy and Andrey Chelyadnin severely devastated Swedish Finland as far as Hämeenlinna (Tavastehus).
Sten Sture the Elder, who was then at Turku (Åbo), was enraged at the news of the Muscovite expedition and sent Svante Nilsson with 2,000 men to take Ivangorod, a new fortress which Ivan III had built to protect Russian Ingria against Livonian Knights. The fortress was taken without difficulty, but — as it was obviously impossible to defend it for a considerable period of time — Svante Nilsson proposed to hand it over to the Knights, an offer which they declined. Thereupon the Swedes set the fortress ablaze and sailed home.
After the Swedish throne fell to Hans of Denmark, hostilities were suspended until 1508, when Sweden and Moscow ratified a peace treaty for 60 years. Although the war yielded no tangible results to any of the belligerents, both countries corroborated the peace settlement in 1513 and 1524.Salm-Kyrburg
Salm-Kyrburg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire located in present-day Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, one of the various partitions of Salm. It was twice created: the first time as a Wild- and Rhinegraviate (partitioned from Upper Salm), and secondly as a Principality (succeeding the earlier Principality of Salm-Leuze). The first state of Salm-Kyrburg was partitioned between itself, Salm-Mörchingen and Salm-Tronecken in 1607, and was inherited by Salm-Neuweiler in 1681 upon the lines' extinction.
In 1742, Salm-Kyrburg was raised to a principality; it shared its vote in the Reichstag with Salm-Salm. Salm-Kyrburg was annexed by France in 1798; this was recognized by the Holy Roman Empire in the Treaty of Lunéville of 1801. As a compensation, the princes were granted new territories formerly belonging to the Bishops of Münster in 1802, which formed the newly founded Principality of Salm.
The full title used by the Princes of the resurrected state was "Prince of Salm-Kyrburg, Sovereign Prince of Ahaus, Bocholt and Gemen, Wildgrave of Dhaun and Kyrburg, Rhinegrave of Stein".University of Valencia
The University of Valencia (Valencian: Universitat de València [univeɾsiˈtad de vaˈlensia]; also known by the acronym UV) is a university located in the Spanish city of Valencia. It is one of the oldest surviving universities in Spain, and the oldest in the Valencian Community, and is regarded as one of Spain's leading academic institutions. The University was founded in 1499, and currently has around 55,000 students. Most of the courses are given through the medium of Spanish, but the university has promised to increase the number of courses available in Valencian. Moreover, in some degrees part of the teaching is in English.
It is located in the Mediterranean Spanish baseline, in the city of Valencia which is the capital and most populous city of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third largest city in Spain, with a population of 829,705 in 2014. One of its campuses is located in the metropolitan area of Valencia, in the municipalities of Burjassot and Paterna.
There are three campuses:
The Burjassot Campus houses the colleges of Biology, Pharmacy, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and the School of Engineering.
On the Avenida de Blasco Ibañez Campus the Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Philosophy and Educational Sciences, Psychology, Geography and History, Languages, Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Nursing.
The third campus, Tarongers, houses the Schools of Law, Economics and Business, Social Sciences, and recently the School of Elementary Teacher Training, which moved from its previous location near the Blasco Ibañez Campus.The current chancellor is Esteban Morcillo Sánchez.Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Younger
Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha (1429–1499), called the Younger, was an Ottoman statesman who served as Grand Vizier from 1498 to 1499.He was the scion of the Çandarlı family, which provided a series of grand viziers during the first centuries of the Ottoman Empire. His father, Çandarlı Halil Pasha, had also served as Grand Vizier from 1443 until his execution in 1453. Ibrahim was appointed qadi (judge) of Adrianople and survived his father's disgrace, and was named qadi 'asker (judge of the army), a very prestigious post, in 1465, before assuming the duties of tutor (lala) to the future Sultan Bayezid II. He was appointed Grand Vizier in 1498, and served until his death in 1499, when he died in the military camp during the Battle of Zonchio.
He was buried at Iznik.