|1495 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2248|
|Balinese saka calendar||1416–1417|
|English Regnal year||10 Hen. 7 – 11 Hen. 7|
|Chinese calendar||甲寅年 (Wood Tiger)|
4191 or 4131
— to —
乙卯年 (Wood Rabbit)
4192 or 4132
|- Vikram Samvat||1551–1552|
|- Shaka Samvat||1416–1417|
|- Kali Yuga||4595–4596|
|Japanese calendar||Meiō 4|
|Minguo calendar||417 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2037–2038|
1621 or 1240 or 468
— to —
1622 or 1241 or 469
Events from the 1490s in England.1490s in art
The decade of the 1490s in art involved some significant events.1492 in France
Events from the year 1492 in France1495 in Ireland
Events from the year 1495 in Ireland.Alfonso II of Naples
Alfonso II (4 November 1448 – 18 December 1495), also called Alfonso of Aragon, was King of Naples from 25 January 1494 to 22 February 1495 with the title King of Naples and Jerusalem. As Duke of Calabria he was a patron of Renaissance poets and builders during his tenure as the heir to the throne of Naples.Emperor Go-Nara
Emperor Go-Nara (後奈良天皇 Go-Nara-tennō) (January 26, 1495 – September 27, 1557) was the 105th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He reigned from June 9, 1526 until his death in 1557, during the Sengoku period. His personal name was Tomohito (知仁).Italian War of 1494–1498
The First Italian War, sometimes referred to as the Italian War of 1494 or Charles VIII's Italian War, was the opening phase of the Italian Wars. The war pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and an alliance of Italian powers led by Pope Alexander VI.John II of Portugal
John II (Portuguese: João II; [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃]; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), called the Perfect Prince (Portuguese: o Príncipe Perfeito), was King of Portugal from 1481 until his death in 1495, and also for a brief time in 1477. He is known for re-establishing the power of the Portuguese monarchy, reinvigorating the Portuguese economy, and renewing his country's exploration of Africa and the Orient.List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland to 1700
This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland for the years until 1700. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland, 1701–1800.
The number shown by each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Act concerning assay passed in 1783 is cited as "23 & 24 Geo. 3 c. 23", meaning the 23rd Act passed during the session that started in the 23rd year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 24th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "40 Geo. 3" rather than "40 Geo. III"). Acts of the reign of Elizabeth I are formally cited without a regnal numeral in the Republic of Ireland.
Acts passed by the Parliament of Ireland did not have a short title; however, some of these Acts have subsequently been given a short title by Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland, or Acts of the Oireachtas. This means that some Acts have different short titles in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland respectively.
A number of the Acts included in this list are still in force in Northern Ireland or the Republic of Ireland. Because these two jurisdictions are entirely separate, the version of an Act in force in one may differ from the version in force in the other; similarly, an Act may have been repealed in one but not in the other.
A number of Acts passed by the Parliament of England also extended to Ireland during this period.List of sovereign states in 1495
The notion of a sovereign state arises in the mid-16th century with the development of modern diplomacy.
For earlier times, the term "sovereign state" is an anachronism. What corresponded to sovereign states in the medieval and ancient period were monarchs ruling By the Grace of God, de facto feudal or imperial autocrats, or de facto independent nations or tribal confederations.Moscow Kremlin
The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Моско́вский Кремль, tr. Moskovskiy Kreml, IPA: [mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ]), or simply the Kremlin, is a fortified complex in the center of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of the kremlins (Russian citadels) and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. In addition, within this complex is the Grand Kremlin Palace that was formerly the Tsar's Moscow residence. The complex now serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation and as a museum with 2,746,405 visitors in 2017.
The name "Kremlin" means "fortress inside a city", and is often also used metonymically to refer to the government of the Russian Federation in a similar sense to how "White House" refers to the Executive Office of the President of the United States. It previously referred to the government of the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and its highest members (such as general secretaries, premiers, presidents, ministers, and commissars). The term "Kremlinology" refers to the study of Soviet and Russian politics.Orlando Innamorato
Orlando Innamorato ([orˈlando innamoˈraːto]; known in English as "Orlando in Love"; in Italian titled "Orlando innamorato" as the "I" is never capitalized) is an epic poem written by the Italian Renaissance author Matteo Maria Boiardo. The poem is a romance concerning the heroic knight Orlando (Roland). It was published between 1483 (first two books) and 1495 (third book published separately, first complete edition).Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha
Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha ("Ibrahim Pasha of Parga"; c. 1495 – 15 March 1536), also known as Frenk Ibrahim Pasha ("the Westerner"), Makbul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Favorite"), which later changed to Maktul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Executed") after his execution in the Topkapı Palace, was the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire appointed by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
Ibrahim, born a Christian, was enslaved during his youth. He and Suleiman became close friends in their youth. In 1523, Suleiman appointed Ibrahim as Grand Vizier to replace Piri Mehmed Pasha, who had been appointed in 1518 by Suleiman's father, the preceding sultan Selim I. Ibrahim remained in office for the next 13 years. He attained a level of authority and influence rivaled by only a handful of other grand viziers of the Empire, but in 1536, he was executed on Suleiman's orders and his property was confiscated by the state.Poynings' Law
Poynings' Law or the Statute of Drogheda (10 Hen.7 c.4 [The Irish Statutes numbering] or 10
Hen.7 c.9 [Analecta Hibernica numbering]; later titled "An Act that no Parliament be holden in this Land until the Acts be certified into England") was a 1494 Act of the Parliament of Ireland which provided that the parliament could not meet until its proposed legislation had been approved both by Ireland's Lord Deputy and Privy Council and by England's monarch and Privy Council. It was a major grievance in 18th-century Ireland, was amended by the Constitution of 1782, rendered moot by the Acts of Union 1800, and repealed by the Statute Law Revision (Ireland) Act, 1878.Płock Voivodeship (1495–1793)
Płock Voivodeship (Polish: Województwo Płockie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland from 1495 until the partitions of Poland in 1795. Together with the Rawa Voivodeship and Masovian Voivodeship it formed the former of Duchy of Masovia.
Zygmunt Gloger in his monumental book Historical Geography of the Lands of Old Poland gives a detailed description of Płock Voivodeship:
"After childless death of Janusz II, Duke of Łomża, Ciechanów, Wizna and Płock, which took place on February 16, 1495, the Duchy of Płock, except for the Land of Wyszogród, was incorporated into the Kingdom of Poland, and turned into a voivodeship (...) In the 16th century, it had the area of 701 square miles, divided into eight small counties: those of Płock, Bielsk, Raciaz, Sierpc, Płońsk, Szrensk, Niedzborz, and Mława. The three last counties, located between the Wkra river and Prussian border, made the so-called Zawkrze Land (...) The voivodeship had 67 Roman-Catholic parishes, 63 towns and 1,115 villages. Most densely populated was Bielsk County (...)
Local sejmiks for the voivodeship took place at Raciaz, the town located in the middle of the province. During the reign of King Stanisław II Augustus, the sejmiks were moved to Płock. The voivodeship had five senators: the Bishop of Płock, the Voivode of Płock, the Castellan of Płock, and Castellans of Raciaz and Sierpc. Land courts were located in Płock, Bielsk and Sierpc (since 1726, also in Mława)".Russo-Swedish War (1495–1497)
The Russo-Swedish War of 1495–1497 was a result of an alliance between Grande Prince Ivan III of Moscow and Hans of Denmark, who was waging war against the Sture family of Sweden in the hope of regaining the Swedish throne. It is believed that Hans promised to concede some stretches of Finnish lands to the Muscovite prince, although he did not bother to honour the agreement after he had been crowned King of Sweden at the close of the war.
Pursuant to the agreement, Ivan III sent Princes Daniil Shchenya and Vasily Shuisky to lay siege to the Swedish castle of Viborg. The siege lasted for three months and ended when a castellan set his supply of powder on fire, thus "scaring the Muscovites out of their wits", as the Swedish records say (see below for details). The following year Russian generals Vasily Kosoy and Andrey Chelyadnin severely devastated Swedish Finland as far as Hämeenlinna (Tavastehus).
Sten Sture the Elder, who was then at Turku (Åbo), was enraged at the news of the Muscovite expedition and sent Svante Nilsson with 2,000 men to take Ivangorod, a new fortress which Ivan III had built to protect Russian Ingria against Livonian Knights. The fortress was taken without difficulty, but — as it was obviously impossible to defend it for a considerable period of time — Svante Nilsson proposed to hand it over to the Knights, an offer which they declined. Thereupon the Swedes set the fortress ablaze and sailed home.
After the Swedish throne fell to Hans of Denmark, hostilities were suspended until 1508, when Sweden and Moscow ratified a peace treaty for 60 years. Although the war yielded no tangible results to any of the belligerents, both countries corroborated the peace settlement in 1513 and 1524.St Sebastian (Perugino, Louvre)
Saint Sebastian is a c.1495 painting of Saint Sebastian by Perugino, now in the Louvre collection. It was temporarily on display at the Louvre-Lens branch between 2012 and 2017. It is probably the work mentioned in the 17th century inventory of the Barberini collection in Rome, which was later dispersed. Several pieces from it were taken abroad during the 19th century, with St Sebastian being bought by the Louvre in 1896.
It shows the saint in a contraposto pose drawn from the Doryphoros of Polykleitos, echoed in a later autograph copy now in Sao Paolo. The symmetrical composition draws on Perugino's earlier works - he first used the motif in St Sebastian between St Roch and St Peter, a fresco painted in Cerqueto near Perugia. He stands on a terrace beneath a monumental arch with grotesque-decorated pilasters and a balustrade. On the base of the platform is the Latin inscription "SAGITTAE. TUAE.INFIXAE. SUNT. MICHI", drawn from Psalm 38:2 ("Thy arrows are fixed in me"). The deep landscape background is typical of the artist, with wooded hills and mountains. To the left are a ruined vault and pillar, symbolising the downfall of the pagan world.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1495
United Nations Security Council resolution 1495, adopted unanimously on 31 July 2003, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Western Sahara, particularly Resolution 1429 (2002), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) until 31 October 2003 and supported the Baker Plan put forth by James Baker III, who was at that time the Special Representative for Western Sahara of the Secretary-General Kofi Annan, as a replacement of the 1991 Settlement Plan. The resolution, adopted after significant changes to the original draft, was welcomed by the Polisario Front, which supported the Baker Plan, but not by Morocco, which resisted it.Vlad Călugărul
Vlad IV Călugărul, ("Vlad IV the Monk"; prior to 1425 – September 1495), was the Prince of Wallachia in 1481 and then from 1482 to 1495.
His father Vlad Dracul had previously held the throne, as had his brothers Mircea II and Radu the Handsome, and lastly Vlad III Dracula. The 15th century was a very volatile time in Wallachia, with the throne passing first from one then to another of the many princes that desired it. Both of his younger brothers, Vlad III and Radu, had been hostages for a number of years to the Ottoman Sultan, having been offered up to the Ottoman court by their own father, Vlad Dracul, in exchange for the Ottoman's support of Vlad Dracul regaining his throne. His father had first gained the throne following the death of Vlad the Monk's uncle.
Both his brothers Mircea II and Vlad III were able military commanders in the field, and both saw success in battle against the Ottomans. In 1447, his brother Mircea II and his father were both captured and brutally killed. Following this, Vlad III was placed on the throne by the Ottomans, but was forced off shortly thereafter by forces supported by John Hunyadi. This would begin a long quest by Vlad III to gain the throne, which he would do two more times. His longest time on the throne would be from 1456 to 1462, this being his reign of terror for which he would become best known, and which would lead to him being the inspiration for the novel Dracula, by Bram Stoker. His brother Radu gained the throne due to the fact that he was the second in the line of succession, losing it several times to Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân. Radu died in January, 1475, as the result of a long bout with syphilis, at which time Basarab naturally took the throne yet again, only to be forced off shortly thereafter in 1476 by Vlad III. Vlad III was killed in battle during December, 1476, after which Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân was restored to the throne, only to be pushed off by Basarab Ţepeluş cel Tânăr in November 1477.
Vlad the Monk was a contender to his brother's throne as ruler of the principality of Wallachia for many years, but he took no active part in fighting for the throne until near the end of Vlad III's lifetime.
In 1481, the same year Mehmed II died and conflict between his two surviving sons, Bayezid II and Cem erupted into open conflict. Vlad was now placed on the throne by Ştefan III., who had invaded Wallachia that June and routed Basarab IV at Râmnicu Vâlcea. Soon enough Basarab IV was again Voivode of Wallachia, with Ottoman support. Ştefan made a last attempt to secure his influence in Wallachia. and within the year Basarab lost the throne again, after which he would reign until 1495. Although Vlad IV was restored, he was soon forced to accept the Sultan's suzerainty.In 1495, he helped build St. Nicholas Church, in Braşov, Transylvania. There is nothing historically that suggests his death that same year was anything other than natural. His fairly long reign by comparison to those before him was due in part to his having the support of Stephen III of Moldavia. He was succeeded by his son, Radu cel Mare, who would reign until 1508, when he was ousted by his first cousin Mihnea cel Rău, son of Vlad the Impaler.