|1494 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2247|
|Balinese saka calendar||1415–1416|
|English Regnal year||9 Hen. 7 – 10 Hen. 7|
|Chinese calendar||癸丑年 (Water Ox)|
4190 or 4130
— to —
甲寅年 (Wood Tiger)
4191 or 4131
|- Vikram Samvat||1550–1551|
|- Shaka Samvat||1415–1416|
|- Kali Yuga||4594–4595|
|Japanese calendar||Meiō 3|
|Minguo calendar||418 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2036–2037|
1620 or 1239 or 467
— to —
1621 or 1240 or 468
Events from the year 1494 in France1494 in Ireland
Events from the year 1494 in Ireland.Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar (pronunciation ) is a city in Ahmednagar district in the state of Maharashtra, India, about 120 km northeast of Pune and 114 km from Aurangabad. Ahmednagar takes its name from Ahmad Nizam Shah I, who founded the town in 1494 on the site of a battlefield where he won a battle against superior Bahamani forces. It was close to the site of the village of Bhingar. With the breakup of the Bahmani Sultanate, Ahmad established a new sultanate in Ahmednagar, also known as Nizam Shahi dynasty.Ahmednagar has several dozen buildings and sites from the Nizam Shahi period. Ahmednagar Fort, once considered almost impregnable, was used by the British to house Jawaharlal Nehru (the first prime minister of India) and other Indian Nationalists before Indian independence. A few rooms there have been converted to a museum. During his confinement by the British at Ahmednagar Fort in 1944, Nehru wrote the famous book The Discovery of India. Ahmednagar is home to the Indian Armoured Corps Centre & School (ACC&S), the Mechanised Infantry Regimental Centre (MIRC), the Vehicle Research and Development Establishment (VRDE) and the Controllerate of Quality Assurance Vehicles (CQAV). Training and recruitment for the Indian Army Armoured Corps takes place at the ACC&S.Ahmednagar is a relatively small town and shows less development than the nearby western Maharashtra cities of Mumbai and Pune. Ahmednagar is home to 19 sugar factories and is also the birthplace of the cooperative movement. Due to scarce rainfall, Ahmednagar often suffers from drought. Marathi is the primary language for daily-life communication. Ahmednagar has recently published a plan of developing the city by year 2031.Ba Saw Nyo
Ba Saw Nyo (Burmese: ဘစောညို, pronounced [ba̰ sɔ́ ɲò]; also known as Muhammad Shah; 1435–1494) was king of Arakan from 1492 to 1494. He came to power in 1492 after his nephew King Dawlya had died after a failed military expedition. He made Dawlya's mother and his sister-in-law Saw Nandi his chief queen. He faced a serious mutiny by an officer, which was put down. He died of natural causes soon after.Charles VIII of France
Charles VIII, called the Affable (French: l'Affable; 30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498, the seventh from the House of Valois. He succeeded his father Louis XI at the age of 13. His elder sister Anne of France acted as regent jointly with her husband Peter II, Duke of Bourbon until 1491 when the young king turned 21 years of age. During Anne's regency, the great lords rebelled against royal centralisation efforts in a conflict known as the Mad War (1485–1488), which resulted in a victory for the royal government.
In a remarkable stroke of audacity, Charles married Anne of Brittany in 1491 after she had already been married by proxy to the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I in a ceremony of questionable validity. Preoccupied by the problematic succession in the Kingdom of Hungary, Maximilian failed to press his claim. Upon his marriage, Charles became administrator of Brittany and established a personal union that enabled France to avoid total encirclement by Habsburg territories.
To secure his rights to the Neapolitan throne that René of Anjou had left to his father, Charles made a series of concessions to neighbouring monarchs and conquered the Italian peninsula without much opposition. A coalition formed against the French invasion of 1494-98 finally drove out Charles' army, but Italian Wars would dominate Western European politics for over 50 years.
Charles died in 1498 after accidentally striking his head on the lintel of a door at the Château d'Amboise, his place of birth. Since he had no male heir, he was succeeded by his cousin Louis XII of France from the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois.Domenico Ghirlandaio
Domenico Ghirlandaio (Italian: [doˈmeːniko ɡirlanˈdaːjo]; 2 June 1448 – 11 January 1494) was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence. Ghirlandaio was part of the so-called "third generation" of the Florentine Renaissance, along with Verrocchio, the Pollaiolo brothers and Sandro Botticelli. Ghirlandaio led a large and efficient workshop that included his brothers Davide Ghirlandaio and Benedetto Ghirlandaio, his brother-in-law Bastiano Mainardi from San Gimignano, and later his son Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Many apprentices passed through Ghirlandaio's workshop, including the famous Michelangelo. Ghirlandaio's particular talent lay in his ability to posit depictions of contemporary life and portraits of contemporary people within the context of religious narratives, bringing him great popularity and many large commissions.Duke of York
Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted, usually been given to the second son of English (later British) monarchs. The equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Duke of Albany. However, King George I and Queen Victoria granted the second sons of their eldest sons the titles Duke of York and Albany and Duke of York respectively.
Initially granted in the 14th century in the Peerage of England, the title Duke of York has been created eight times. The title Duke of York and Albany has been created three times. These occurred during the 18th century, following the 1707 unification of the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into a single, united realm. The double naming was done so that a territorial designation from each of the previously separate realms could be included.
The current Duke of York is Prince Andrew, the second son of Queen Elizabeth II. Prince Andrew currently has no male heirs and has been unmarried since his 1996 divorce.Ferdinand I of Naples
Ferdinand I of Naples should not be confused with Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, a later king of Naples.Ferdinand I (2 June 1423 – 25 January 1494), also called Ferrante, was the King of Naples from 1458 to 1494. He was the son of Alfonso V of Aragon and his mistress, Giraldona Carlino.Hans Memling
Hans Memling (also spelled Memlinc; c. 1430 – 11 August 1494) was a German painter who moved to Flanders and worked in the tradition of Early Netherlandish painting. He was born in the Middle Rhine region, and probably spent his childhood in Mainz. He had moved to the Netherlands by 1465 and spent time in the Brussels workshop of Rogier van der Weyden. He was subsequently made a citizen of Bruges, where he became one of the leading artists, painting both portraits and diptychs for personal devotion and several large religious works, continuing the style he learned in his youth. He became very successful, and in 1480 was listed among the wealthiest citizens in a city tax list.
He married Anna de Valkenaere sometime between 1470 and 1480, and they had three children. Memling's art was rediscovered, and became very popular, in the 19th century.Hans Tausen
Hans Tausen (Tavsen) (1494 – 11 November 1561) was the leading Lutheran theologian of the Danish Reformation in Denmark. He served as Bishop of Ribe and published the first translation of the Pentateuch into Danish in 1535.Head of Christ (Leonardo da Vinci)
Head of Christ is a c.1494 chalk and pastel study by Leonardo da Vinci for his The Last Supper. It measures 40 by 32 cm and is now in the Pinacoteca di Brera.Italian War of 1494–1498
The First Italian War, sometimes referred to as the Italian War of 1494 or Charles VIII's Italian War, was the opening phase of the Italian Wars. The war pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and an alliance of Italian powers led by Pope Alexander VI.Italian Wars
The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a series of Renaissance conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved most of the Italian states as well as France, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, England and the Ottoman Empire.
An Italic League that ensured peace in the peninsula for 50 years had collapsed in 1492 with the death of Lorenzo De Medici, key figure in the bloc and ruler of Florence. In 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded the Italian Peninsula and occupied the Kingdom of Naples on the ground of a dynastic claim. However, he was forced to leave the occupied territories after a northern Italian alliance won a tactical victory against him at the Battle of Fornovo. In an attempt to avoid the mistakes of his predecessor, Louis XII annexed the Duchy of Milan in the north of Italy and signed an agreement with Ferdinand of Aragon (already ruler of Sicily and Sardinia) to share the Kingdom of Naples. Nevertheless, Ferdinand of Aragon turned on Louis XII and expelled French forces from the Mezzogiorno after the battles of Cerignola and Garigliano.
After a series of alliances and betrayals, the Papacy decided to side against French control of Milan and supported Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and heir of Aragon territories in Italy. Following the battles of Bicocca and Pavia, France lost its control of Milan to the Habsburgs. However, mutinous German Protestant troops of Charles V sacked Rome in 1527: this event was a turning point in the development of the European Wars of Religion and caused Charles V to focus on the growth of Protestantism in the Holy Roman Empire.
King Henry II of France took advantage of the situation and tried to establish supremacy in Italy by invading Corsica and Tuscany. However, his conquest of Corsica was reversed by the Genoese admiral Andrea Doria and his troops in Tuscany were defeated at the Battle of Scannagallo by the Florentines and the Imperials. With the abdication of Charles V, Philip II of Spain inherited Milan and the Mezzogiorno. The last significant confrontation, the Battle of St Quentin (1557), was won by Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy for the Spanish and international forces: this led the restoration of the French-occupied Piedmont (predecessor state of Italy) to the House of Savoy.
In 1559, the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis was signed. The political map of Italy was largely affected by the end of the wars: the Mezzogiorno and Milan were under Spanish control; the House of Savoy settled in Turin and made Italian its official language; Florence absorbed Siena into a Tuscan state; and the Papacy initiated the counter-reformation with the Council of Trent. In a jousting tournament held to celebrate the peace treaty, Henry II of France was killed by a lance: the instability that followed his death led to the French Wars of Religion.John Russell (bishop)
John Russell (died 30 December 1494) was an English Bishop of Rochester and bishop of Lincoln and Lord Chancellor.List of sovereign states in 1494
The notion of a sovereign state arises in the mid-16th century with the development of modern diplomacy.
For earlier times, the term "sovereign state" is an anachronism. What corresponded to sovereign states in the medieval and ancient period were monarchs ruling By the Grace of God, de facto feudal or imperial autocrats, or de facto independent nations or tribal confederations.Min Ran Aung
Min Ran Aung (Burmese: မင်းရန်အောင်, Burmese pronunciation: [mɪ́ɴ jàɴ ʔàʊɴ]; Arakanese pronunciation: [máɴ ɹàɴ ʔàʊɴ]; also known as Noori Shah; 1485–1494) was king of Arakan for six months in 1494. The eldest son of King Dawlya was only 8 when he was put on the throne by the ministers after his uncle King Ba Saw Nyo's death. The ministers also married the young boy to Saw Shin Saw, daughter of Ba Saw Nyo and his cousin. Still a child, the king had no interest in governing and spent much of the time playing. However, the ministers' belief that they could control the boy king was greatly shaken when the young king on a whim had one of the ministers drowned in a well. Concerned by the erratic behavior and for their own safety, the remaining ministers beheaded the king and handed the throne to his maternal uncle Salingathu.During his short reign, the young king commissioned the construction of Htupayon Pagoda in the northern sector of Mrauk-U. The pagoda was considered auspicious by later Mrauk-U kings who visited its precincts after the coronation ceremony to take an oath for the well being of the country during their reign.Treaty of Tordesillas
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas [tɾɐˈtaðu ðɨ tuɾðeˈziʎɐʃ], Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas [tɾaˈtaðo ðe toɾðeˈsiʎas]), signed at Tordesillas in Spain on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa. This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde islands (already Portuguese) and the islands entered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage (claimed for Castile and León), named in the treaty as Cipangu and Antilia (Cuba and Hispaniola).
The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Castile. The treaty was signed by Spain, 2 July 1494, and by Portugal, 5 September 1494. The other side of the world was divided a few decades later by the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 22 April 1529, which specified the antimeridian to the line of demarcation specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas. Originals of both treaties are kept at the General Archive of the Indies in Spain and at the Torre do Tombo National Archive in Portugal.This treaty would be observed fairly well by Spain and Portugal, despite considerable ignorance as to the geography of the New World; however, it omitted all of the other European powers. Those countries generally ignored the treaty, particularly those that became Protestant after the Protestant Reformation.
The treaty was included by UNESCO in 2007 in its Memory of the World Programme.USS Goliah (SP-1494)
USS Goliah (SP-1494), also listed as ID-1494, was an armed tug that served in the United States Navy as a patrol vessel and tug from 1918 to 1919.
SS Goliah was built as a commercial tug in 1907 by John H. Dialogue and Sons at Camden, New Jersey. The Navy purchased her from her owners, the Puget Sound Tug Company of Seattle, Washington, on 6 December 1917 for World War I service. She was commissioned as USS Goliah (SP-1494) on 31 January 1918 at Mare Island Navy Yard at Vallejo, California, with Lieutenant Werner Tornroth, USNRF, in command.
Following shakedown, Goliah towed coal barges between San Diego, California; Mare Island Navy Yard; and San Pedro, California, until 3 March 1918, when she departed San Diego for the United States East Coast. She arrived at Norfolk, Virginia, on 8 April 1918 and during the next month made four voyages between New London, Connecticut, and New York City with stores and ammunition. After a voyage to Bermuda and the Azores between 18 May 1918 and 24 June 1918 as an escort tug, she arrived at New York City for overhaul, where she stayed until 8 August 1918. She then briefly served at New London as a patrol craft.
Departing New London on 6 September 1918, Goliah operated as a towing ship between São Miguel Island in the Azores, Bermuda, and New London until arriving at Brest, France on 26 November 1918. There she took up new duties as a rescue and towing tug for convoys operating out of Brest to English ports and occasionally to Copenhagen, Denmark, and Lisbon, Portugal, until she arrived back at Brest on 24 April 1919.
Goliah performed harbor towing work at Brest until she was decommissioned on 29 November 1919.
The U.S. Navy loaned Goliah to the United States Shipping Board on 30 November 1919 and transferred her to the Shipping Board's permanent custody and control on 7 October 1921.