1475

Year 1475 (MCDLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1475 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1475
MCDLXXV
Ab urbe condita2228
Armenian calendar924
ԹՎ ՋԻԴ
Assyrian calendar6225
Balinese saka calendar1396–1397
Bengali calendar882
Berber calendar2425
English Regnal year14 Edw. 4 – 15 Edw. 4
Buddhist calendar2019
Burmese calendar837
Byzantine calendar6983–6984
Chinese calendar甲午(Wood Horse)
4171 or 4111
    — to —
乙未年 (Wood Goat)
4172 or 4112
Coptic calendar1191–1192
Discordian calendar2641
Ethiopian calendar1467–1468
Hebrew calendar5235–5236
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1531–1532
 - Shaka Samvat1396–1397
 - Kali Yuga4575–4576
Holocene calendar11475
Igbo calendar475–476
Iranian calendar853–854
Islamic calendar879–880
Japanese calendarBunmei 7
(文明7年)
Javanese calendar1391–1392
Julian calendar1475
MCDLXXV
Korean calendar3808
Minguo calendar437 before ROC
民前437年
Nanakshahi calendar7
Thai solar calendar2017–2018
Tibetan calendar阳木马年
(male Wood-Horse)
1601 or 1220 or 448
    — to —
阴木羊年
(female Wood-Goat)
1602 or 1221 or 449

Events

January–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 185–187. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  2. ^ Mendel, Menachem (2007). "The Earliest Printed Book in Hebrew". Retrieved December 9, 2011.
  3. ^ "Book of Nature". World Digital Library. August 7, 2013. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
1470s in England

Events from the 1470s in England.

1470s in art

The decade of the 1470s in art involved some significant events.

1475 in France

Events from the year 1475 in France

1475 in Ireland

Events from the year 1475 in Ireland.

15th century in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 15th century.

See also: 15th century in poetry, 14th century in literature, 16th century in literature, list of years in literature.

Adoration of the Magi (Botticelli, 1475)

The Adoration of the Magi is a painting by the Italian Renaissance master Sandro Botticelli, dating from 1475 or 1476, early in his career. The work is on display at the Uffizi in Florence. Botticelli was commissioned to paint at least seven versions of The Adoration of the Magi. This version was commissioned by Gaspare di Zanobi del Lama for his funerary chapel in Santa Maria Novella.

Battle of Vaslui

The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova) was fought on 10 January 1475, between Stephen III of Moldavia and the Ottoman governor of Rumelia, Hadım Suleiman Pasha. The battle took place at Podul Înalt (the High Bridge), near the town of Vaslui, in Moldavia (now part of eastern Romania). The Ottoman troops numbered up to 120,000, facing about 40,000 Moldavian troops, plus smaller numbers of allied and mercenary troops.Stephen inflicted a decisive defeat on the Ottomans, described as "the greatest ever secured by Christianity against Islam," with casualties, according to Venetian and Polish records, reaching beyond 40,000 on the Ottoman side. Mara Brankovic (Mara Hatun), the former younger wife of Murad II, told a Venetian envoy that the invasion had been the worst ever defeat for the Ottomans. Stephen was later awarded the title "Athleta Christi" (Champion of Christ) by Pope Sixtus IV, who referred to him as "verus christianae fidei athleta" ("the true defender of the Christian faith").According to the Polish chronicler Jan Długosz, Stephen did not celebrate his victory; instead, he fasted for forty days on bread and water and forbade anyone to attribute the victory to him, insisting that credit be given only to the Lord.

Cherusseri Namboothiri

Cherusseri Namboothiri is a 15th-century Malayalam poet who belonged to Kolathunadu in northern Kerala. He was a court poet of Udaya Varma (1446-1475) and the author of Krishna Gatha, a poem which is considered a landmark in the development of Malayalam literature.

Cherusseri Namboothiri is believed to have lived between 1375 and 1475 CE. He was born in Kaanathoor village in Kolathunadu or Kolaththiri Desam (now Kannur district, Kerala). Several scholars like P. K. Narayana Pillai and P. Govinda Pillai hold the view that Cherusseri was the name of the Namboothiri's ancestral house (Illam). However, according to T. K. Balakrishnan Nair, there were 12 cheris in Kolathnadu and the smallest of them was called Cheru-Cheri (Cheru-small; Cheri-an extent of a place) which has finally taken the form of Cherusseri. There aren't many details recorded in history about the life of this poet. There is some dispute about the author's name and his identity. Some scholars are of opinion that he was the same as the Punam Namboothiri of the Champu literature. The difference between the style of Krishna Gatha and that of any of the Champus however refutes this argument. A few lines in the opening stanzas of Krishna Gatha clarify that he was a court poet in the palace of the king Udaya Varma, who then ruled Kolathunadu: "Paalaazhi maaruthan paalichchu porunna Kolathu Nathan Udayavarman Aajnaye cholliyaal ajnanaayullava njaan Praajnaayingane bhaavichchappol" (When the king who rules the Kolath dhesam commands, the ignorant me pretend to be a talented one). Cherusseri's living period has been decided based on the historical record of King Udayavarman's period of reign.

His story about Akruran visiting Ambadi to meet kannan is very famous. His various thoughts Are Portrayed in this story.Krishna Gatha is a long poem of epical dimensions written at the behest of Udaya Varma. It is the first Maha Kavya in Malayalam. Udaya Varma rewarded him with the title Veerasrinkhala and other honors. Cherusseri is the originator of the Gatha style of poetry in Malayalam. Krishna Gatha is the detailed description of the boyhood pranks of Lord Krishna based on the 10th canto of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, an early Puranic text. Cherusseri's importance lies in his clear inclination towards native tongue, by which his poetry became popular among the people of Kerala. With the writing of Krishna Gatha, the validity of the use of spoken Malayalam for literary purposes received its ultimate justification. Unlike the language of Cheeraman's Ramacharitam and the works of the Niranam poets, the language of Krishna Gatha marks the culmination of a stage of evolution. This work has been respected by the people of Kerala similar to Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan's Adhyathmaramayanam (Ezhuthachan is known as the father of modern Malayalam literature). The legend is that Cherusseri was inspired by a lullaby and followed the same metrical pattern for the composition of Krishna Gatha. It is written in a melodious metre known as manjari.

Krishna Gatha is used in India for daily recitation as an act of worship of Krishna during the Malayalam month Chingam (August - September) by devout Malayali Hindus. The sonorous poetry Krishna Gatha depicts the exploits of Lord Krishna. It is in Krishna Gatha that we see a diction which is similar to that of the present day. The theme deals with the story of Lord Krishna. The sweet and tender aspects of maternal love are wonderfully portrayed in this work. As there are lengthy beautiful descriptions with lavish use of adjectives throughout the poetical work, the composition is quite interesting and enjoyable. Feelings of passion, devotion, humor, and warmth are all discovered at a superior level, singly in a natural style and with equal measure. Other than Krishna Gaatha, Bhaaratha Gaatha is also considered to be Cherusseri's composition.

Dieric Bouts

Dieric Bouts (born c. 1415 – 6 May 1475) was an Early Netherlandish painter.

Very little is known about Bouts' early life, but he was greatly influenced by Jan van Eyck and by Rogier van der Weyden, under whom he may have studied. He is first documented in Leuven in 1457 and worked there until his death in 1475.

Bouts was among the first northern painters to demonstrate the use of a single vanishing point (as illustrated in his Last Supper). His work has a certain primitive stiffness of drawing, and his figures are often disproportionately long and angular, but his pictures are highly expressive, well designed and rich in colour, with especially good landscape backgrounds.

Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick

Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick (25 February 1475 – 28 November 1499) was the son of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, and a potential claimant to the English throne during the reigns of both Richard III (1483–1485) and his successor, Henry VII (1485–1509). He was also a younger brother of Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury.

Formicarius

The Formicarius, written 1436-1438 by Johannes Nider during the Council of Basel and first printed in 1475, is the second book ever printed to discuss witchcraft (the first book being Fortalitium Fidei). Nider dealt specifically with witchcraft in the fifth section of the book. Unlike his successors, he did not emphasize the idea of the Witches' Sabbath and was skeptical of the claim that witches could fly by night. With over 25 manuscript copies from fifteenth and early sixteenth century editions from the 1470s to 1692, the Formicarius is an important work for the study of the origins of the witch trials in Early Modern Europe, as it sheds light on their earliest phase during the first half of the 15th century.Nider was one of the first to transform the idea of sorcery to its more modern perception of witchcraft. Prior to the fifteenth century, magic was thought to be performed by educated males who performed intricate rituals. In Nider's Formicarius, the witch is described as uneducated and more commonly female. The idea that any persons could perform acts of magic simply by devoting themselves to the devil scared people of this time and proved to be one of the many factors that led people to begin fearing magic. The idea that the magician was primarily female was also shocking to some. Nider explained that females were capable of such acts by pointing out what he considered their inferior physical, mental and moral capacity.The work is further of note for its information regarding notably infamous figures of the time, one of whom was the sorcerer Scavius, who reputedly escaped his enemies on multiple occasions by metamorphosing into a mouse. Prior to his death Scavius was responsible for the tutelage of Stedelen in witchcraft.

The title is Latin for "the ant colony", an allusion to Proverbs 6:6. Nider used the ant colony as a metaphor for a harmonious society.

Groombridge 34

Groombridge 34 is a binary star system in the northern constellation of Andromeda. It was listed as entry number 34 in A Catalogue of Circumpolar Stars, published posthumously in 1838 by British astronomer Stephen Groombridge. Based upon parallax measurements taken by the Gaia spacecraft, the system is located about 11.6 light-years from the Sun. This positions the pair among the nearest stars to the Solar System.

Both components are small, dim red dwarf stars that are too faint to be seen with the naked eye. They orbit around their common barycenter in a nearly circular orbit with a separation of about 147 AU and a period of around 2,600 years. Both stars exhibit random variation in luminosity due to flares and they have been given variable star designations: the brighter member Groombridge 34 A is designated GX And, while the smaller component is designated GQ And.The star system has a relatively high proper motion of 2.9 arc seconds per year, and is moving away from the Solar System at a velocity of 11.6 km/s. It achieved perihelion some 15,000 years ago when it came within 11 ly (3.5 pc) of the Sun.

Michelangelo

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (; Italian: [mikeˈlandʒelo di lodoˈviːko ˌbwɔnarˈrɔːti siˈmoːni]; 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Considered by many the greatest artist of his lifetime, and by some the greatest artist of all time, his artistic versatility was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his rival, the fellow Florentine and client of the Medici, Leonardo da Vinci.A number of Michelangelo's works of painting, sculpture and architecture rank among the most famous in existence. His output in these fields was prodigious; given the sheer volume of surviving correspondence, sketches and reminiscences, he is the best-documented artist of the 16th century. He sculpted two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, before the age of thirty. Despite holding a low opinion of painting, he also created two of the most influential frescoes in the history of Western art: the scenes from Genesis on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome, and The Last Judgment on its altar wall. His design of the Laurentian Library pioneered Mannerist architecture. At the age of 74, he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peter's Basilica. He transformed the plan so that the western end was finished to his design, as was the dome, with some modification, after his death.

Michelangelo was the first Western artist whose biography was published while he was alive. In fact, two biographies were published during his lifetime. One of them, by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that Michelangelo's work transcended that of any artist living or dead, and was "supreme in not one art alone but in all three".In his lifetime, Michelangelo was often called Il Divino ("the divine one"). His contemporaries often admired his terribilità—his ability to instil a sense of awe. Attempts by subsequent artists to imitate Michelangelo's impassioned, highly personal style resulted in Mannerism, the next major movement in Western art after the High Renaissance.

Möldri, Saare County

Mõldri is a village in Saaremaa Parish, Saare County, Estonia, on the island of Saaremaa. As of 2011 Census, the settlement's population was 15.Before the administrative reform in 2017, the village was in Salme Parish.

Old Queen's Head

The Old Queen's Head is a pub at 14 Pond Hill, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It is a 15th-century timber framed building and the oldest surviving domestic building in Sheffield. It is now Grade II* listed.

Ottaviano Maria Sforza

Ottaviano Maria Sforza (1475–1545) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Titular Patriarch of Alexandria (1541–1545), Bishop of Terracina, Priverno e Sezze (1541–1545), Bishop of Arezzo (1519–1525), and Bishop of Lodi (1497–1499, 1512–1519 and 1527–1530).

Paolo Uccello

Paolo Uccello (Italian pronunciation: [ˈpaːolo utˈtʃɛllo]; 1397 – 10 December 1475), born Paolo di Dono, was an Italian painter and mathematician who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art. In his book Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects Giorgio Vasari wrote that Uccello was obsessed by his interest in perspective and would stay up all night in his study trying to grasp the exact vanishing point. While his contemporaries used perspective to narrate different or succeeding stories, Uccello used perspective to create a feeling of depth in his paintings. His best known works are the three paintings representing the battle of San Romano, which were wrongly entitled the "Battle of Sant' Egidio of 1416" for a long period of time.Paolo worked in the Late Gothic tradition, emphasizing colour and pageantry rather than the classical realism that other artists were pioneering. His style is best described as idiosyncratic, and he left no school of followers. He has had some influence on twentieth-century art and literary criticism (e.g., in the "Vies imaginaires" by Marcel Schwob, "Uccello le poil" by Antonin Artaud and "O Mundo Como Ideia" by Bruno Tolentino).

Radu cel Frumos

Radu III the Fair, Radu III the Handsome or Radu III the Beautiful (Romanian: Radu cel Frumos), also known by his Turkish name Radu Bey (1437/1439—1475), was the younger brother of Vlad III and voivode (war-lord or a prince) of the principality of Wallachia. They were both sons of Vlad II Dracul and his wife, Princess Cneajna of Moldavia. In addition to Vlad III, Radu also had two older siblings, Mircea II and Vlad Călugărul, both of whom would also briefly rule Wallachia.

Sebastiano Serlio

Sebastiano Serlio (6 September 1475 – c. 1554) was an Italian Mannerist architect, who was part of the Italian team building the Palace of Fontainebleau. Serlio helped canonize the classical orders of architecture in his influential treatise variously known as I sette libri dell'architettura ("Seven Books of Architecture") or Tutte l'opere d'architettura et prospetiva ("All the works on architecture and perspective").

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