1471

Year 1471 (MCDLXXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1471 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1471
MCDLXXI
Ab urbe condita2224
Armenian calendar920
ԹՎ ՋԻ
Assyrian calendar6221
Balinese saka calendar1392–1393
Bengali calendar878
Berber calendar2421
English Regnal year10 Edw. 4 – 11 Edw. 4
Buddhist calendar2015
Burmese calendar833
Byzantine calendar6979–6980
Chinese calendar庚寅(Metal Tiger)
4167 or 4107
    — to —
辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
4168 or 4108
Coptic calendar1187–1188
Discordian calendar2637
Ethiopian calendar1463–1464
Hebrew calendar5231–5232
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1527–1528
 - Shaka Samvat1392–1393
 - Kali Yuga4571–4572
Holocene calendar11471
Igbo calendar471–472
Iranian calendar849–850
Islamic calendar875–876
Japanese calendarBunmei 3
(文明3年)
Javanese calendar1387–1388
Julian calendar1471
MCDLXXI
Korean calendar3804
Minguo calendar441 before ROC
民前441年
Nanakshahi calendar3
Thai solar calendar2013–2014
Tibetan calendar阳金虎年
(male Iron-Tiger)
1597 or 1216 or 444
    — to —
阴金兔年
(female Iron-Rabbit)
1598 or 1217 or 445

Events

January–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Wilks, Ivor (1997). "Wangara, Akan and Portuguese in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries". In Bakewell, Peter. Mines of Silver and Gold in the Americas. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 1–39.
  2. ^ Francisco, Albertino; Agostinho, Nujoma (2011). Exorcising Devils from the Throne: São Tomé and Príncipe in the Chaos of Democratization. p. 28. ISBN 9780875868486.
'Abd al-'Aziz al-Wafa'i

Abd al-'Aziz ibn Muhammad al-Qahiri al-Wafa'i known as Ibn al-Aqba'i (1408–1471) was an Egyptian astronomer and mathematician in the 15th century. He was born in 811 H.E. (1408 AD) and died in 876 H.E (1471 AD). Some sources say that he died in 874 or 879 H.E. He was a student of Ibn al-Majdi and Nur al-din al-Naqqash. He became a time keeper at the Mu'ayyad Mosque in Cairo. He also became the chief of the time keepers of the Azhar mosque and the Maridani Mosque. He was interested in the calculation of the local times of cities based on their latitude and longitude. He invented an astronomical device called Da'irah al-Mu'addal.He wrote about 40 books and 20 treatises on mathematics and astronomy, none of them published. Among his works is the manuscript Risalah al-'Amal bi al-Rub' al-Mujayyab

1471 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1471 (August 6–9) elected Pope Sixtus IV following the death of Pope Paul II. With the exception of the conclaves of the Western Schism, this conclave was the first since 1305 to feature a working, two-thirds majority of Italians within the College of Cardinals, in no small part because of the absence of six non-Italian cardinals. This was in part due to the unexpectedness of the death of Paul II.

Battle of Barnet

The Battle of Barnet was a decisive engagement in the Wars of the Roses, a dynastic conflict of 15th-century England. The military action, along with the subsequent Battle of Tewkesbury, secured the throne for Edward IV. On 14 April 1471 near Barnet, then a small Hertfordshire town north of London, Edward led the House of York in a fight against the House of Lancaster, which backed Henry VI for the throne. Leading the Lancastrian army was Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, who played a crucial role in the fate of each king. Historians regard the battle as one of the most important clashes in the Wars of the Roses, since it brought about a decisive turn in the fortunes of the two houses. Edward's victory was followed by 14 years of Yorkist rule over England.

Formerly a key figure in the Yorkist cause, Warwick defected to the Lancastrians over disagreements about Edward's nepotism, secret marriage and foreign policy. Leading a Lancastrian army, the earl defeated his former allies, forcing Edward to flee to Burgundy in October 1470. The Yorkist king persuaded his host, Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, to help him regain the English throne. Leading an army raised with Burgundian money, Edward launched his invasion of England, which culminated at the fields north of Barnet. Under cover of darkness, the Yorkists moved close to the Lancastrians and clashed in a thick fog at dawn. As both armies fought, the Earl of Oxford on the Lancastrian right routed the Yorkists opposite under Lord Hastings, chasing them back to Barnet. On their return to the battlefield, Oxford's men were erroneously shot at by the Lancastrian centre commanded by Lord Montagu. As cries of treason (always a possibility in that chaotic period) spread through their line, Lancastrian morale was disrupted and many abandoned the fight. While retreating, Warwick was killed by Yorkist soldiers.

Warwick had been such an influential figure in 15th-century English politics that, on his death, no one matched him in terms of power and popularity. Deprived of Warwick's support, the Lancastrians suffered their final defeat at the Battle of Tewkesbury on 4 May, which marked the end of the reign of Henry VI and the readeption of the House of York. Three centuries after the Battle of Barnet, a stone obelisk was raised on the spot where Warwick purportedly died.

Capitoline Museums

The Capitoline Museums (Italian: Musei Capitolini) is a single museum containing a group of art and archaeological museums in Piazza del Campidoglio, on top of the Capitoline Hill in Rome, Italy. The historic seats of the museums are Palazzo dei Conservatori and Palazzo Nuovo, facing on the central trapezoidal piazza in a plan conceived by Michelangelo in 1536 and executed over a period of more than 400 years. The history of the museums can be traced to 1471, when Pope Sixtus IV donated a collection of important ancient bronzes to the people of Rome and located them on the Capitoline Hill. Since then, the museums' collection has grown to include a large number of ancient Roman statues, inscriptions, and other artifacts; a collection of medieval and Renaissance art; and collections of jewels, coins, and other items. The museums are owned and operated by the municipality of Rome.

The statue of a mounted rider in the centre of the piazza is of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. It is a copy, the original being housed on-site in the Capitoline museum.

Opened to the public in 1734 under Clement XII, the Capitoline Museums are considered the first museum in the world, understood as a place where art could be enjoyed by all and not only by the owners.

Cham–Vietnamese War (1471)

The Cham-Đại Việt War of 1471 was a military expedition launched by Emperor Lê Thánh Tông of Đại Việt, and is widely regarded as the event that marked the downfall of Champa. The Đại Việt forces attacked and sacked the kingdom's largest city-state, Vijaya, and defeated the Cham army. When the conflict was resolved, Champa was forced to cede territory to Annam, and was no longer a threat to Annamese territory.

Conquest of Asilah

The Portuguese conquest of Asilah (Arabic: أصيلة، أرزيلة‎; Portuguese: Arzila) from the Wattasids took place on 24 August 1471.

Edmund Beaufort (died 1471)

Edmund Beaufort (c. 1438 – 6 May 1471), styled 4th Duke of Somerset, was an English nobleman, and a military commander during the Wars of the Roses, in which he supported King Henry VI.

Edward IV of England

Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 to reign in peace until his sudden death. Before becoming king, he was Duke of York, Earl of March, Earl of Cambridge and Earl of Ulster.

Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales

Edward of Westminster (13 October 1453 – 4 May 1471), also known as Edward of Lancaster, was the only son of King Henry VI of England and Margaret of Anjou. He was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury, making him the only heir apparent to the English throne to die in battle.

Frederick I of Denmark

Frederick I (7 October 1471 – 10 April 1533) was the King of Denmark and Norway. His name is also spelled Frederik in Danish and Norwegian,

Friedrich in German and Fredrik in Swedish. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over Denmark, when subsequent monarchs embraced Lutheranism after the Protestant Reformation. As King of Norway, Frederick is most remarkable in never having visited the country and was never crowned King of Norway. Therefore, he was styled King of Denmark, the Vends and the Goths, elected King of Norway.

George of Poděbrady

George of Kunštát and Poděbrady (23 April 1420 – 22 March 1471), also known as Poděbrad or Podiebrad (Czech: Jiří z Poděbrad; German: Georg von Podiebrad), was King of Bohemia (1458–1471). He was a leader of the Hussites. He is known for his idea and attempt to establish common European institutions. It is seen as the first historical vision of European unity.

Grgeteg Monastery

The Grgeteg Monastery (Serbian: Манастир Гргетег / Manastir Grgeteg) is a Serb Orthodox monastery on the Fruška Gora mountain in the northern Serbia, in the province of Vojvodina. According to tradition, the monastery was founded by Zmaj Ognjeni Vuk (Despot Vuk Grgurević) in 1471. The earliest historical records about the monastery date back to 1545/1546. The monastery had been deserted before the 1690 Great Migration of the Serbs, but a renewal, undertaken by Bishop Isaija Đaković, took place in 1708. Around 1770, the extant baroque church was erected and it underwent restoration in 1898 under the guiding hand of Hermann Bollé. It was then that the residential buildings which enclose the church from all four sides were reconstructed.The first walled rocaille iconostasis in the church interior was painted and inlaid by Jakov Orfelin in 1774-1775. The extant iconostasis is a 1902 work of Uroš Predić.

Grgeteg Monastery was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1990, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia.

Henry VI of England

Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months upon his father's death, and succeeded to the French throne on the death of his maternal grandfather Charles VI shortly afterwards.

Henry inherited the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453), in which his uncle Charles VII contested his claim to the French throne. He is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henry II), in 1431. His early reign, when several people were ruling for him, saw the pinnacle of English power in France, but subsequent military, diplomatic, and economic problems had seriously endangered the English cause by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437. He found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Unlike his father, Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. His ineffective reign saw the gradual loss of the English lands in France. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, in 1445 Henry married Charles VII's niece, the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou. The peace policy failed, leading to the murder of one of Henry's key advisers, and the war recommenced, with France taking the upper hand; by 1453, Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.

As the situation in France worsened, there was a related increase in political instability in England. With Henry effectively unfit to rule, power was exercised by quarrelsome nobles, while factions and favourites encouraged the rise of disorder in the country. Regional magnates and soldiers returning from France formed and maintained increasing numbers of private armed retainers, with which they fought one another, terrorised their neighbors, paralysed the courts, and dominated the government. Queen Margaret did not remain unpartisan, and took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne.

Amidst military disasters in France and a collapse of law and order in England, the queen and her clique came under criticism, coming especially from Henry VI's increasingly popular cousin Richard of the House of York, of misconduct of the war in France and misrule of the country. Starting in 1453, Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns, and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York over control of the incapacitated king's government, and over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1455, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29 March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Despite Margaret continuing to lead a resistance to Edward, he was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Henry was restored to the throne in 1470, but Edward retook power in 1471, killing Henry's only son and heir in battle and imprisoning Henry once again.

Having "lost his wits, his two kingdoms, and his only son", Henry died in the Tower during the night of 21 May, possibly killed on the orders of Edward. Miracles were attributed to Henry after his death, and he was informally regarded as a saint and martyr until the 16th century. He left a legacy of educational institutions, having founded Eton College, King's College, Cambridge, and All Souls College, Oxford. Shakespeare wrote a trilogy of plays about his life, depicting him as weak-willed and easily influenced by his wife, Margaret.

IEEE 1471

IEEE 1471 is a superseded IEEE Standard for describing the architecture of a "software-intensive system", also known as software architecture.

In 2011 it was superseded by ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010:2011, Systems and software engineering — Architecture description.

Isabella of Portugal, Duchess of Burgundy

Isabella of Portugal (22 February 1397 – 17 December 1471) was Duchess of Burgundy as the third wife of Duke Philip the Good. Born a Portuguese infanta of the House of Aviz, Isabella was the only surviving daughter of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster. Her son by Philip was Charles the Bold, the last Valois Duke of Burgundy. Isabella was the regent of the Burgundian Low Countries during the absence of her spouse in 1432 and in 1441–1443. She served as her husband's representative in negotiations with England regarding trade relations in 1439 and those with the rebellious cities of Holland in 1444.

Kiev Voivodeship

The Kiev Voivodeship (Polish: Województwo kijowskie, Ukrainian: Київське воєводство, Kyivske voyevodstvo) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1471 until 1569 and of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland from 1569 until 1793, as part of Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown.

The voivodeship was established in 1471 upon the death of the last prince of Kiev Simeon Olelkovich and transformation of Duchy of Kiev (appanage duchy of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) into Voivodeship of Kiov (Kiovien Voivodeship).

Lophotrochozoa

Lophotrochozoa (, "crest/wheel animals") is a clade of protostome animals within the Spiralia. The taxon was established as a monophyletic group based on molecular evidence.

Pachacuti

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (Quechua: Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki) was the ninth Sapa Inca (1418–1471/1472) of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu). Most archaeologists now believe that the famous Inca site of Machu Picchu was built as an estate for Pachacuti.In Quechua Pachakutiq means "he who overturns space and time" (though more commonly translated as "earth shaker"), and Yupanki means "with honor". During his reign, Cusco grew from a hamlet into an empire that could compete with, and eventually overtake, the Chimú. He began an era of conquest that, within three generations, expanded the Inca dominion from the valley of Cusco to nearly the whole of western South America. According to chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega, Pachacuti created the Inti Raymi to celebrate the new year in the Andes of the Southern Hemisphere. Pachacuti is often linked to the origin and expansion of the Inti Sun Cult.

Pope Paul II

Pope Paul II (Latin: Paulus II; 23 February 1417 – 26 July 1471), born Pietro Barbo, was Pope from 30 August 1464 to his death in 1471.

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