Year 1469 (MCDLXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1469 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1469
Ab urbe condita2222
Armenian calendar918
Assyrian calendar6219
Balinese saka calendar1390–1391
Bengali calendar876
Berber calendar2419
English Regnal yearEdw. 4 – 9 Edw. 4
Buddhist calendar2013
Burmese calendar831
Byzantine calendar6977–6978
Chinese calendar戊子(Earth Rat)
4165 or 4105
    — to —
己丑年 (Earth Ox)
4166 or 4106
Coptic calendar1185–1186
Discordian calendar2635
Ethiopian calendar1461–1462
Hebrew calendar5229–5230
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1525–1526
 - Shaka Samvat1390–1391
 - Kali Yuga4569–4570
Holocene calendar11469
Igbo calendar469–470
Iranian calendar847–848
Islamic calendar873–874
Japanese calendarŌnin 3 / Bunmei 1
Javanese calendar1385–1386
Julian calendar1469
Korean calendar3802
Minguo calendar443 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar1
Thai solar calendar2011–2012
Tibetan calendar阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
1595 or 1214 or 442
    — to —
(female Earth-Ox)
1596 or 1215 or 443





1460s in England

Events from the 1460s in England.

1469 in Ireland

Events from the year 1469 in Ireland.

Alonso de Fonseca y Acevedo

Alonso de Fonseca y Acevedo (also Alonso II de Fonseca) (1440 – 12 March 1512) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela (1460–1465 and 1469–1507), and Archbishop of Seville (1465–1469).

Baron of Renfrew (title)

Baron of Renfrew is a dignity held by the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles. It was held by the Scottish heir apparent beginning in 1404. It is closely associated with the title Duke of Rothesay. An act of the Scottish Parliament passed in 1469 confirmed the pattern of succession. Renfrew, a town near Glasgow, is sometimes called the "cradle of the royal Stewarts."

In Scotland, barons hold feudal titles, not peerages: a Scottish lord of Parliament equates to an English or British baron. Some, however, claim that the Act of 1469 effectively elevated the Barony of Renfrew to the dignity of a peerage. Others suggest that the barony became a peerage upon the Union of the Crowns in 1603. Finally, some scholars argue that the uncertainty surrounding the text of the 1469 Act leaves the barony as only a feudal dignity, not a peerage dignity. The title of Lord Renfrew was used by the traveling Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII and Prince Edward, Duke of Rothesay, later King Edward VIII and Duke of Windsor, when he traveled in a private capacity or when he wished to pay visits 'incognito'.

Binnya Ran II

Binnya Ran II (Burmese: ဒုတိယ ဗညားရံ, pronounced [dṵtḭja̰ bəɲá jàɴ]; Mon: ဗညားရာံ; 1469–1526) the 17th king of the Kingdom of Hanthawaddy in Burma from 1492 to 1526. He was revered for his gentleness although his first act as king was to enforce the massacre of the kinsmen, putting all the royal offspring to death.During the confusion of Binnya Ran's ascension, Mingyi Nyo of Toungoo who at the time was a vassal of Ava, without King Minkhaung II's permission, sent a probing raid into Hanthawaddy territory. Binnya Ran II sent in a retaliatory raid of the city of Toungoo itself. After the show of force, Hanthawaddy was free of any incursions.

In 1501, he assembled an army of thousands to travel up the Irrawaddy river to pay pilgrimage to the Shwezigon Pagoda at Pagan inside Ava's territory. When the king of Prome, a small kingdom wedged between Ava and Hanthawaddy, checked him, he replied: "I could conquer both you and Ava but I do not wish. I only wish to worship before the Shwezigon". He returned peacefully after having worshiped there.


Bunmei (文明, "civilization") was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name") after Ōnin and before Chōkyō. This period spanned from April 1469 through July 1487. The reigning emperor was Go-Tsuchimikado-tennō (後土御門天皇).

Duke of Cornwall

Duke of Cornwall is a title in the Peerage of England, traditionally held by the eldest son of the reigning British monarch, previously the English monarch. The Duchy of Cornwall was the first duchy created in England and was established by royal charter in 1337. The present duke is the Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II. His wife, Camilla, is the current Duchess.

Duke of Rothesay

Duke of Rothesay (Scottish Gaelic: Diùc Baile Bhòid, Scots: Duik o Rothesay) is a dynastic title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles. It was a title of the heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707, of the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1707 to 1801, and now of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is the title mandated for use by the heir apparent when in Scotland, in preference to the titles Duke of Cornwall (which also belongs to the eldest living son of the monarch, when and only when he is also heir apparent, by right) and Prince of Wales (traditionally granted to the heir apparent), which are used in the rest of the United Kingdom and overseas. The Duke of Rothesay also holds other Scottish titles, including those of Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. The title is named after Rothesay on the Isle of Bute, Argyll and Bute, but is not associated with any legal entity or landed property, unlike the Duchy of Cornwall.

Earl of Buchan

The Mormaer () or Earl of Buchan () was originally the provincial ruler of the medieval province of Buchan. Buchan was the first Mormaerdom in the High Medieval Kingdom of the Scots to pass into the hands of a non-Scottish family in the male line. The earldom had three lines in its history, not counting passings from female heiresses to sons. Today it is held by the Erskine family as a peerage. The current holder is Malcolm Erskine, 17th Earl of Buchan (b. 1930).

Filippo Lippi

Fra' Filippo Lippi, O.Carm. (c. 1406 – 8 October 1469), also called Lippo Lippi, was an Italian painter of the Quattrocento (15th century).

Guru Nanak

Guru Nanak ([ˈɡʊɾu ˈnɑnək], pronunciation, IAST: Gurū Nānak) (29 November 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab on Kartik Pooranmashi, the full-moon day in the month of Katak, October–November.Guru Nanak travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one of His creations and constitutes the eternal Truth. He set up a unique spiritual, social, and political platform based on equality, fraternal love, goodness, and virtue.Guru Nanak's words are registered in the form of 974 poetic hymns in the holy text of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, with some of the major prayers being the Japji Sahib, the Asa di Var and the Sidh-Ghost. It is part of Sikh religious belief that the spirit of Guru Nanak's sanctity, divinity and religious authority descended upon each of the nine subsequent Gurus when the Guruship was devolved on to them.

List of Cambridge University Press journals

This list of Cambridge University Press journals includes all academic journals published by Cambridge Journals as of 7 October 2015, including journals no longer published or no longer published by Cambridge, but for which they still maintain archives. Several journals in this list are published by Cambridge in cooperation with or on behalf of other entities such as learned and professional societies. In these cases Cambridge provides publishing and printing, distribution, online archives, and other services on behalf of the original publisher.Cambridge Journals publishes journals under three main access policies: closed access, open access, and a hybrid model in which individual articles in an otherwise closed access journal is available under open access terms. Such articles are designated as open access by its author or publishing organisation at time of acceptance, and Cambridge Journals charges an article processing fee to cover their associated costs like peer-review, copy-editing, and typesetting. For articles published as open access in hybrid journals, Cambridge Journals applies what it terms its "double-dipping policy": for journals with more than a minimum share of open access articles (5%) and article processing fees (£5000), subscription rates are lowered for renewing subscribers the following year. In 2015, under this policy and using data from 2014, subscription renewal rates for 2016 were reduced for six journals by 2.6–7.7%. Articles published under open access terms may be licensed under one of several available Creative Commons licenses.

Manuel I of Portugal

Dom Manuel I (European Portuguese: [mɐnuˈɛɫ]; 31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521), the Fortunate (Port. o Afortunado), King of Portugal and the Algarves, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. His name is associated with a period of Portuguese history distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and in the arts. In spite of Portugal’s small size and population in comparison to the great European land powers of France, Italy and even Spain, the classical Portuguese Armada was the largest in the world at the time. During Manuel's reign Portugal was able to acquire an overseas empire of vast proportions, the first in world history to reach global dimensions. The landmark symbol of the period was the Portuguese discovery of Brazil and the South American subcontinent in April 1500.

Moctezuma I

Moctezuma I (c. 1398-1469), also known as Moteuczomatzin Ilhuicamina (modern Nahuatl pronunciation ), Huehuemoteuczoma or Montezuma I (Classical Nahuatl: Motēuczōma Ilhuicamīna [moteːkʷˈsoːma ilwikaˈmiːna], Classical Nahuatl: Huēhuemotēuczōma [weːwemoteːkʷˈsoːma]), was the second Aztec emperor and fifth king of Tenochtitlan. During his reign, the Aztec Empire was consolidated, major expansion was undertaken, and Tenochtitlan started becoming the dominant partner of the Aztec Triple Alliance. Often mistaken for his popular descendent, Moctezuma II, Moctezuma I greatly contributed to the famed Aztec Empire that thrived until Spanish arrival, and he ruled over a period of peace from 1440 to 1453. Moctezuma brought social, economical, and political reform to strengthen Aztec rule, and Tenochititlan benefited from relations with other tribes.

Piero di Cosimo de' Medici

Piero di Cosimo de' Medici (the Gouty), (Italian: Piero "il Gottoso") (1416 – 2 December 1469) was the de facto ruler of Florence from 1464 to 1469, during the Italian Renaissance.

Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers

Richard Woodville (or Wydeville), 1st Earl Rivers (1405 – 12 August 1469) was an English nobleman, best remembered as the father of Queen consort Elizabeth Woodville and the maternal grandfather of Edward V and the maternal great-grandfather of Henry VIII.

Rum Mehmed Pasha

Rum Mehmed Pasha (fl. 1466–d. 1470) was an Ottoman statesman, known for being the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1466 to 1469 and the main rival of Mahmud Pasha Angelovic. He was Greek, as his name suggests (Rum, "Greek").Upon the urging of Karamanlı Mehmet Pasha, Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror dismissed Rum Mehmed Pasha from office in 1469 and had him executed by drowning in 1470.

Timurid family tree

The family tree of the Timurid dynasty, the ruling family of the Timurid Empire and Mughal Empire, is listed below.

After the end of the Timurid Empire in 1507, the Mughal Empire was established in 1526 in South Asia by Babur, a descendant of Timur through his father and possibly a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. The dynasty he established is commonly known as the Mughal dynasty (see Mughal emperors). By the 17th century the Mughal Empire ruled most of the Indian subcontinent, but declined during the 18th century. The Timurid dynasty came to an end in 1857 after the Mughal Empire was dissolved by the British Empire, and Bahadur Shah II was exiled to Burma.

William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (died 1469)

William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke KG (c. 1423 – 27 July 1469), known as "Black William", was a Welsh nobleman, politician, and courtier. He was the son of William ap Thomas, founder of Raglan Castle, and Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam, and grandson of Dafydd Gam, an adherent of King Henry V of England.

His father had been an ally of Richard of York, and Herbert supported the Yorkist cause in the Wars of the Roses. In 1461 Herbert was rewarded by King Edward IV with the title Baron Herbert of Raglan (having assumed an English-style surname in place of the Welsh patronymic), and was invested as a Knight of the Garter.

Soon after the decisive Yorkist victory at the Battle of Towton in 1461, Herbert replaced Jasper Tudor as Earl of Pembroke which gave him control of Pembroke Castle. However, he fell out with Lord Warwick "the Kingmaker" in 1469, when Warwick turned against the King. William and his brother Richard were executed by the Lancastrians, now led by Warwick, after the Battle of Edgecote Moor, near Banbury.Herbert was succeeded by his son, William, but the earldom was surrendered in 1479. It was later revived for a grandson, another William Herbert, the son of Black William's illegitimate son, Sir Richard Herbert of Ewyas.

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