1462 Zamenhof

1462 Zamenhof, provisional designation 1938 CA, is a carbonaceous Themistian asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 27 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 6 February 1938, by Finnish astronomer Yrjö Väisälä at the Iso-Heikkilä Observatory in Finland.[12] The asteroid was named after L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto.[2] It is a recognized Zamenhof-Esperanto object.

1462 Zamenhof
Discovery [1]
Discovered byY. Väisälä
Discovery siteTurku Obs.
Discovery date6 February 1938
Designations
MPC designation(1462) Zamenhof
Named after
L. L. Zamenhof[2]
(creator of Esperanto)
1938 CA · 1963 TS
1964 VF2 · 1969 TU5
main-belt · (outer)
Themis[3][4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc53.72 yr (19,623 days)
Aphelion3.4958 AU
Perihelion2.8032 AU
3.1495 AU
Eccentricity0.1100
5.59 yr (2,042 days)
7.0433°
0° 10m 34.68s / day
Inclination0.9657°
24.810°
187.54°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions25.62 km (derived)[3]
25.91±0.55 km[5]
26.57±0.52 km[6]
27.366±0.166 km[7]
27.645±0.395 km[8]
10.2±0.6 h[9]
10.4±0.1 h[10]
0.087±0.015[5]
0.0891 (derived)[3]
0.1108±0.0319[8]
0.121±0.005[6]
C (assumed)[3]
10.80[6][8] · 11.20[1][3][5] · 11.31±0.32[11]

Orbit and classification

Zamenhof is a Themistian asteroid that belongs to the Themis family (602),[4] a very large family of carbonaceous asteroids, named after 24 Themis.[13]:23 It orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.8–3.5 AU once every 5 years and 7 months (2,042 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.11 and an inclination of 1° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The body's observation arc begins at the discovering observatory, one month prior to its official discovery observation.[12]

Physical characteristics

The Lightcurve Data Base assumes Zamenhof to be a common, carbonaceous C-type asteroid,[3] in agreement with the overall spectral type of the Themis family.[13]:23

Rotation period

Two rotational lightcurves of Zamenhof were obtained from photometric observations in 2006 and 2011. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 10.2 and 10.4 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.15 and 0.30 magnitude, respectively (U=2/2).[9][10]

Diameter and albedo

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Zamenhof measures between 25.91 and 27.645 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.087 and 0.121.[5][6][7][8]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0891 and a diameter of 25.62 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.2.[3]

Naming

This minor planet was named after L. L. Zamenhof (1859–1917), a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist and creator of Esperanto, a constructed international language.[2] This asteroid and 1421 Esperanto are considered to be the most remote Zamenhof-Esperanto objects (a monument or a place celebrating Zamenhof). The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 1350).[14]

References

  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1462 Zamenhof (1938 CA)" (2017-07-05 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1462) Zamenhof". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1462) Zamenhof. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 117. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1463. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (1462) Zamenhof". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  7. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  9. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1462) Zamenhof". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  10. ^ a b Menke, John; Cooney, Walt; Gross, John; Terrell, Dirk; Higgins, David (October 2008). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Menke Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (4): 155–160. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35..155M. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  11. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  12. ^ a b "1462 Zamenhof (1938 CA)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  13. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families. Asteroids IV. pp. 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. ISBN 9780816532131.
  14. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 October 2017.

External links

1421 Esperanto

1421 Esperanto, provisional designation 1936 FQ, is a dark background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 55 kilometers (34 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 18 March 1936, by Finnish astronomer Yrjö Väisälä at the Iso-Heikkilä Observatory in Turku, southwest Finland. The presumed C-type asteroid has a rotation period of nearly 22 hours. It was named for the artificial language Esperanto.

1461 Jean-Jacques

1461 Jean-Jacques, provisional designation 1937 YL, is a metallic asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt, approximately 34 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 30 December 1937, by French astronomer Marguerite Laugier at Nice Observatory in southern France, who named it after her son Jean-Jacques Laugier.

Esperanto

Esperanto () is the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. It was created in the late 19th century by L. L. Zamenhof, a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist. In 1887, he published a book detailing the language, Unua Libro ("First Book"), under the pseudonym Dr. Esperanto. Esperanto translates to English as "one who hopes".Zamenhof's goal was to create an easy and flexible language that would serve as a universal second language to foster peace and international understanding, and to build a community of speakers, as he correctly inferred that one can’t have a language without a community of speakers.His original title for the language was simply the international language (lingvo internacia), but early speakers grew fond of the name Esperanto and began to use it as the name for the language in 1889; the name quickly gained prominence and has been used as an official name ever since.In 1905, Zamenhof published Fundamento de Esperanto as a definitive guide to the language. Later that year, he organized the first World Esperanto Congress, an ongoing annual conference, in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. The first congress ratified the Declaration of Boulogne, which established several foundational premises for the Esperanto movement. One of its pronouncements is that Fundamento de Esperanto is the only obligatory authority over the language. Another is that the Esperanto movement is exclusively a linguistic movement and that no further meaning can ever be ascribed to it. Zamenhof also proposed to the first congress that an independent body of linguistic scholars should steward the future evolution of Esperanto, foreshadowing the founding of the Akademio de Esperanto, in part modeled after the Académie française, which was established soon thereafter. Since 1905, congresses have been held in various countries every year, with the exceptions of years during the World Wars. In 1908, a group of young Esperanto speakers led by Hector Hodler established the Universal Esperanto Association, in order to provide a central organization for the global Esperanto community.

Esperanto grew throughout the 20th century, both as a language and as a linguistic community. Despite speakers facing persecution in regimes such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union under Stalin, Esperanto speakers continued to establish organizations and publish periodicals tailored to specific regions and interests. In 1954, the United Nations granted official support to Esperanto as an international auxiliary language in the Montevideo Resolution. Several writers have contributed to the growing body of Esperanto literature, including William Auld, who received the first nomination for the Nobel Prize in Literature for a literary work in Esperanto in 1999, followed by two more in 2004 and 2006. Esperanto-language writers are also officially represented in PEN International, the worldwide writers association, through Esperanto PEN Centro.Esperanto has continued to develop in the 21st century. The advent of the Internet has had a significant impact on the language, as learning it has become increasingly accessible on platforms such as Duolingo and as speakers have increasingly networked on platforms such as Amikumu. With approximately two million speakers, a small portion of whom are native speakers, it is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world. Although no country has adopted Esperanto officially, Esperantujo is the collective name given to places where it is spoken, and the language is widely employed in world travel, correspondence, cultural exchange, conventions, literature, language instruction, television and radio broadcasting.

While its advocates continue to hope for the day that Esperanto becomes officially recognized as the international auxiliary language, an increasing number have stopped focusing on this goal and instead view the Esperanto community as a "stateless diasporic linguistic minority" based on freedom of association, with a culture worthy of preservation based on its own merit. Some have also chosen to learn Esperanto due to its purported help in third language acquisition.

L. L. Zamenhof

Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (; Polish: Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof, Yiddish: לײזער לֵוִי זאַמענהאָף‎; 15 December [O.S. 3 December] 1859 – 14 April [O.S. 1 April] 1917), credited as L. L. Zamenhof and sometimes as the pseudonymous Dr. Esperanto, was a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist and the initiator of the international language Esperanto, the most successful constructed language in the world.Zamenhof first developed the language in 1873 while still in school. He grew up fascinated by the idea of a world without war and believed that this could happen with the help of a new international auxiliary language as a tool that can help to gather people together through a neutral, fair, and equitable communication. He succeeded to form a speech community which still lives today in spite of two World Wars in the 20th century and has developed in the same way as all other languages, primarily through the interaction and creativity of its users.

The year 2017 marked the 100th anniversary of the death of Ludwik Zamenhof, who was a great supporter of intercultural dialogue. In the light of his achievements UNESCO selected Zamenhof as one of its eminent personalities of 2017.

List of Esperanto speakers

An Esperantist (Esperanto: Esperantisto) is a person who speaks Esperanto. According to the Declaration of Boulogne, a document agreed upon at the first World Esperanto Congress in 1905, an Esperantist is someone who speaks Esperanto and uses it for any purpose.

List of minor planets named after people

This is a list of minor planets named after people, both real and fictional.

Yrjö Väisälä

Yrjö Väisälä [ˈyrjø ˈʋæisælæ] (listen) (6 September 1891 in Utra, Kontiolahti, Grand Duchy of Finland – 21 July 1971 in Rymättylä, Finland) was a Finnish astronomer and physicist.His main contributions were in the field of optics, but he was also very active in geodetics, astronomy and optical metrology. He had even an affectionate nickname of Wizard of Tuorla (Observatory/Optics laboratory), and there is a book with the same title in Finnish describing his works. His discoveries include 128 minor planets and 3 comets.His brothers were mathematician Kalle Väisälä (1893–1968) and meteorologist Vilho Väisälä (1889–1969). His daughter Marja Väisälä (1916–2011) was also an astronomer and discoverer of minor planets.

Väisälä was also a fervent supporter of Esperanto, presiding the Internacia Scienca Asocio Esperantista ("International Association of Esperanto Scientists") in 1968.

Zamenhof-Esperanto object

A Zamenhof-Esperanto object (Esperanto: Zamenhof/Esperanto-Objekto, ZEO) is a monument or a place linked to L. L. Zamenhof, the constructed language Esperanto he created and first published in 1887, or the community of Esperanto speakers which has been using the language since.

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