1457

Year 1457 (MCDLVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1457 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1457
MCDLVII
Ab urbe condita2210
Armenian calendar906
ԹՎ ՋԶ
Assyrian calendar6207
Balinese saka calendar1378–1379
Bengali calendar864
Berber calendar2407
English Regnal year35 Hen. 6 – 36 Hen. 6
Buddhist calendar2001
Burmese calendar819
Byzantine calendar6965–6966
Chinese calendar丙子(Fire Rat)
4153 or 4093
    — to —
丁丑年 (Fire Ox)
4154 or 4094
Coptic calendar1173–1174
Discordian calendar2623
Ethiopian calendar1449–1450
Hebrew calendar5217–5218
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1513–1514
 - Shaka Samvat1378–1379
 - Kali Yuga4557–4558
Holocene calendar11457
Igbo calendar457–458
Iranian calendar835–836
Islamic calendar861–862
Japanese calendarKōshō 3 / Chōroku 1
(長禄元年)
Javanese calendar1372–1374
Julian calendar1457
MCDLVII
Korean calendar3790
Minguo calendar455 before ROC
民前455年
Nanakshahi calendar−11
Thai solar calendar1999–2000
Tibetan calendar阳火鼠年
(male Fire-Rat)
1583 or 1202 or 430
    — to —
阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
1584 or 1203 or 431

Events

January–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

1457 in England

Events from the year 1457 in England.

1457 in France

Events from the year 1457 in France

Abdu Ali al Haji Sharqawi

Al Hajj Abdu Ali Sharqawi (born 26 May 1974 in Ta'izz, Yemen) is a Yemeni alleged Al-Qaeda associate who is currently being held in the United States's Guantanamo Bay detention camps, in Cuba.Sharqawi arrived at the Guantanamo detention camps on September 20, 2004, and has been held there for 14 years, 5 months and 20 days.

Battle of Albulena

The Battle of Albulena, also known as the Battle of Ujëbardha, was fought on 2 September 1457 between Albanian forces led by Skanderbeg and an Ottoman army under Isak bey Evrenoz and Skanderbeg's nephew, Hamza Kastrioti.

Skanderbeg had been the leader of the Albanians for over a decade and had seen many victories over Ottoman arms. However, after his loss at Berat in 1455 at the hands of Isak bey, Skanderbeg was betrayed by some of his most trusted officers, among them Moisi Arianit Golemi. Golemi returned the next year with an Ottoman force under his command, but was defeated at the Battle of Oranik and rejoined Skanderbeg's army. Later, the dissatisfied Hamza Kastrioti betrayed Skanderbeg and was offered joint-command with Isak bey over a second Ottoman invasion force.

The Ottomans arrived in late May 1457 and marched through the Mat River Valley. Skanderbeg tried to delay the vanguard, composed of Akıncı cavalrymen, but upon the approach of the main force, decided to retreat. Both Isak bey and Hamza were familiar with Skanderbeg's tactics so the Albanian leader adopted a new one. He split his army into several groups and ordered them to march in separate directions through the mountains and remain unseen by the Ottoman forces until the signal to reassemble was given. The Albanians remained in separate formations until September, by which time the Ottomans had become both exasperated and convinced that Skanderbeg had been defeated. On 2 September 1457, Skanderbeg finally gave the order for his armies to regroup and launched a surprise attack on the Ottoman camp, killing and capturing up to 30,000 men. Among them was Hamza who was later sent as a prisoner to Naples in Italy.

The victory strengthened the morale of the Albanians. There were few, if not any, officers and soldiers who deserted afterwards. The battle of Albulena has been seen as Skanderbeg's most brilliant victory over the Ottomans. However, it also marked the high point of the Albanian resistance, beginning a new phase in Skanderbeg's quarter-century long war which would include its fiercest Ottoman invasions. Even though Skanderbeg himself had died in January 1468, the war would drag on until 1478 and later in the same year the main Albanian fortress at Krujë fell, finally effecting the annexation of Skanderbeg's Albania by the Ottoman Empire.

Chōroku

Chōroku (長禄) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Kōshō and before Kanshō. This period spanned the years from September 1457 through December 1460. The reigning emperor was Go-Hanazono-tennō (後花園天皇).

Edo

Edo (江戸, "bay-entrance" or "estuary"), also romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo. It was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868. During this period, it grew to become one of the largest cities in the world and home to an urban culture centered on the notion of a "floating world".

Francesco Foscari

Francesco Foscari (19 June 1373 – 1 November 1457) was the 65th Doge of the Republic of Venice from 1423 to 1457. His reign, the longest of all Doges in Venetian history, lasted 34 years, 6 months and 8 days, and coincided with the inception of the Italian Renaissance.

Gabriele Sforza

Gabriele Sforza (born Carlo Sforza, 1423–1457), was a member of the Augustinian Order who served as Archbishop of Milan from 1445 to his death in 1457.

Goharshad Begum

Goharshād Begum (Persian: گوهرشاد‎ Gowharšād; meaning "joyful jewel" or "shining jewel"; alternative spelling: Gawharshād; died 19 July 1457) was a wife of Shāhrukh, the Emperor of the Timurid Empire of Herāt.

Habeas corpus petitions of Guantanamo Bay detainees

The nature of international human rights law has been seemingly altered by Americans since the attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C. on September 11, 2001. The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is one example of recent developments that seem to disregard long standing human rights. The United States of America (USA) has pursued a 'seemingly deliberate strategy' to put suspected terrorists outside the reach of habeas corpus protections. Naval Station Guantanamo Bay serves as the location for a United States military prison in Cuba designed for the detention of non-citizens suspected of terrorist activity. At the time of its creation President Bush stated that its purpose was to respond to serious war crimes, primarily 'a new way to deal with terrorists'. The first camp was set up 3 months after the attacks on the twin towers and since then a human rights debate has begun over the legality of denying detainees the right to petition habeas corpus.

The detainees at the United States Guantanamo Bay detention camps, in Cuba have had over 200 writs of habeas corpus submitted on their behalf.

Jingtai Emperor

The Jingtai Emperor (景泰 IPA: [tɕìŋtʰâɪ]) (21 September 1428 – 14 March 1457), born Zhu Qiyu, was Emperor of China from 1449 to 1457. The second son of the Xuande Emperor, he was selected in 1449 to succeed his older brother, the Zhengtong Emperor, when the latter was captured by Mongols following the Tumu Crisis. He reigned for 8 years before being removed from the throne by his brother, who was restored as the Tianshun Emperor. The Jingtai Emperor's era name, "Jingtai", means "Exalted View".

Ladislaus the Posthumous

Ladislaus the Posthumous, known also as Ladislas (Hungarian: Utószülött László; Croatian: Ladislav Posmrtni; Czech: Ladislav Pohrobek, 22 February 1440 – 23 November 1457) (in Hungarian: V. László), was Duke of Austria, and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. He was the posthumous son of Albert of Habsburg with Elizabeth of Luxembourg. Albert had bequeathed all his realms to his future son on his deathbed, but only the Estates of Austria accepted his last will. Fearing an Ottoman invasion, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates offered the crown to Vladislaus III of Poland. The Hussite noblemen and towns of Bohemia did not acknowledge the hereditary right of Albert's descendants to the throne, but also did not elect a new king.

After Ladislaus's birth, his mother seized the Holy Crown of Hungary and had Ladislaus – known as Ladislaus V in Hungary – crowned king in Székesfehérvár on 15 May 1440. However, the Diet of Hungary declared Ladislaus's coronation invalid and elected Vladislaus king. A civil war broke out which lasted for years. Elizabeth appointed her late husband's distant cousin, Frederick III, King of the Romans, Ladislaus' guardian. Ladislaus lived in Frederick's court (mainly in Wiener Neustadt), where Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (the future Pope Pius II) wrote a treatise of his education.

After his mother died in late 1442, Ladislaus' interests were represented by a Czech condottiere, John Jiskra of Brandýs, in Hungary, and by the Czech Catholic lord, Ulrich II of Rosenberg, in Bohemia. Ladislaus' rival in Hungary, Vladislaus, fell in the Battle of Varna in November 1444. The next year, the Diet of Hungary offered to acknowledge Ladislaus as king if Frederick III renounced his guardianship. After Frederick III rejected the offer, the Diet of Hungary elected John Hunyadi regent in 1446. In Bohemia, the head of the moderate Hussites (or Utraquists), George of Poděbrady, took control of Prague in 1448. The Estates of Austria forced Frederick III to resign the guardianship and hand over Ladislaus to them in September 1452. Royal administration was formally restored in Hungary after Hunyadi resigned the regency in early 1453, but he continued to control most royal castles and revenues.

Ulrich II, Count of Celje (his mother's cousin) became Ladislaus' main advisor, but an Austrian baron, Ulrich Eytzinger, forced Ladislaus to expel Celje from his court. Although Ladislaus was crowned king of Bohemia on 28 October 1453, Poděbrady remained in full control of the government. During the following years, Eytzinger, Hunyadi and Poděbrady closely cooperated to mutually secure their positions. Ladislaus was reconciled with Ulrich II in early 1455. With the support of the leading Hungarian barons, Ladislaus persuaded Hunyadi to withdraw his troops from most royal castles and renounce the administration of part of the royal revenues.

After the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II decided to invade Hungary, Ladislaus and Ulrich II left the kingdom. The sultan laid siege to Belgrade. Hunyadi relieved the fortress on 22 July 1456, but he died two weeks later. Ladislaus and Ulrich II returned to Hungary and tried to force Hunyadi's son, Ladislaus, to renounce all royal castles and revenues, but Ladislaus Hunyadi murdered Ulrich II on 9 November, forcing Ladislaus to grant an amnesty to him. However, most Hungarian barons were hostile towards Ladislaus Hunyadi. With their support, Ladislaus captured him and his brother, Matthias. After Ladislaus Hunyadi was executed in March 1457, his relatives stirred up a rebellion against Ladislaus, forcing him to flee from Hungary. Ladislaus died unexpectedly in Prague. He was the last male member of the Albertinian Line of the House of Habsburg.

Mary of Burgundy

Mary (French: Marie; Dutch: Maria; 13 February 1457 – 27 March 1482), Duchess of Burgundy, reigned over many of the territories of the Duchy of Burgundy, now mainly in France and the Low Countries, from 1477 until her death. As the only child of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and his wife Isabella of Bourbon, she inherited the duchy upon the death of her father in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477. Owing to the great prosperity of many of her territories, Mary was often referred to as Mary the Rich.

Rita of Cascia

Saint Rita of Cascia (Born Margherita Lotti 1381 – 22 May 1457) was an Italian widow and Augustinian nun venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. Rita was a child bride, married before the age of 12. The marriage lasted for eighteen years, during which she is remembered for her Christian values as a model wife and mother who made efforts to convert her husband from his abusive behavior. Upon the murder of her husband by another feuding family, she sought to dissuade her sons from revenge.

Rita subsequently joined an Augustinian community of religious sisters, where she was known both for practicing mortification of the flesh and for the efficacy of her prayers. Various miracles are attributed to her intercession, and she is often portrayed with a bleeding wound on her forehead, which is understood to indicate a partial stigmata.

Pope Leo XIII canonized Rita on 24 May 1900. Her feast day is celebrated on May 22. At her canonization ceremony she was bestowed the title of Patroness of Impossible Causes, while in many Catholic countries, Rita came to be known to be as the patroness of abused wives and heartbroken women.

Robert Neville (bishop)

Robert Neville (1404 – 8 or 9 July 1457) was an English prelate who served as Bishop of Salisbury and Bishop of Durham. He was also a provost of Beverley. He was born at Raby Castle. His father was Ralph Neville and his mother was Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt. He was thus a highly placed member of the English aristocracy.

Neville was nominated Bishop of Salisbury on 9 July 1427, and consecrated on 26 October 1427. He was then translated to Durham on 27 January 1438.Neville died on 8 July 1457.

Timurid family tree

The family tree of the Timurid dynasty, the ruling family of the Timurid Empire and Mughal Empire, is listed below.

After the end of the Timurid Empire in 1507, the Mughal Empire was established in 1526 in South Asia by Babur, a descendant of Timur through his father and possibly a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. The dynasty he established is commonly known as the Mughal dynasty (see Mughal emperors). By the 17th century the Mughal Empire ruled most of the Indian subcontinent, but declined during the 18th century. The Timurid dynasty came to an end in 1857 after the Mughal Empire was dissolved by the British Empire, and Bahadur Shah II was exiled to Burma.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1457

United Nations Security Council resolution 1457, adopted unanimously on 24 January 2003, after recalling resolutions 1291 (2000), 1304 (2000), 1323 (2000), 1332 (2000), 1341 (2001), 1355 (2001), 1376 (2001), 1417 (2002) and 1445 (2002) on the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Council condemned the plundering of natural resources in the country and requested a six-month mandate for a panel investigating the issue.

Unity of the Brethren

The Unity of the Brethren (Czech: Jednota bratrská; Latin: Unitas Fratrum), also known as the Czech or Bohemian Brethren, is a Protestant movement founded in 1457, whose roots are in the pre-Reformation work of Petr Chelčický and Jan Hus (see Bohemian Reformation). For the denomination founded by the movement, see Moravian Church.

Villa Medici in Fiesole

The Villa Medici is a patrician villa in Fiesole, Tuscany, Italy, the fourth oldest of the villas built for the Medici family. It was built between 1451 and 1457.

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