|1456 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2209|
|Balinese saka calendar||1377–1378|
|English Regnal year||34 Hen. 6 – 35 Hen. 6|
|Chinese calendar||乙亥年 (Wood Pig)|
4152 or 4092
— to —
丙子年 (Fire Rat)
4153 or 4093
|- Vikram Samvat||1512–1513|
|- Shaka Samvat||1377–1378|
|- Kali Yuga||4556–4557|
|Japanese calendar||Kōshō 2|
|Minguo calendar||456 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1998–1999|
1582 or 1201 or 429
— to —
1583 or 1202 or 430
Events from the year 1456 in England.1456 in France
Events from the year 1456 in France1456 in Ireland
Events from the year 1456 in Ireland.Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond
Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (Welsh: Edmwnd Tudur, 11 June 1430 – 3 November 1456, also known as Edmund of Hadham), was the father of King Henry VII of England and a member of the Tudor family of Penmynydd, North Wales. Born to Owen Tudor and the dowager queen Catherine of Valois, Edmund was half-brother to Henry VI of England. Edmund was raised for several years by Katherine de la Pole, and Henry took an interest in Edmund's upbringing, granting him a title and lands once he came of age. Both Edmund and his brother, Jasper, were made advisers to the King as they were his remaining blood relatives.
The brothers were made the senior earls in the royal court and had influential positions in the Parliament of England. Edmund was also granted Baynard's Castle, London and ran a successful estate. He was married to Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, after her first marriage was annulled. Prior to the start of the Wars of the Roses, Edmund liaised with Richard of York and supported him when the King fell ill during 1453 and 1454. After war began in 1455, York sent Edmund to uphold the authority of the King in South Wales. While he was there, York was overthrown by the King and in retaliation, Yorkist forces were sent to engage those of Tudor's in South Wales. Edmund was captured at Carmarthen Castle, and died there of the bubonic plague on 3 November 1456.Halley's Comet
Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 75–76 years. Halley is the only known short-period comet that is regularly visible to the naked eye from Earth, and the only naked-eye comet that might appear twice in a human lifetime. Halley last appeared in the inner parts of the Solar System in 1986 and will next appear in mid-2061.Halley's returns to the inner Solar System have been observed and recorded by astronomers since at least 240 BC. Clear records of the comet's appearances were made by Chinese, Babylonian, and medieval European chroniclers, but were not recognized as reappearances of the same object at the time. The comet's periodicity was first determined in 1705 by English astronomer Edmond Halley, after whom it is now named.
During its 1986 apparition, Halley's Comet became the first comet to be observed in detail by spacecraft, providing the first observational data on the structure of a comet nucleus and the mechanism of coma and tail formation. These observations supported a number of longstanding hypotheses about comet construction, particularly Fred Whipple's "dirty snowball" model, which correctly predicted that Halley would be composed of a mixture of volatile ices—such as water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia—and dust. The missions also provided data that substantially reformed and reconfigured these ideas; for instance, it is now understood that the surface of Halley is largely composed of dusty, non-volatile materials, and that only a small portion of it is icy.History of Cape Verde
The recorded history of Cape Verde begins with Portuguese discovery in 1456. Possible early references go back around 2000 years.John Hunyadi
John Hunyadi (Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Serbian: Sibinjanin Janko, Romanian: Ioan de Hunedoara; c. 1406 – 11 August 1456) was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century. According to most contemporary sources, he was the son of a noble family of Romanian ancestry. He mastered his military skills on the southern borderlands of the Kingdom of Hungary that were exposed to Ottoman attacks. Appointed voivode of Transylvania and head of a number of southern counties, he assumed responsibility for the defense of the frontiers in 1441.
Hunyadi adopted the Hussite method of using wagons for military purposes. He employed professional soldiers, but also mobilized local peasantry against invaders. These innovations contributed to his earliest successes against the Ottoman troops who were plundering the southern marches in the early 1440s. Although defeated in the battle of Varna in 1444 and in the second battle of Kosovo in 1448, his successful "Long Campaign" across the Balkan Mountains in 1443–44 and defence of Belgrade/Nándorfehérvár in 1456, against troops led personally by the Sultan established his reputation as a great general. The pope ordered that European Churches ring their bells at noon to gather the faithful in prayer for those who were fighting. The bells of Christian churches are rung at noon to commemorate the Belgrade victory.
John Hunyadi was also an eminent statesman. He actively took part in the civil war between the partisans of Wladislas I and the minor Ladislaus V, two claimants to the throne of Hungary in the early 1440s, on behalf of the former. Popular among the lesser nobility, the Diet of Hungary appointed him, in 1445, as one of the seven "Captains in Chief" responsible for the administration of state affairs until Ladislaus V (by that time unanimously accepted as king) came of age. The next Diet went even further, electing Hunyadi as sole regent with the title of governor. When he resigned from this office in 1452, the sovereign awarded him with the first hereditary title (perpetual count of Beszterce/Bistrița) in the Kingdom of Hungary. He had by this time become one of the wealthiest landowners in the kingdom, and preserved his influence in the Diet up until his death.
This Athleta Christi (Christ's Champion), as Pope Pius II referred to him, died some three weeks after his triumph at Nándorfehérvár/Belgrade, falling to an epidemic that had broken out in the crusader camp. However, his victories over the Turks prevented them from invading the Kingdom of Hungary for more than 60 years. His fame was a decisive factor in the election of his son, Matthias Corvinus, as king by the Diet of 1457. Hunyadi is a popular historical figure among Hungarians, Romanians, Serbians, Bulgarians and other nations of the region.Jurij Slatkonja
Jurij Slatkonja (German: Georg von Slatkonia, also Jurij Chrysippus, Slovenian: Jurij Slatkonja; 21 March 1456 – 26 April 1522) was a Carniolan choirmaster and the first residential Bishop of Vienna. He was also the first owner of an ex libris among the Slovenes. His crest contained a golden horse, from which comes his surname (Slovene slat [= zlat] 'golden' + konj 'horse').Kosmos 1456
Kosmos 1456 (Russian: Космос 1456 meaning Cosmos 1456) was a Soviet US-K missile early warning satellite which was launched in 1983 as part of the Soviet military's Oko programme. The satellite was designed to identify missile launches using optical telescopes and infrared sensors.Kosmos 1456 was launched from Site 16/2 at Plesetsk Cosmodrome in the Russian SSR. A Molniya-M carrier rocket with a 2BL upper stage was used to perform the launch, which took place at 19:34 UTC on 25 April 1983. The launch successfully placed the satellite into a molniya orbit. It subsequently received its Kosmos designation, and the international designator 1983-038A. The United States Space Command assigned it the Satellite Catalog Number 14034.It self-destructed and then re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on 11 May 1998.Lübz
Lübz is a town in the Ludwigslust-Parchim district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It is situated on the river Elde, 12 km northeast of Parchim. It is home to the Mecklenburgische Brauerei Lübz, the largest local employer and one of the larger regional breweries.Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland
Margaret of Denmark (23 June 1456 – 14 July 1486), also referred to as Margaret of Norway, was Queen of Scotland from 1469 to 1486 by marriage to King James III. She was the daughter of Christian I, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and Dorothea of Brandenburg.Min Dawlya
Min Dawlya (Burmese: မင်းဒေါလျာ, Burmese pronunciation: [mɪ́ɴ dɔ́ l̥à], Arakanese pronunciation: [máɴ dɔ́ l̥à]; also known as Mathu Shah; 1456–1492) was king of Arakan from 1482 to 1492. He came to power by having his father King Ba Saw Phyu assassinated after his father had chosen another son as his heir apparent. Dawlya proved an able king, however. Known as Hsinbyushin for possessing a white elephant, the king "extended Mrauk-U control to the east and west". He died on the war elephant after having returned from a failed expedition to the Chittagong Hill Tracts.Min Saw O
Min Saw O (Burmese: မင်းစောအို, Burmese pronunciation: [mɪ́ɴ sɔ́ ò]; Arakanese pronunciation: [máɴ sɔ́ ò]; also known as Jalal Shah; 1456–1515) was king of Arakan for six months in 1515. He was a brother of King Salingathu (r. 1494–1502). He was put on the throne by the ministers of the court who had beheaded his grandnephew King Gazapati. Saw O died only after six months of reign in July 1515.Robert Drury (speaker)
Sir Robert Drury, (before 1456 – 2 March 1535), knight, (knighted by Henry VII of England after the battle of Blackheath, 17 June 1497) and Lord of the Manor of Hawstead, Suffolk, was Knight of the Body to Kings Henry VII and Henry VIII, Knight of the Shire for Suffolk, Speaker of the House of Commons [elected 4 October 1495], and Privy Councillor. He was also a barrister-at-law. His London townhouse was in Drury Lane.Siege of Belgrade (1456)
The Siege of Belgrade, Battle of Belgrade or Siege of Nándorfehérvár was a military blockade of Belgrade that occurred from July 4–22, 1456. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror rallied his resources in order to subjugate the Kingdom of Hungary. His immediate objective was the border fort of the town of Belgrade (in Hungarian: Nándorfehérvár). John Hunyadi, the Voivode of Transylvania, who had fought many battles against the Turks in the previous two decades, prepared the defenses of the fortress.
The siege escalated into a major battle, during which Hunyadi led a sudden counterattack that overran the Ottoman camp, ultimately compelling the wounded Mehmed II to lift the siege and retreat. The battle had significant consequences, as it stabilized the southern frontiers of the Kingdom of Hungary for more than half a century and thus considerably delayed the Ottoman advance in Europe.
The Pope celebrated the victory as well, as he had previously ordered all Catholic kingdoms to pray for the victory of the defenders of Belgrade. This led to the noon bell ritual that is still undertaken in Catholic and old Protestant churches. The day of the victory, 22 July, has been a memorial day in Hungary ever since.Thomas Lisieux
Thomas Lisieux (died 1456) was a Canon of Windsor from 1435 to 1442 and Dean of St Paul’s from 1441 to 1456.USS Waxbill (MHC-50)
USS Waxbill (MHC-50/AMCU-50/AMS-39/YMS-479/PCS-1456) was a YMS-1-class minesweeper of the YMS-446 subclass acquired by the U.S. Navy for the task of removing mines placed in the water to prevent ships from passing.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1456
United Nations Security Council resolution 1456, adopted unanimously on 20 January 2003 in a meeting at the foreign minister level, the Council adopted a declaration calling on all states to prevent and suppress all support for terrorism. The resolution did not define terrorism, but unlike other previous resolutions, mentioned human rights for the first time.The Security Council reaffirmed that terrorism constituted one of the greatest threats to international peace and security, and was unjustifiable irrespective of the motivation. There was growing concern that nuclear, chemical or biological weapons would be used and sophisticated technology exploited. In this regard, measures to prevent the financing of terrorism had to be strengthened and terrorists had to be prevented from making use of drug trafficking, money laundering, arms trafficking and other crimes. Furthermore, it highlighted the Council's determination to combat such acts through a comprehensive approach involving all nations and organisations in accordance with the United Nations Charter and international law.
All states had to comply with resolutions 1373 (2001), 1390 (2002) and 1455 (2003), become party to international conventions on terrorism, assist in terrorist investigations and implement sanctions against Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and their associates reflected in resolutions 1267 (1999), 1390 and 1455. The Council also required that all states bring those who perpetrate, support, finance or plan terrorist actions to justice and to co-operate with the Counter-Terrorism Committee.The adopted declaration also stated that measures taken to combat terrorism had to comply with international law, particularly international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law. Meanwhile, international organisations were to evaluate ways of improving the effectiveness of their actions against terrorism. The Council emphasised efforts to broaden understanding among civilizations and enhance dialogue to prevent the targeting of religions and cultures, concluding by stating its determination to intensify the fight against terrorism.Đurađ Branković
Đurađ Branković (pronounced [d͡ʑûrad͡ʑ brǎːŋko̞ʋit͡ɕ]; Serbian Cyrillic: Ђурађ Бранковић; Hungarian: Brankovics György; 1377 – 24 December 1456) was the Serbian Despot from 1427 to 1456 and a baron of the Kingdom of Hungary. He collected a large library of Serbian, Slavonic, Latin, and Greek manuscripts and made his capital Smederevo a centre of Serbian culture. He was the first of the Branković dynasty to hold the Serbian monarchy.