1455

Year 1455 (MCDLV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1455 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1455
MCDLV
Ab urbe condita2208
Armenian calendar904
ԹՎ ՋԴ
Assyrian calendar6205
Balinese saka calendar1376–1377
Bengali calendar862
Berber calendar2405
English Regnal year33 Hen. 6 – 34 Hen. 6
Buddhist calendar1999
Burmese calendar817
Byzantine calendar6963–6964
Chinese calendar甲戌(Wood Dog)
4151 or 4091
    — to —
乙亥年 (Wood Pig)
4152 or 4092
Coptic calendar1171–1172
Discordian calendar2621
Ethiopian calendar1447–1448
Hebrew calendar5215–5216
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1511–1512
 - Shaka Samvat1376–1377
 - Kali Yuga4555–4556
Holocene calendar11455
Igbo calendar455–456
Iranian calendar833–834
Islamic calendar859–860
Japanese calendarKyōtoku 4 / Kōshō 1
(康正元年)
Javanese calendar1370–1371
Julian calendar1455
MCDLV
Korean calendar3788
Minguo calendar457 before ROC
民前457年
Nanakshahi calendar−13
Thai solar calendar1997–1998
Tibetan calendar阳木狗年
(male Wood-Dog)
1581 or 1200 or 428
    — to —
阴木猪年
(female Wood-Pig)
1582 or 1201 or 429

Events

January–December

Births

Deaths

1455 in England

Events from the year 1455 in England.

1455 in France

Events from the year 1455 in France

1455 in Ireland

Events from the year 1455 in Ireland.

1455 in Scotland

Events from the year 1455 in Scotland.

1455 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1455 (April 4–8) elected Alfons Borja Pope Callixtus III following the death of Pope Nicholas V. The conclave was the first in the Apostolic Palace, the site of all but five papal conclave thereafter. The conclave was also the first to feature accessus voting (votes cast in accessit), derived from a practice of the Roman Senate, where a cardinal could change their vote after an unsuccessful scrutiny to any cardinal already receiving votes.The early defeat of Greek Cardinal Basilios Bessarion—a potential compromise candidate between the Colonna and Orsini factions—is a notable display of the lingering antipathy towards certain characteristics of the Eastern church, such as bearded priests, centuries after the East-West Schism. Although Western canon law had prohibited beards for priests since at least the eleventh century, the issue would continue to be debated well into the sixteenth century.

Bonville–Courtenay feud

The Bonville–Courtenay feud of 1455 engendered a series of raids, sieges, and attacks between two major Devon families, the Courtenays and the Bonvilles, in south west England, in the mid-fifteenth century. One of many such aristocratic feuds of the time, it became entwined with national politics due to the political weight of the protagonists. The Courtenay earls of Devon were the traditional powerbrokers in the region, but by this time a local baronial family, the Bonvilles, had become more powerful and rivalled the Courtenays for royal patronage. Eventually this rivalry spilled over into physical violence, including social disorder, murder and siege.

The Bonville-Courtenay feud is often given as an example of the degree to which law and order and respect for the king had broken down in the provinces. As a result, modern historians have often considered it a cause of the later Wars of the Roses; and indeed, the course of the feud often closely followed the sectarian politics of the day. The feud is perhaps most well known for culminating in an armed encounter at Clyst (called the fight, or sometimes the battle, of Clyst), near Exeter, which resulted in loss of life.

The events at Clyst resulted in government intervention in the politics of the west country. This was unusual, as the government did not have a good track-record of settling local disputes among the nobility. However, it is likely that this was done for reasons of higher politics; William Bonville was by 1455 a Yorkist, and Richard, Duke of York had been made Lord Protector. Although in the short term it resulted in Thomas de Courtenay, Earl of Devon's incarceration, the Bonville–Courtenay feud did not come to an effective end until the protagonists were all killed in the early years of the civil wars.

Earl of March

Earl of March is a title that has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of England. The title derived from the "marches" or borderlands between England and either Wales (Welsh Marches) or Scotland (Scottish Marches), and it was held by several great feudal families which owned lands in those districts. Later, however, the title came to be granted as an honorary dignity, and ceased to carry any associated power in the marches.

The Scottish earldom is extant in its own right, and it is held by James Charteris, 13th Earl of Wemyss and 9th Earl of March. The English earldom is today the main non-ducal subsidiary title of the Duke of Richmond. The current duke's eldest son, named Charles like his father, enjoys it as a courtesy title.

Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset

Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, KG (c. 1406 – 22 May 1455), was an English nobleman and an important figure in the Wars of the Roses and in the Hundred Years' War. He also succeeded in the title of 4th Earl of Somerset and was created 1st Earl of Dorset and 1st Marquess of Dorset (previously held by his father and later forfeited), and Count of Mortain. He was known for his deadly rivalry with Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York.

Edmund Lacey

Edmund Lacey (or Lacy; died 1455) was a medieval Bishop of Hereford and Bishop of Exeter in England.

Lacey was educated at University College, Oxford, where he was a mature commoner, then Fellow, and subsequently Master of the College from 1398 until around 1401. The College prospered and developed under him, as well as under John Appleton and John Castell who followed him.In 1401, Lacey was appointed Canon of the ninth stall at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, a position he held until 1417.Around 1414, Lacey was appointed Dean of the Chapel Royal, accompanying King Henry V to the Battle of Agincourt in 1415.

He was elected to the see of Hereford between 21 January and 17 February 1417 and consecrated on 18 April 1417. He was then translated to the see of Exeter on 15 July 1420. While bishop at Exeter, Lacey promoted the cult of the Archangel Raphael, proclaiming the feast in his diocese in 1443, and working throughout England to institute the cult.Lacey died on 18 September 1455.

First Battle of St Albans

The First Battle of St Albans, fought on 22 May 1455 at St Albans, 22 miles (35 km) north of London, traditionally marks the beginning of the Wars of the Roses in England. Richard, Duke of York, and his allies, the Neville earls of Salisbury and Warwick, defeated a royal army commanded by Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, who was killed. With King Henry VI captured, a subsequent parliament appointed Richard of York Lord Protector.

Isabel of Coimbra

Infanta Isabel of Coimbra (Isabella of Portugal) (1 March 1432 – 2 December 1455) was a Portuguese infanta and a queen consort of Portugal as the first spouse of King Afonso V of Portugal.

John II of Portugal

John II (Portuguese: João II; [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃]; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), called the Perfect Prince (Portuguese: o Príncipe Perfeito), was King of Portugal from 1481 until his death in 1495, and also for a brief time in 1477. He is known for re-establishing the power of the Portuguese monarchy, reinvigorating the Portuguese economy, and renewing his country's exploration of Africa and the Orient.

Kingdom of Imereti

The Kingdom of Imereti (Georgian: იმერეთის სამეფო) was a Georgian monarchy established in 1455 by a member of the house of Bagrationi when the Kingdom of Georgia was dissolved into rival kingdoms. Before that time, Imereti was considered a separate kingdom within the Kingdom of Georgia, to which a cadet branch of the Bagrationi royal family held the crown. This started in 1260 after David VI revolted against Mongolian rule and fled to Abkhazia. This was the result of the Mongolian conquest of Georgia during the 13th century which decentralized and fragmented Georgia, forcing the relocation of governmental centres to the provinces.

Imereti was conquered by Giorgi the Brilliant, who was subject to the Mongols, and united Imereti with the east Kingdom of Georgia. From 1455 onward, however, the kingdom became a constant battleground between Georgian, Persian and Turkish forces. Between 1555 and 1804 it was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. On 25 April 1804 Solomon II of Imereti accepted Russian vassalage and in 1810 he was removed from the throne. During the time that Imereti was a vassal state, the Mingrelia, Abkhazia and Guria princedoms declared their independence from Imereti and established their own governments. In Persian - Azeri nomenclature the name of the region was changed to "baş açıq" which literally means "without a head scarf".

Kōshō

Kōshō (康正) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Kyōtoku and before Chōroku. This period spanned the years from July 1455 through September 1457. The reigning emperor was Go-Hanazono-tennō (後花園天皇).

Pope Nicholas V

Pope Nicholas V (Latin: Nicholaus V; 13 November 1397 – 24 March 1455), born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death. Pope Eugene made him a cardinal in 1446 after successful trips to Italy and Germany, and when Eugene died the next year Parentucelli was elected in his place. He took his name Nicholas in memory of his obligations to Niccolò Albergati.

The Pontificate of Nicholas saw the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks and the end of the Hundred Years War. He responded by calling a crusade against the Ottomans, which never materialized. By the Concordat of Vienna he secured the recognition of papal rights over bishoprics and benefices. He also brought about the submission of the last of the antipopes, Felix V, and the dissolution of the Synod of Basle. A key figure in the Roman Renaissance, Nicholas sought to make Rome the home of literature and art. He strengthened fortifications, restored aqueducts, and rebuilt many churches. He ordered design plans for what would eventually be the Basilica of St. Peter.

Salingathu

Salingathu (Burmese: စလင်္ကာသူ [səlìɴɡəθù], also known as Abdullah Shah 1455–1502), was King of Arakan from 1494 to 1502. The King, who came to power by overthrowing his 8-year-old nephew, Ran Aung, was extremely cautious about his personal security. He strictly regulated the schedule by which the gates of the palace and the city could be kept open. He employed a large number of Household Guards in the Palace and around the capital, and always traveled with an extensive security detail. His chief Queen was Saw Mi Saw, daughter of King Ba Saw Phyu. He died of natural causes in 1502 at age 46. He was succeeded by his son Raza.

Sanjak of Prizren

The Sanjak of Prizren (Turkish: Prizren Sancağı, Albanian: Sanxhaku i Prizrenit, Serbian: Призренски санџак / Prizrenski sandžak) was one of the sanjaks in the Ottoman Empire with Prizren as its administrative centre. It was founded immediately after Ottoman Empire captured Prizren from Serbian Despotate in 1455. The rest of the territory of Serbian Despotate was conquered after the fall of Smederevo in 1459, and divided into following sanjaks: Sanjak of Vučitrn, Sanjak of Kruševac and Sanjak of Smederevo. At the beginning of the First Balkan War in 1912, the territory of Sanjak of Prizren was occupied by the armies of Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Montenegro. Based on Treaty of London signed on May 30, 1913, the territory of Sanjak of Prizren was divided between Serbia and Montenegro.

Siege of Berat (1455)

The Siege of Berat began July, 1455 at the Albanian city of Berat, when the Albanian army of Skanderbeg besieged the fortress held by Ottoman forces.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1455

United Nations Security Council resolution 1455, adopted unanimously on 17 January 2003, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2001) and 1452 (2002) concerning Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and terrorism, the Council improved the implementation of measures against the groups. It was the first Security Council resolution adopted in 2003.

The Security Council urged all states to implement Resolution 1373 and reaffirmed the need to combat threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts. It condemned Al-Qaeda and other associated groups for ongoing terrorist attacks, and attacks referred to in resolutions 1368 (2001), 1438 (2002), 1440 (2002) and 1450 (2002).

Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council decided to improve the implementation of the measures, with a view to further improving them in 12 months if required. The measures included a freezing of funds and financial resources, an arms embargo and travel ban. The need for improved exchange of information between Committees established in resolutions 1268 and 1373 was stressed. All states were called upon to report within 90 days on steps they had taken to implement the sanctions against the Taliban, Al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden, including related investigations and enforcement, unless such investigations would be compromised.The Secretary-General Kofi Annan was requested to reappoint five experts to monitor the implementation of the sanctions over a period of 12 months and to pursue leads relating to incomplete implementation of measures. The Secretary-General also had to ensure that the Committee and Monitoring Group of experts had sufficient access to resources and expertise, and to provide reports and oral assessments to the Council on their findings, with a focus on better co-ordination.

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