|1445 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2198|
|Balinese saka calendar||1366–1367|
|English Regnal year||23 Hen. 6 – 24 Hen. 6|
|Chinese calendar||甲子年 (Wood Rat)|
4141 or 4081
— to —
乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
4142 or 4082
|- Vikram Samvat||1501–1502|
|- Shaka Samvat||1366–1367|
|- Kali Yuga||4545–4546|
|Japanese calendar||Bun'an 2|
|Minguo calendar||467 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1987–1988|
1571 or 1190 or 418
— to —
1572 or 1191 or 419
Events from the 1440s in England.1440s in art
The decade of the 1440s in art involved some significant events.1445 in France
Events from the year 1445 in France1447 in France
Events from the year 1447 in FranceArguin
Arguin (Portuguese: Arguim) is an island off the western coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin. It is approximately 6x2 km in size, with extensive and dangerous reefs around it. The island is now part of the Banc d'Arguin National Park.BOR-4
The BOR-4 (БОР-4 Russian: Беспилотный Орбитальный Ракетоплан 4, Bespilotnyi Orbital'nyi Raketoplan 4, "Unpiloted Orbital Rocketplane 4") flight vehicle is a scaled (1:2) prototype of the Soviet Spiral VTHL (vertical takeoff, horizontal landing) spaceplane. An unmanned, subscale spacecraft, its purpose was to test the heatshield tiles and reinforced carbon-carbon for the Buran space shuttle, then under development.Several of them were built and flown between 1982 and 1984 from the Kapustin Yar launch site at speeds of up to Mach 25. After reentry, they were designed to parachute to an ocean splashdown for recovery by the Soviet Navy. The testing was nearly identical to that carried out by the US Air Force ASSET program in the 1960s, which tested the heatshield design for the X-20 Dyna-Soar. On June 3, 1982 a Royal Australian Air Force P-3 Orion reconnaissance aircraft captured the first Western images of the craft as it was recovered by a Soviet ship near the Cocos Islands.Duke of Medina Sidonia
The Duke of Medina Sidonia is a grandee of Spain in Medina-Sidonia, holding the oldest extant dukedom in the kingdom, first awarded by King John II of Castile in 1445. They were once the most prominent magnate family of the Andalusian region, the best-known of whom, Don Alonso de Guzmán El Bueno, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia, commanded the Spanish Armada at the end of the 16th century. The defeat at the hands of weather and the English in 1588 brought disgrace to this family. The House of Medina Sidonia traces its descent to Alonso Pérez de Guzmán.Duke of Montrose
The title of Duke of Montrose (named after Montrose, Angus) has been twice in the Peerage of Scotland, firstly in 1488 for David Lindsay, 5th Earl of Crawford. It was forfeited and then returned, but only for the period of the holder's lifetime. Thus, it was not inherited.
The title was bestowed anew in 1707, again in the Peerage of Scotland, on the fourth Marquess of Montrose, and has since been in the Graham family. The title is also tied as the chieftainship of Clan Graham.
The Duke's subsidiary titles are: Marquess of Montrose (created 1644), Marquess of Graham and Buchanan (1707), Earl of Montrose (1503), Earl of Kincardine (1644 & 1707), Earl Graham of Belford (1722), Viscount Dundaff (1707), Lord Graham (1445), Lord Aberruthven, Mugdock and Fintrie (1707) and Baron Graham of Belford (1722). The titles Earl and Baron Graham of Belford are in the Peerage of Great Britain; the rest are in the Peerage of Scotland. The eldest son of the Duke uses the courtesy title Marquess of Graham and Buchanan.
The family seat is Auchmar House, near Loch Lomond, Stirlingshire. It was previously Buchanan Castle, near Drymen, Stirlingshire.Earl of Lindsay
Earl of Lindsay is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1633 for John Lindsay, 10th Lord Lindsay, who later inherited the ancient Earldom of Crawford. The two earldoms remained united until the death of the 22nd Earl of Crawford, also sixth Earl of Lindsay, in 1808. Then the earldom of Lindsay passed to David Lindsay, while the earldom of Crawford became dormant because no-one could prove a claim to the title until 1848. Both David, 7th Earl of Lindsay, and his successor Patrick, 8th Earl of Lindsay, died without sons, and the disputed claim over the earldom was resolved by the House of Lords in 1878 in favour of Sir John Trotter Bethune, 2nd Baronet.
The subsidiary titles of the Earl are: Viscount of Garnock (created 1703), Lord Lindsay of The Byres (1445), Lord Parbroath (1633) and Lord Kilbirnie, Kingsburn and Drumry (1703), all in the Peerage of Scotland. The title Viscount Garnock is used as the courtesy title for the eldest son and heir to the Earl.
The family seat is Lahill House, near Upper Largo, Fife.Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Portugal
Eleanor of Aragon (2 May 1402 – 19 February 1445) was queen consort of Portugal as the spouse of Edward I of Portugal and the regent of Portugal as the guardian of her son. She was the daughter of Ferdinand I of Aragon and Eleanor of Alburquerque.Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; c. 1395 – February 18, 1455) was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance, described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent".He was known to contemporaries as Fra Giovanni da Fiesole (Brother John of Fiesole) and Fra Giovanni Angelico (Angelic Brother John). In modern Italian he is called Beato Angelico (Blessed Angelic One); the common English name Fra Angelico means the "Angelic friar".
In 1982, Pope John Paul II proclaimed his beatification in recognition of the holiness of his life, thereby making the title of "Blessed" official. Fiesole is sometimes misinterpreted as being part of his formal name, but it was merely the name of the town where he took his vows as a Dominican friar, and was used by contemporaries to separate him from others who were also known as Fra Giovanni. He is listed in the Roman Martyrology as Beatus Ioannes Faesulanus, cognomento Angelicus—"Blessed Giovanni of Fiesole, surnamed 'the Angelic' ".
Vasari wrote of Fra Angelico that "it is impossible to bestow too much praise on this holy father, who was so humble and modest in all that he did and said and whose pictures were painted with such facility and piety."Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots
Joan Beaufort (died 15 July 1445) was the Queen of Scotland from 1424 to 1437 as the spouse of King James I of Scotland. During part of the minority of her son James II (from 1437 to 1439), she served as the Regent of Scotland.Maria of Aragon, Queen of Castile
Maria of Aragon ((1403-02-24)24 February 1403–(1445-02-18)18 February 1445) was the Queen consort of Castile and Leon as the wife of John II of Castile. She was the daughter of Ferdinand I of Aragon and Eleanor of Alburquerque.Meñli I Giray
Meñli I Giray (Crimean Tatar: I Meñli Geray, ۱منكلى كراى) (1445–1515), also spelled as Mengli I Giray, was a khan of the Crimean Khanate (1466, 1469–1475, 1478–1515) and the sixth son of Hacı I Giray.Richard Helyer
Richard Helyer (died 1446) was Archdeacon of Barnstaple from 1442 to 1445 and Archdeacon of Cornwall from 1445 to 1446.Richard Praty
Richard Praty (or Pratty, c. 1390 – August 1445) was a medieval university Chancellor and Bishop.After serving as the King's chaplain from 1430, including two years with him in France, Praty was made Dean of the Chapel Royal in 1432. He gave up this position after being nominated, with the active support of the King, to the office of the Bishop of Chichester on 21 April 1438 and consecrated on 27 July 1438. He was also Chancellor of the University of Oxford during 1438–9.
Praty died in August 1445.Sayyid dynasty
The Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, with four rulers ruling from 1414 to 1451. Founded by Khizr Khan a former governor of Multan, they succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled the sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty. Members of the dynasty derived their title, Sayyid, or the descendants of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, based on the claim that they belonged to his lineage through his daughter Fatima, and son-in-law and cousin Ali.Thomas Brunce
Thomas Brunce (c. 1388 – 6 December 1445) was a 15th-century Bishop of Rochester and then Bishop of Norwich.Walter Trengof
Walter Trengof (or Treugof, died 1445) was an English medieval churchman and university Chancellor.
Trengof attended Exeter College, Oxford. He was three times Chancellor of the University of Oxford during 1417–21. From 1436 until his death in 1445, he was the Archdeacon of Cornwall.