1441 (MCDXLI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1441st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 441st year of the 2nd millennium, the 41st year of the 15th century, and the 2nd year of the 1440s decade. As of the start of 1441, the Gregorian calendar was 9 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which was the dominant calendar of the time.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1441 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1441
Ab urbe condita2194
Armenian calendar890
Assyrian calendar6191
Balinese saka calendar1362–1363
Bengali calendar848
Berber calendar2391
English Regnal year19 Hen. 6 – 20 Hen. 6
Buddhist calendar1985
Burmese calendar803
Byzantine calendar6949–6950
Chinese calendar庚申(Metal Monkey)
4137 or 4077
    — to —
辛酉年 (Metal Rooster)
4138 or 4078
Coptic calendar1157–1158
Discordian calendar2607
Ethiopian calendar1433–1434
Hebrew calendar5201–5202
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1497–1498
 - Shaka Samvat1362–1363
 - Kali Yuga4541–4542
Holocene calendar11441
Igbo calendar441–442
Iranian calendar819–820
Islamic calendar844–845
Japanese calendarEikyō 13 / Kakitsu 1
Javanese calendar1356–1357
Julian calendar1441
Korean calendar3774
Minguo calendar471 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−27
Thai solar calendar1983–1984
Tibetan calendar阳金猴年
(male Iron-Monkey)
1567 or 1186 or 414
    — to —
(female Iron-Rooster)
1568 or 1187 or 415


Date unknown



1438 in France

Events from the year 1438 in France

1440 in France

Events from the year 1440 in France

1440s in England

Events from the 1440s in England.

1441 in France

Events from the year 1441 in France

1441 in Ireland

Events from the year 1441 in Ireland.

1443 in France

Events from the year 1443 in France

Baron Sudeley

Baron Sudeley is a title that has been created thrice in British history, twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first creation came in the Peerage of England in 1299 when John de Sudeley was summoned to Parliament as Lord Sudeley. On the death of the third Baron in 1367 the title fell into abeyance. The abeyance was terminated in 1380 when Thomas Boteler, the fourth Baron, became sole heir. The sixth Baron was created Baron Sudeley by letters patent in 1441. He served as Lord High Treasurer from 1444 to 1447. On his death in 1473 the 1441 creation became extinct while the 1299 creation once again fell into abeyance.

The third creation came in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1838 when Charles Hanbury-Tracy was created Baron Sudeley, of Toddington in the County of Gloucester. He had previously represented Tewkesbury in the House of Commons as a Whig and served as Lord Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire. He was also as Chairman of the Royal Commission appointed to judge designs for the new Houses of Parliament. He married his cousin Hon. Henrietta Susanna, daughter and heiress of Henry Leigh Tracy, 8th and last Viscount Tracy, through which marriage the estate of Toddington Manor in Gloucestershire came into the Hanbury family. Five days before the marriage Charles Hanbury assumed the additional surname of Tracy.

He was succeeded by his son, the second Baron. He sat as a Member of Parliament for Wallingford and served as Lord Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire. In 1806 Lord Sudeley assumed by Royal licence the surname of Leigh in lieu of his patronymic. However, in 1839 he discontinued the use of this surname and resumed by Royal licence his original surname of Hanbury-Tracy. On his death the title passed to his son, the third Baron. He was also Lord Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire. He was succeeded by his younger brother, the fourth Baron. He was a Liberal Member of Parliament for Montgomery from 1863 to 1877 and served under William Ewart Gladstone as Captain of the Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms in 1886. However, he later came into financial difficulties which caused the sale of the family seat of Toddington Manor. As of 2010 the title is held by his great-grandson, the seventh Baron, who succeeded his first cousin once removed, the sixth Baron, in 1941.

The Hon. Frederick Hanbury-Tracy, younger son of the second Baron, was Member of Parliament for Montgomery.

Battle of Craig Cailloc

The Battle of Craig Cailloch was a Scottish clan battle fought in 1441 between the Clan Cameron and Clan Mackintosh (Chattan Confederation). According to the Cameron account the chief of Clan Mackintosh's son was wounded and his brother was killed.

Battle of Samobor

The Battle of Samobor (Croatian: Bitka kod Samobora) on March 1, 1441 was fought between the forces of Ulrich II of Celje and Stjepan Banić around Samobor, Kingdom of Croatia, which then was under personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary.

In a struggle for succession to the Crown of St. Stephen, Banić was allied to Vladislaus III of Varna while Ulrich II supported Ladislas the Posthumous's eventual right to the throne.

Ulrich II's forces were commanded by the Czech mercenary Jan Vitovec. They were ultimately victorious, taking Banić prisoner after the battle. However, the infant Ladislas' mother, Elisabeth of Bohemia (1409–1442), died the following year forcing Ulrich II to recognize Vladislaus III as king, as well as releasing all prisoners. Vladislaus III died soon after against the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Varna of 1444.

On the 565th anniversary of the battle, March 1, 2006, the city of Samobor hosted a large re-creation of the event.

Blanche I of Navarre

Blanche I (6 July 1387 – 1 April 1441) was Queen of Navarre from her father King Charles III of Navarre's death in 1425 until her own death. She served as Regent of Sicily in 1404–05 and in 1408–15.

Christopher of Bavaria

Christopher of Bavaria (26 February 1416 – 5/6 January 1448) was King of Denmark (1440–48, as Christopher III), Sweden (1441–48) and Norway (1442–48) during the era of the Kalmar Union.

Crimean Khanate

The Crimean Khanate (Crimean Tatar language: قرم خانلغى‎, Qırım Hanlığı or قرم يورتى‎, Qırım Yurtu) was a Turkic state of the Ottoman Empire from 1441 to 1783, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde of Mongol origin. Established by Hacı I Giray in 1441, the Crimean khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, thirteenth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan through marriage; Temür married one of Genghis Khan's granddaughters. Though, according to a well-know Russian historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences Zaitsev Ilya Vladimirovich, the Crimean Khanate was an independent state during all its history. The khanate was located in present-day Russia, Ukraine, Romania and Moldova.

Ottoman forces under Gedik Ahmet Pasha conquered all of the Crimean peninsula and joined it to the khanate in 1475. In 1774, it was released as a sovereign political entity, following the Russo-Turkish Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, and formally annexed by the Russian Empire in 1783, becoming the Taurida Governorate.


Eikyō (永享) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year" name) after Shōchō and before Kakitsu. This period spanned the years from September 1429 through February 1441. The reigning emperor was Go-Hanazono-tennō (後花園天皇).

Ernest, Elector of Saxony

Ernest (Meissen, 24 March 1441 – 26 August 1486 in Colditz) was Elector of Saxony from 1464 to 1486.

Ernst was the founder and progenitor of the Ernestine line of Saxon princes, and a direct patrilineal ancestor of Queen Elizabeth II (United Kingdom), Michael, Prince of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach), Konrad, Prince of Saxe-Meiningen (Saxe-Meiningen) and Andreas, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Saxe-Coburg and Gotha).


Kakitsu (嘉吉) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name") after Eikyō and before Bun'an. This period spanned the years from February 1441 through February 1444. The reigning emperor was Go-Hanazono-tennō (後花園天皇).

List of Navarrese monarchs

This is a list of the kings and queens of Pamplona, later Navarre. Pamplona was the primary name of the kingdom until its union with Aragon (1076–1134). However, the territorial designation Navarre came into use as an alternative name in the late tenth century, and the name Pamplona was retained well into the twelfth century.

Roholte Church

Roholte Church (Danish: Roholte Kirke) is a church located in the village of Roholte, between Faxe and Præstø in Roholte Parish, Faxe Municipality, Region Zealand, Denmark. From 1441 to 1677, the church belonged to the king. In 1737, it became the property of Otto Thott. It remained in the Thott family until 1953.

The original architecture is in the Late Gothic style, with additions in 1500 and renovations in 1884. The interior is a mix of Gothic and High Renaissance styles. The crucifix once had an inscription, now lost, that was among the oldest of its kind.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a United Nations Security Council resolution adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 8 November 2002, offering Iraq under Saddam Hussein "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolutions 660, 661, 678, 686, 687, 688, 707, 715, 986, and 1284).Resolution 1441 stated that Iraq was in material breach of the ceasefire terms presented under the terms of Resolution 687. Iraq's breaches related not only to weapons of mass destruction (WMD), but also the known construction of prohibited types of missiles, the purchase and import of prohibited armaments, and the continuing refusal of Iraq to compensate Kuwait for the widespread looting conducted by its troops during the 1990–1991 invasion and occupation. It also stated that "...false statements or omissions in the declarations submitted by Iraq pursuant to this resolution and failure by Iraq at any time to comply with, and cooperate fully in the implementation of, this resolution shall constitute a further material breach of Iraq's obligations."

University of Bordeaux

The University of Bordeaux (French: Université de Bordeaux) was founded in 1441 in France. The University of Bordeaux is part of the Community of universities and higher education institutions of Aquitaine.

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