1440

1440 (MCDXL) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1440th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 440th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 15th century, and the 1st year of the 1440s decade. As of the start of 1440, the Gregorian calendar was 9 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which was the dominant calendar of the time.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1440 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1440
MCDXL
Ab urbe condita2193
Armenian calendar889
ԹՎ ՊՁԹ
Assyrian calendar6190
Balinese saka calendar1361–1362
Bengali calendar847
Berber calendar2390
English Regnal year18 Hen. 6 – 19 Hen. 6
Buddhist calendar1984
Burmese calendar802
Byzantine calendar6948–6949
Chinese calendar己未(Earth Goat)
4136 or 4076
    — to —
庚申年 (Metal Monkey)
4137 or 4077
Coptic calendar1156–1157
Discordian calendar2606
Ethiopian calendar1432–1433
Hebrew calendar5200–5201
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1496–1497
 - Shaka Samvat1361–1362
 - Kali Yuga4540–4541
Holocene calendar11440
Igbo calendar440–441
Iranian calendar818–819
Islamic calendar843–844
Japanese calendarEikyō 12
(永享12年)
Javanese calendar1355–1356
Julian calendar1440
MCDXL
Korean calendar3773
Minguo calendar472 before ROC
民前472年
Nanakshahi calendar−28
Thai solar calendar1982–1983
Tibetan calendar阴土羊年
(female Earth-Goat)
1566 or 1185 or 413
    — to —
阳金猴年
(male Iron-Monkey)
1567 or 1186 or 414

Events

January–December

Date unknown

  • Itzcóatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan, dies and is succeeded by Moctezuma I (Moctezuma Ilhuicamina).
  • Lorenzo Valla's De falso credita et ementita Constantini Donatione declamatio demonstrates that the Donation of Constantine is a forgery.
  • Eton College is founded by Henry VI of England.
  • Sir Richard Molyneux is appointed constable of Liverpool Castle, in England.
  • The Ming Dynasty government of China begins a decade-long series of issuing harsh edicts towards those who illegally mine silver, the latter known as 'miner bandits' (kuangzei), a trend begun in 1438. The government wants to cap the amount of silver circulating into the market, as more grain taxes are converted into silver taxes. The government establishes community night watches known as 'watches and tithings' (baojia), who ensure that illegal mining activities are brought to a halt. However, these are desperate measures, as illegal silver mining continues to thrive as a dangerous but lucrative venture.
  • Zhu Quan writes the Cha Pu ("Tea manual") in China.

Births

Deaths

1440 AM

The following radio stations broadcast on AM frequency 1440 kHz: 1440 AM is a regional broadcast frequency.

1440 in France

Events from the year 1440 in France

1440s in England

Events from the 1440s in England.

FreeSync

FreeSync is an adaptive synchronization technology for liquid-crystal displays that support a dynamic refresh rate, aimed at reducing tearing and stuttering caused by misalignment with content's frame rate.FreeSync was developed by AMD and first announced in 2014 to compete against Nvidia's proprietary G-Sync. It is royalty-free, free to use, and has no performance penalty.

Gilles de Rais

Gilles de Rais (c. September 1405 – 26 October 1440), Baron de Rais (French: [də ʁɛ]), was a knight and lord from Brittany, Anjou and Poitou, a leader in the French army, and a companion-in-arms of Joan of Arc. He is best known for his reputation and later conviction as a confessed serial killer of children.

A member of the House of Montmorency-Laval, Gilles de Rais grew up under the tutelage of his maternal grandfather and increased his fortune by marriage. He earned the favour of the Duke of Brittany and was admitted to the French court. From 1427 to 1435, Gilles served as a commander in the Royal Army, and fought alongside Joan of Arc against the English and their Burgundian allies during the Hundred Years' War, for which he was appointed Marshal of France.

In 1434/1435, he retired from military life, depleted his wealth by staging an extravagant theatrical spectacle of his own composition, and was accused of dabbling in the occult. After 1432, Gilles was accused of engaging in a series of child murders, with victims possibly numbering in the hundreds. The killings came to an end in 1440, when a violent dispute with a clergyman led to an ecclesiastical investigation that brought the crimes to light, and attributed them to Gilles. At his trial the parents of missing children in the surrounding area and Gilles's own confederates in crime testified against him. He was condemned to death and hanged at Nantes on 26 October 1440.

Gilles de Rais is believed to be the inspiration for the 1697 fairy tale "Bluebeard" ("Barbe bleue") by Charles Perrault.

Giovanni Vitelleschi

Giovanni Maria Vitelleschi (1396 – 2 April 1440) was an Italian cardinal and condottiere.

Graphics display resolution

The graphics display resolution is the width and height dimension of an electronic visual display device, such as a computer monitor, in pixels. Certain combinations of width and height are standardized and typically given a name and an initialism that is descriptive of its dimensions. A higher display resolution in a display of the same size means that displayed photo or video content appears sharper, and pixel art appears smaller.

Hijri year

The Hijri year (Arabic: سَنة هِجْريّة‎) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 CE. During that year, Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina). This event, known as the Hijra, is commemorated in Islam for its role in the founding of the first Muslim community (ummah).

In the West, this era is most commonly denoted as AH (Latin: Anno Hegirae , "in the year of the Hijra") in parallel with the Christian (AD), Common (CE) and Jewish eras (AM) and can similarly be placed before or after the date. In Muslim countries, it is also commonly abbreviated H ("Hijra") from its Arabic abbreviation hāʾ (هـ). Years prior to AH 1 are reckoned in English as BH ("Before the Hijra"), which should follow the date.Because the Islamic lunar calendar has only 354 or 355 days in its year, it slowly rotates relative to the Gregorian year. The year 2019 CE corresponds to the Islamic years AH 1440 – 1441. AH 1440 corresponds to 2018 – 2019 in the Common Era.

Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland

Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland (c. 1379 – 13 November 1440), was the fourth of the four children (and only daughter) of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his mistress, later wife, Katherine Swynford. In her widowhood, she was a powerful landowner in the North of England.

KFAY

KFAY (1030 AM, "NewsTalk 1030") is a radio station serving the Fayetteville, Arkansas, area with a News/talk radio format. It is under ownership of Cumulus Media. 1030 AM is a United States clear-channel frequency, on which WBZ in Boston is the dominant Class A station.

KFAY originally signed on as KGRH 1450 kHz, licensed to Fayetteville. It later changed callsign to KHOG and moved to 1440 kHz. KHOG programmed a top-40 format in the 1970s. KHOG moved from 1440 kHz to 1030 kHz frequency in the mid-1980s under the ownership of Demaree Media.

KMAJ (AM)

KMAJ (The Big Talker) is an AM radio station in Topeka, Kansas broadcasting on the frequency of 1440 kHz. KMAJ is an ABC News & Talk network affiliate that is owned by Cumulus Media.

KPUR (AM)

KPUR (1440 AM), branded as "Sportsradio 1440", is a radio station serving the Amarillo, Texas, area with a sports format. This station is under ownership of Cumulus Media. Its studios are located at the Amarillo Building downtown on Polk Street, and its transmitter tower is based southeast of Amarillo in unincorporated Randall County along Loop 335 (Hollywood Road).

KPUR was once KFDA on 1230 kHz. It hit the air in 1939. After World War II, Amarillo station KGNC moved from 1440 kHz to 710 kHz with greater power. KFDA filed to move to the vacated 1440 raising power from 250 watts on 1230 to 5,000 watts days and 1,000 watts nights. Night used a three tower directional antenna system. The call letters changed to KPUR in 1966. The station was sold by former television partner KFDA-TV (and Texas State Network interests) to Charlie Jordan, the manager at the time.

The towers were located east of Amarillo just south of the former Route 66 (now I-40) which shared land with the studios. In the mid seventies the land was largely sold off to shopping center developers. Towers were relocated to the present site. That site was subject to a late 1970s fire when a Harris MW-5 transmitter melted down. The MW-5 used a step up transformer to raise the three phase input power (at 240 volts) to 17,000 volts. The primary wiring had been bundled closely to the secondary wiring and tightly lashed together. When an insulation breakdown allowed the input wiring to arc, the high temperatures allowed the secondary wires to short to the inputs. This caused extremely high circulating currents and a meltdown of the transformer frame (made of metal castings and laminations).

The station is an affiliate of the Dallas Cowboys radio network and the West Texas Friday Night Scoreboard Show.On March 30, 2012 KPUR changed their format from sports to oldies, branded as "True Oldies".

On October 22, 2012 KPUR changed their format back to sports, branded as "ESPN 1440" with programming from ESPN Radio.

On January 2, 2013 KPUR switched affiliations from ESPN Radio to CBS Sports Radio, branded as "Sportsradio 1440".

KYCR (AM)

KYCR (1440 AM) is a radio station serving the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. It is owned by Salem Media Group, and is carrying a business radio format.

KYCR's studios are located in Eagan, while its transmitter is located in Golden Valley.

Ladislaus the Posthumous

Ladislaus the Posthumous, known also as Ladislas (Hungarian: Utószülött László; Croatian: Ladislav Posmrtni; Czech: Ladislav Pohrobek, 22 February 1440 – 23 November 1457) (in Hungarian: V. László), was Duke of Austria, and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. He was the posthumous son of Albert of Habsburg with Elizabeth of Luxembourg. Albert had bequeathed all his realms to his future son on his deathbed, but only the Estates of Austria accepted his last will. Fearing an Ottoman invasion, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates offered the crown to Vladislaus III of Poland. The Hussite noblemen and towns of Bohemia did not acknowledge the hereditary right of Albert's descendants to the throne, but also did not elect a new king.

After Ladislaus's birth, his mother seized the Holy Crown of Hungary and had Ladislaus – known as Ladislaus V in Hungary – crowned king in Székesfehérvár on 15 May 1440. However, the Diet of Hungary declared Ladislaus's coronation invalid and elected Vladislaus king. A civil war broke out which lasted for years. Elizabeth appointed her late husband's distant cousin, Frederick III, King of the Romans, Ladislaus' guardian. Ladislaus lived in Frederick's court (mainly in Wiener Neustadt), where Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (the future Pope Pius II) wrote a treatise of his education.

After his mother died in late 1442, Ladislaus' interests were represented by a Czech condottiere, John Jiskra of Brandýs, in Hungary, and by the Czech Catholic lord, Ulrich II of Rosenberg, in Bohemia. Ladislaus' rival in Hungary, Vladislaus, fell in the Battle of Varna in November 1444. The next year, the Diet of Hungary offered to acknowledge Ladislaus as king if Frederick III renounced his guardianship. After Frederick III rejected the offer, the Diet of Hungary elected John Hunyadi regent in 1446. In Bohemia, the head of the moderate Hussites (or Utraquists), George of Poděbrady, took control of Prague in 1448. The Estates of Austria forced Frederick III to resign the guardianship and hand over Ladislaus to them in September 1452. Royal administration was formally restored in Hungary after Hunyadi resigned the regency in early 1453, but he continued to control most royal castles and revenues.

Ulrich II, Count of Celje (his mother's cousin) became Ladislaus' main advisor, but an Austrian baron, Ulrich Eytzinger, forced Ladislaus to expel Celje from his court. Although Ladislaus was crowned king of Bohemia on 28 October 1453, Poděbrady remained in full control of the government. During the following years, Eytzinger, Hunyadi and Poděbrady closely cooperated to mutually secure their positions. Ladislaus was reconciled with Ulrich II in early 1455. With the support of the leading Hungarian barons, Ladislaus persuaded Hunyadi to withdraw his troops from most royal castles and renounce the administration of part of the royal revenues.

After the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II decided to invade Hungary, Ladislaus and Ulrich II left the kingdom. The sultan laid siege to Belgrade. Hunyadi relieved the fortress on 22 July 1456, but he died two weeks later. Ladislaus and Ulrich II returned to Hungary and tried to force Hunyadi's son, Ladislaus, to renounce all royal castles and revenues, but Ladislaus Hunyadi murdered Ulrich II on 9 November, forcing Ladislaus to grant an amnesty to him. However, most Hungarian barons were hostile towards Ladislaus Hunyadi. With their support, Ladislaus captured him and his brother, Matthias. After Ladislaus Hunyadi was executed in March 1457, his relatives stirred up a rebellion against Ladislaus, forcing him to flee from Hungary. Ladislaus died unexpectedly in Prague. He was the last male member of the Albertinian Line of the House of Habsburg.

List of rulers of Lithuania

The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory. The timeline includes Lithuania as a sovereign entity or legitimately part of a greater sovereign entity as well as Lithuania under control or occupation of an outside authority (i.e., Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic). The incumbents and office-holders are listed by names most commonly used in English language. Where appropriate, the alternations in Lithuanian, Ruthenian (later Belarusian) and Polish are included.

The state of Lithuania formed in the 1230s, when threatened by the Livonian Order in the north and the Teutonic Knights in the west, the Baltic tribes united under the leadership of Mindaugas. He became the only crowned king of Lithuania. His state became known as Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After Grand Duke Jogaila became also king of Poland in 1386, the two states became closer connected and since 1440 both were ruled by a common ruler. In 1569 Union of Lublin was signed and a new entity—the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—emerged. The commonwealth was partitioned in 1795 and Lithuania became part of the Russian Empire till 16 February 1918. The Council of Lithuania was able to establish the sovereignty only in 1919, after Germany lost World War I. The first republic of Lithuania existed until 1940 when it was occupied by the Soviet Union. During the Soviet-German War, Lithuania was occupied by Nazi Germany. In 1944, as Germany was losing the war, Russia re-occupied Lithuania and established the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first Soviet republic to declare independence. The restored Republic of Lithuania is a democratic republic, a member of both the European Union and NATO.

Methyldopa

Methyldopa, sold under the brand name Aldomet among others, is a medication used for high blood pressure. It is one of the preferred treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy. For other types of high blood pressure including very high blood pressure resulting in symptoms other medications are typically preferred. It can be given by mouth or injection into a vein. Onset of effects is around 5 hours and they last about a day.Common side effects include sleepiness. More severe side effects include red blood cell breakdown, liver problems, and allergic reactions. Methyldopa is in the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist family of medication. It works by stimulating the brain to decrease the activity of the sympathetic nervous system.Methyldopa was discovered in 1960. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$4.31–9.48 per month. In the United States it costs less than $25 per month.

Universal Pictures Home Entertainment

Universal Pictures Home Entertainment (formerly Universal Studios Home Entertainment, Universal Studios Home Video, MCA/Universal Home Video, MCA Home Video, MCA Videodisc Inc. and MCA Videocassette Inc.) is the home video distribution division of American film studio Universal Pictures, owned by the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of NBCUniversal, which is owned by Comcast.

WGLD

WGLD (1440 AM) is a commercial AM radio station licensed to serve Manchester Township, Pennsylvania. The station is owned by Cumulus Media, Inc., through licensee Radio License Holding SRC LLC, and broadcasts a sports talk format as a CBS Sports Radio affiliate. Its broadcast tower is located near York at (39°59′58″N 76°44′43.3″W).The station's programming is also available to listeners with an HD Radio receiver via a simulcast on the HD4 subchannel of FM sister station WSOX.

William Atwater (bishop)

William Atwater (1440–1521) was an English churchman, who became Bishop of Lincoln in 1514He was a Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, from 1480. He served as Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University, in the period from 1497 to 1502.He became vicar of Cumnor in 1495. He became Dean of the Chapel Royal, in 1502.In 1504 he was appointed Canon of the eleventh stall at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, a position he held until 1514.He was Chancellor of Lincoln from 1506 to 1512.

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