|1439 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2192|
|Balinese saka calendar||1360–1361|
|English Regnal year||17 Hen. 6 – 18 Hen. 6|
|Chinese calendar||戊午年 (Earth Horse)|
4135 or 4075
— to —
己未年 (Earth Goat)
4136 or 4076
|- Vikram Samvat||1495–1496|
|- Shaka Samvat||1360–1361|
|- Kali Yuga||4539–4540|
|Japanese calendar||Eikyō 11|
|Minguo calendar||473 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1981–1982|
1565 or 1184 or 412
— to —
1566 or 1185 or 413
Events from the 1430s in England.1437 in France
Events from the year 1437 in France1438 in France
Events from the year 1438 in France1439 in France
Events from the year 1439 in FranceAlbert II of Germany
Albert the Magnanimous KG (10 August 1397 – 27 October 1439) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1437 until his death and member of the House of Habsburg. He was also King of Bohemia, elected King of Germany as Albert II, Duke of Luxembourg and, as Albert V, Archduke of Austria from 1404.Aleglitazar
Aleglitazar is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist (hence a PPAR modulator ) with affinity to PPARα and PPARγ, which was under development by Hoffmann–La Roche for the treatment of type II diabetes. It is no longer in phase III clinical trials.Battle of Grotniki
The Battle of Grotniki took place on 4 May 1439 in the vicinity of Grotniki Duże, a village near Nowy Korczyn, currently in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship.
The battle was fought between the Hussite confederates under Spytko III of Melsztyn against the royal forces of King Władysław III of Poland under Hińcza of Rogów and de facto regent bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki. The defeat of the non-Catholic forces marked the end of militant Hussite movement in Poland and the beginning of a complete consolidation of power in the Polish Kingdom, led by bishop Zbigniew.Council of Florence
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire. At stake was the greater conflict between the Conciliar movement and the principle of papal supremacy.
The Council entered a second phase after Emperor Sigismund's death in 1437. Pope Eugene IV convoked a rival Council of Ferrara on 8 January 1438 and succeeded in drawing the Byzantine ambassadors to Italy. The Council of Basel first suspended him, declared him a heretic, and then in November 1439 elected an antipope, Felix V. The rival Council of Florence (moved to avoid the plague in Ferrara) concluded in 1445 after negotiating unions with the various eastern churches. This bridging of the Great Schism proved fleeting, but was a political coup for the papacy. In 1447, Sigismund's successor Frederick III commanded the city of Basel to expel the Council of Basel; the rump council reconvened in Lausanne before dissolving itself in 1449.Doravirine
Doravirine (MK-1439) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor developed by Merck & Co. for use in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. In August 2018, the FDA approved doravine under the product name Pifeltro, and in a combination tablet, doravirine/lamivudine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Delstrigo).Eric of Pomerania
Eric of Pomerania (1381 or 1382 – 24 September 1459) was the ruler of the Kalmar Union from 1396 until 1439, succeeding his grandaunt, Queen Margaret I. He is numbered Eric III as King of Norway (1389–1442), Eric VII as King of Denmark (1396–1439) and Eric XIII as King of Sweden (1396–1434, 1436–39). Today, in all three countries he is more commonly known as Erik av Pommern.
Eric was ultimately deposed from all three kingdoms of the union, but in 1449 he inherited one of the partitions of the Duchy of Pomerania and ruled it as duke until his death.John Prene
John Prene was an Irish Archbishop.He was Dean of St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin from 1401 until 1428; Archdeacon of Armagh from 1431 to 1439 and Archbishop of Armagh from 1439 until his death on 13 June 1443.Joseph II of Constantinople
Joseph II (1360 – 10 June 1439) was Patriarch of Constantinople from 1416 to 1439.
Born the (possibly illegitimate) son of Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria in 1360, little is known of his early life before he became a monk on Mount Athos. He became Metropolitan of Ephesus in 1393, before being elected Patriarch of Constantinople on 21 May 1416. Together with Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos, 23 Metropolitan bishops and countless scholars and theologians, he took part in the Council of Florence. While in Florence, he was quartered in the Palazzo Ferrantini. He is portrayed in Benozzo Gozzoli's frescoes in the Magi Chapel of Palazzo Medici Riccardi, which celebrates the entrance of the Byzantine dignitaries in the city.
Joseph was very old and ill and died within 2 months on 10 June 1439. His death caused much grief to all present at the Council, as he was a fervent supporter of union between the Churches. His grave in the Dominican convent church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence survives, with an elaborate fresco portrait in a semi-Byzantine style. He was succeeded as Patriarch of Constantinople by Metrophanes II, who was appointed by Emperor John VIII on account of his similarly pro-unionist sentiments.
He was cousin of Constantine II of Bulgaria.Koca Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha
Osmancıklı (or Amasyalı) Koca Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha (Turkish: Osmancıklı Danişmendoğlu Koca Mehmet Nizamüddin Paşa; died 1439) was an Ottoman statesman who served as grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1429 to 1438.He settled in Osmancık after his service as grand vizier and died there in 1439. He was the son of Imamzade Halil Pasha, who also served as grand vizier.List of elections in 1439
The following elections occurred in the year 1439.
Council of FlorenceMargaret Holland, Duchess of Clarence
Margaret Holland (1385 – 30 December 1439) was a medieval English noblewoman. She was a daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, who was the son of Joan "the Fair Maid of Kent" (granddaughter of Edward I of England, wife of Edward the Black Prince and mother of Richard II of England). Margaret's mother was Alice FitzAlan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor of Lancaster.
Margaret married John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, son of John of Gaunt and his mistress Katherine Swynford. They had six children:
Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset (1401–1418)
Joan Beaufort (d. 1445), who married James I of Scotland and Sir James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn
John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset (1404–1444)
Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche (c. 1405–1431)
Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset (c. 1406–1455)
Margaret Beaufort (c. 1408–1449), married Thomas de Courtenay, 5th Earl of DevonIn 1399, she was invested as a Lady Companion, Order of the Garter (L.G.). After Beaufort died in 1410 (in the Tower of London), she married his nephew Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence (1387–1421), the son of King Henry IV. They had no children. She died on 30 December 1439 at St. Saviour's Abbey, Bermondsey, in London, England. Margaret and both her husbands are buried together in a carved alabaster tomb in Canterbury Cathedral that shows her lying between the two of them.Mohnyin Thado
Mohnyin Thado (Burmese: မိုးညှင်းသတိုး, pronounced [móɲ̥ɪ́ɴ ðədó]; Mohnyin Mintaya; 1379 – 1439) was king of Ava from 1426 to 1439. The ethnic Burman saopha (chief) of Mohnyin came to power after overthrowing King Kale Kyetaungnyo and his queen Shin Bo-Me in 1426. His reign marks the plateauing of Ava's power. Left exhausted by the Forty Years' War with Hanthawaddy Pegu (Bago) in the south, and long-running wars against various Shan States in the north, Ava was no longer in a position to expand. Mohnyin Thado spent his 12-year reign keeping restive regions of Ava in one piece. He never controlled Toungoo. He had to tolerate the governors of other regions who treated him as at best a senior. Hanthwaddy aided the Toungoo rebellion in 1426 and seized the region in 1436. But the two kingdoms did not resume a full-scale war.
In 1438, Mohnyin Thado renumbered the Burmese calendar by subtracting two years on the advice of a court astrologer. The change did not stick as he died a year later.
King Alaungpaya of Konbaung Dynasty claimed descent from Mohnyin Thado.Pope Pius III
Pope Pius III (29 May 1439 – 18 October 1503), born Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 22 September 1503 to his death. He had one of the shortest pontificates in papal history.Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick
Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick (25 or 28 January 1382 – 30 April 1439) was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.Richard Mayew
Richard Mayew (1439/40–1516), also written Mayo, was an English academic, who became Bishop of Hereford (1504 to 1516) and a diplomat for Henry VII of England.