|1431 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2184|
|Balinese saka calendar||1352–1353|
|English Regnal year||9 Hen. 6 – 10 Hen. 6|
|Chinese calendar||庚戌年 (Metal Dog)|
4127 or 4067
— to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
4128 or 4068
|- Vikram Samvat||1487–1488|
|- Shaka Samvat||1352–1353|
|- Kali Yuga||4531–4532|
|Japanese calendar||Eikyō 3|
|Minguo calendar||481 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1973–1974|
1557 or 1176 or 404
— to —
1558 or 1177 or 405
Events from the 1430s in England.1431 in France
Events from the year 1431 in France1431 in Ireland
Events from the year 1431 in Ireland.1431 papal conclave
The papal conclave of 1431 (March 2–3) convened after the death of Pope Martin V, elected as his successor cardinal Gabriele Condulmer, who took the name Eugene IV. It was the first papal conclave held after the end of the Great Western Schism.Battle of Inverlochy (1431)
The Battle of Inverlochy (1431) (Scottish Gaelic: Blàr Inbhir Lòchaidh) was fought after Alexander of Islay (Alasdair Ìle, Rìgh Innse Gall), Lord of the Isles and Earl of Ross, had been imprisoned by King James I. A force of Highlanders led by Donald Balloch, Alexander's cousin, defeated Royalist forces led by the Earls of Mar and Caithness at Inverlochy, near present-day Fort William. Over 1000 men were supposedly killed, among them the Earl of Caithness. Balloch then went on to ravage the country of Clan Cameron and Clan Chattan, who had been loyal to the king during the rebellion. King James himself soon after led an army into the Highlands, and the rebel forces disintegrated.
With the murder of King James 6 years later, Alexander was liberated, and renewed the campaign of vengeance against the Royalist supporters.Dark ages of Cambodia
The Dark ages of Cambodia, also called the Middle Period, refers to the historical era from the early 15th century to 1863, the beginning of the French Protectorate of Cambodia. As reliable sources (for the 15th and 16th centuries, in particular) are very rare, a defensible and conclusive explanation that relates to concrete events that manifest the decline of the Khmer Empire, recognised unanimously by the scientific community, has so far not been produced. However, most modern historians have approached a consensus in which several distinct and gradual changes of religious, dynastic, administrative and military nature, environmental problems and ecological imbalance coincided with shifts of power in Indochina and must all be taken into account to make an interpretation. In recent years scholars' focus has shifted increasingly towards human–environment interactions and the ecological consequences, including natural disasters, such as flooding and droughts.Stone epigraphy in temples, which had been the primary source for Khmer history, is already a rarity throughout the 13th century, ends in the third decade of the fourteenth, and does not resume until the mid-16th century. Recording of the Royal Chronology discontinues with King Jayavarman IX Parameshwara (or Jayavarma-Paramesvara), who reigned from 1327 to 1336. There exists not a single contemporary record of even a king’s name for over 200 years. Construction and maintenance of monumental temple architecture had come to a standstill after Jayavarman VII's reign. According to author Michael Vickery there only exist external sources for Cambodia’s 15th century, the Chinese Ming Shilu (engl. veritable records) annals and the earliest Royal Chronicle of Ayutthaya, which must be interpreted with greatest caution. Wang Shi-zhen (王世貞), a Chinese scholar of the 16th century, is noted as having remarked: "The official historians are unrestrained and are skilful at concealing the truth; but the memorials and statutes they record and the documents they copy cannot be discarded." The single incident which undoubtedly reflects reality, the central reference point for the entire 15th century, is a Siamese intervention of some undisclosed nature at the capital Yasodharapura (Angkor Thom) around the year 1431. Historians relate the event to the shift of Cambodia's political centre southward to the river port region of Phnom Penh and later Longvek.Sources for the 16th century are more numerous, although still coming from outside of Cambodia. The kingdom is centred at the Mekong, prospering as an integral part of the Asian maritime trade network, via which the first contact with European explorers and adventurers does occur. Wars with the Siamese resulted in loss of territory in the West and eventually the conquest of the capital Longvek in 1594. The Vietnamese on their "Southward March" reached Prei Nokor/Saigon at the Mekong Delta in the 17th century. This event initiates the slow process of Cambodia losing access to the seas and independent marine trade.Siamese and Vietnamese dominance intensified during the 17th and 18th century, provoking frequent displacements of the seat of power as the Khmer monarch's authority decreased to the state of a vassal. Both powers alternately demanded subservience and tribute from the Cambodian court. In the early 19th century with dynasties in Vietnam and Siam firmly established, Cambodia was placed under joint suzerainty, having lost its national sovereignty. British agent John Crawfurd states: "...the King of that ancient Kingdom is ready to throw himself under the protection of any European nation..." To save Cambodia from being incorporated into Vietnam and Siam, King Ang Duong agreed to colonial France's offers of protection, which took effect with King Norodom Prohmbarirak signing and officially recognising the French protectorate on 11 August 1863.Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc, in French Jeanne d'Arc (French pronunciation: [ʒan daʁk]) or Jehanne (c. 1412 – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (French: La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War, and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint. She was born to Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée, a peasant family, at Domrémy in north-east France. Joan claimed to have received visions of the Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief army. She gained prominence after the siege was lifted only nine days later. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims. This long-awaited event boosted French morale and paved the way for the final French victory.
On 23 May 1430, she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, a group of French nobles allied with the English. She was later handed over to the English and put on trial by the pro-English bishop Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges. After Cauchon declared her guilty she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age.In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr. In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League, and in 1803 she was declared a national symbol of France by the decision of Napoleon Bonaparte. She was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with Saint Denis, Saint Martin of Tours, Saint Louis, Saint Michael, Saint Rémi, Saint Petronilla, Saint Radegund and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux.
Joan of Arc has remained a popular figure in literature, painting, sculpture, and other cultural works since the time of her death, and many famous writers, playwrights, filmmakers, artists, and composers have created, and continue to create, cultural depictions of her.Khmer people
Khmer people (; Khmer: ខ្មែរ, Khmer pronunciation: [kʰmaːe], Northern Khmer pronunciation: [kʰmɛr]) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for over 97% of the country's 15.9 million people. They speak the Khmer language, which is part of the larger Austroasiatic language family found in parts of Southeast Asia (including Vietnam and Laos), parts of central, eastern, and north eastern India, parts of Bangladesh in South Asia, in parts of Southern China and numerous islands in the Indian Ocean.
The majority of the Khmer are followers of the Khmer style of Buddhism, a highly syncretic version that blends elements of Theravada Buddhism, Hinduism, animism, and veneration of the dead. Significant populations of Khmers reside in adjacent areas of Thailand (Northern Khmer) and the Mekong Delta region of neighboring Vietnam (Khmer Krom), while there are over one million Khmers in the Cambodian diaspora living mainly in France, the United States, and Australia.List of elections in 1431
The following elections occurred in the year 1431.
Papal conclave, 1431Monarchy of Cambodia
The King of Cambodia (Khmer: ព្រះមហាក្សត្រនៃព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, French: Roi du Royaume du Cambodge) is the head of state of the Kingdom of Cambodia. The King's power is limited to that of a symbolic figurehead to whom people are to give love and respect. The monarch also represents peace, stability, and prosperity to the Khmer people. Since 1993, the King of Cambodia is an elected monarch, making Cambodia one of the few elective monarchies of the world. The king is elected for life from among the members of the Norodom and Sisowath bloodline who are at least 30 years old by the Royal Council of the Throne, which consists of several senior political and religious figures.No. 69 Squadron RAF
The designation No. 69 Squadron has been used by the Royal Air Force for two quite different units.
No. 3 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps was formed at Point Cook, Victoria, Australia in 1916. To avoid confusion with No. 3 Squadron, RFC, it was known to the British military as "No. 69 Squadron RFC", although this terminology was never accepted by the squadron or the Australian Imperial Force.The squadron was "re-formed" on 10 January 1941 during World War II, when No. 431 (General Reconnaissance) Flight RAF, briefly re-designated as No. 1431 Flight RAF. on Malta became No. 69 Squadron. It carried out strategic reconnaissance missions mainly using Martin Marylands until May 1942 when Spitfires began to carry out all reconnaissance missions. These were later supplemented by Martin Baltimores for shipping reconnaissance and anti-submarine patrols until April 1944 when the Squadron returned to the UK.No. 69 re-assembled at RAF Northolt on 5 May 1944 as part of No. 34 Wing of the Second Tactical Air Force equipped with Vickers Wellington XIIIs for night reconnaissance duties, beginning operations on the eve of D-Day, using flares to locate enemy troop movements. In September the Squadron moved to France and Belgium until 7 May 1945, the Squadron disbanding on 7 August 1945.On 8 August 1945, 613 Squadron at Cambrai-Epinoy, France, was renumbered No. 69 Squadron, flying Mosquito FB.VI fighter-bombers until it was again disbanded on 31 March 1946. The next day, 180 Squadron was renumbered No. 69 at Wahn again equipped with Mosquito light bombers until again disbanded on 6 November 1947.The squadron flew from RAF Gutersloh in Germany briefly from 1954. No. 69 had been reformed on 5 May 1954 at RAF Laarbruch as a Canberra reconnaissance unit and remained in Germany until renumbered 39 Squadron on 1 July 1958.PSR J0108-1431
PSR J0108-1431 is a solitary pulsar located at a distance of about 130 parsecs (424 light years) in the constellation Cetus. This pulsar was discovered in 1994 during the Parkes Southern Pulsar Survey.
It is considered a very old pulsar with an estimated age of 166 million years and a rotation period of 0.8 seconds. The rotational energy being generated by the spin-down of this pulsar is 5.8 × 1023 W and the surface magnetic field is 2.5 × 107 T. As of 2008, it is the second faintest known pulsar.An X-ray emission with an energy flux of (9 ± 2) × 1012 W m−2 was detected in the 0.3–8 keV band using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This X-ray energy is generated from the conversion of 0.4% of the pulsar's spin-down power. As of 2009, PSR J0108-1431 is the least powerful of the ordinary pulsars that have been detected in the X-ray range.The "Very Large Telescope" at the European Southern Observatory in Northern Chile observed a possible optical counterpart of this neutron star. The object has an apparent magnitude that is (X ≤ 27.8). No companions have been discovered in orbit around this object.Polish–Teutonic War (1431–35)
The Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) was an armed conflict between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights. It ended with the Peace of Brześć Kujawski and is considered a victory for Poland.Pope Martin V
Pope Martin V (Latin: Martinus V; January/February 1369 – 20 February 1431), born Otto (or Oddone) Colonna, was Pope from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431. His election effectively ended the Western Schism (1378–1417).Ranch to Market Road 1431
Ranch to Market Road 1431 (RM 1431) is a 66.702-mile (107.346 km) ranch to market road that connects Austin, Texas, to rural areas of Central Texas.Richard Fleming
Richard Fleming (c. 1385 – 25 or 26 January 1431), Bishop of Lincoln and founder of Lincoln College, Oxford, was born at Crofton in Yorkshire.The Trial of Joan of Arc of Proven, 1431
The Trial of Joan of Arc of Proven, 1431 is an adaptation by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht of a radio play by Anna Seghers. It was written in collaboration with Benno Besson and premiered at the Berliner Ensemble in November 1952, in a production directed by Besson (his first important production with the Ensemble), with Käthe Reichel as Joan.Thihathura of Ava
Thihathura of Ava (Burmese: သီဟသူရ (အင်းဝ), pronounced [θìha̰θùja̰]; also Maha Thihathura; 1431–1480) was king of Ava from 1468 to 1480. He was the last king of Ava who was able to hold on to the increasingly fractious kingdom in its entirety. Soon after succeeding his father Narapati, the new king had to put down a rebellion in Toungoo (Taungoo) in 1470, and suppressed an insurrection by his brother the lord of Prome (Pyay), whom the king pardoned. He gained submission of the eastern Shan state of Yawnghwe, and quelled a potential rebellion in the northern Shan states of Mohnyin and Mogaung. He was succeeded by his son Minkhaung II.University of Poitiers
The University of Poitiers (French: Université de Poitiers) is a university in Poitiers, France. It is a member of the Coimbra Group, as one of the oldest universities of Europe. As of July 2015 it is a member of the regional university association
Leonardo da Vinci consolidated University.