1425

Year 1425 (MCDXXV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1425 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1425
MCDXXV
Ab urbe condita2178
Armenian calendar874
ԹՎ ՊՀԴ
Assyrian calendar6175
Balinese saka calendar1346–1347
Bengali calendar832
Berber calendar2375
English Regnal yearHen. 6 – 4 Hen. 6
Buddhist calendar1969
Burmese calendar787
Byzantine calendar6933–6934
Chinese calendar甲辰(Wood Dragon)
4121 or 4061
    — to —
乙巳年 (Wood Snake)
4122 or 4062
Coptic calendar1141–1142
Discordian calendar2591
Ethiopian calendar1417–1418
Hebrew calendar5185–5186
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1481–1482
 - Shaka Samvat1346–1347
 - Kali Yuga4525–4526
Holocene calendar11425
Igbo calendar425–426
Iranian calendar803–804
Islamic calendar828–829
Japanese calendarŌei 32
(応永32年)
Javanese calendar1339–1341
Julian calendar1425
MCDXXV
Korean calendar3758
Minguo calendar487 before ROC
民前487年
Nanakshahi calendar−43
Thai solar calendar1967–1968
Tibetan calendar阳木龙年
(male Wood-Dragon)
1551 or 1170 or 398
    — to —
阴木蛇年
(female Wood-Snake)
1552 or 1171 or 399

Events

Date unknown

  • Beijing, capital of China, becomes the largest city in the world, taking the lead from Nanjing (estimated date).[1]
  • By this year, paper currency in China is worth only 0.025% to 0.014% of its original value in the 14th century; this, and the counterfeiting of copper coin currency, will lead to a dramatic shift to using silver as the common medium of exchange in China.
  • The Maltese people rise up against Don Gonsalvo Monroy, count of Malta. The insurgents repel an attempt by the Viceroy of Sicily to bring the island to order. The Maltese do not submit to Catalan-Aragonese rule, until the Magna Charta Libertatis, granting them their new rights, is delivered to them.
  • Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi's critical history of Persia, Zafar Nama, is completed under the auspices of Mirza Ibrahim Sultan, grandson of Timur.

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Geography at about.com
1425 in France

Events from the year 1425 in France

Al-Saffahiyah Mosque

The Al-Saffahiyah Mosque (Arabic: جامع السفاحية‎) is a mosque in Aleppo, located to the south-west of the Citadel, at "Al-Jalloum" district of the ancient city, to the east of Al-Shibani Church-School. The mosque was built in 1425 under the patronage of Ahmed bin Saleh bin Al-Saffah on the ruins of an old mill, during the Mamluk period.The mosque is marked with its single octagonal minaret over the entrance, decorated with the fine carvings of the Mamluk-era architecture.

The mosque was partially renovated in 1925.

Catholic University of Leuven (1835–1968)

The Catholic University of Leuven (of Louvain in French, and historically in English), founded in 1425 in Leuven as the University of Leuven, closed by the French Republic in 1797, transferred to Mechelen as the Catholic University of Mechelen in 1834 and transferred to the town of Leuven in 1835, was considered the largest, oldest and most prominent university in Belgium.

An earlier University of Leuven was founded in 1425 by John IV, Duke of Brabant and chartered by a Papal bull of Pope Martin V. It flourished for hundreds of years as the most prominent university in what would become Belgium, and one of the more prominent in Europe. In 1797, during the French rule over Belgium in the French Revolutionary Wars, the French Republic closed the university and cancelled its charter.

A new institution, the State University of Louvain, was established in the city in 1816, but closed in 1835. With the closing of the State University, the Catholic University of Mechelen moved its seat to Leuven, adjusted its name and declared itself as a "re-founding" of the 1425 University of Leuven. This claim to continuity with the older institution was challenged in the courts, with Belgium's highest court issuing rulings (in 1844, 1855 and 1861) that the Catholic University of Leuven was a different foundation created under a different charter. Nonetheless, the Catholic University of Leuven is very frequently identified as a continuation of the older institution.In 1968, the Catholic University of Leuven split to form two institutions:

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Dutch-speaking, situated primarily in Leuven; and

Université catholique de Louvain, French-speaking, situated primarily in nearby Louvain-la-Neuve.This entry deals with the historic university/universities, 1425–1797 and 1834–1968. For the current successor institutions and their separate development since 1968, see the individual articles linked above.

Charles III of Navarre

Charles III (1361 – 8 September 1425), called the Noble, was King of Navarre from 1387 to his death and Count of Évreux from 1387 to 1404, when he exchanged it for the title Duke of Nemours. He spent his reign improving the infrastructure of his kingdom, restoring Navarre's pride after the dismal reign of his father, Charles the Bad, and mending strained relations with France.

Charles III was born at Mantes-la-Jolie. He married Eleanor, daughter of Henry II of Castile, in 1375, putting an end to the conflict between Castile and Navarre.As king, his politics were peace with France, Castile, Aragon, and England, support for the Avignon Papacy, and matrimonial alliance. He collaborated with Castile in a war on the Kingdom of Granada. By the Treaty of Paris, he abandoned his claims to Champagne and Brie and made peace with France.In 1413, he created the Cort, a sort of supreme court. He created the title Prince of Viana for the heir to the throne, entitling his grandson Charles in 1423. He was a patron of the arts and he finished construction on the great Gothic Cathedral of Pamplona. When it comes to Navarre's home policy, he decreed the watershed unification of Pamplona's boroughs in 1423, after over three centuries of division and rivalry. He also built the royal palace at Tafalla and the Royal Palace of Olite, where he died in 1425.

His sister Joanna married Henry IV of England.

Donatello

Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (c. 1386 – 13 December 1466), better known as Donatello (Italian: [donaˈtɛllo]), was an Italian sculptor of the Renaissance. Born in Florence, he studied classical sculpture and used this to develop a complete Renaissance style in sculpture, whose periods in Rome, Padua and Siena introduced to other parts of Italy a long and productive career. He worked with stone, bronze, wood, clay, stucco and wax, and had several assistants, with four perhaps being a typical number. Though his best-known works were mostly statues in the round, he developed a new, very shallow, type of bas-relief for small works, and a good deal of his output was larger architectural reliefs.

Expulsion from the Garden of Eden

The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden (Italian: Cacciata dei progenitori dall'Eden) is a fresco by the Italian Early Renaissance artist Masaccio. The fresco is a single scene from the cycle painted around 1425 by Masaccio, Masolino and others on the walls of the Brancacci Chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence. It depicts the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden, from the biblical Book of Genesis chapter 3, albeit with a few differences from the canonical account.

Henry IV of Castile

Henry IV of Castile (Castilian: Enrique IV) (5 January 1425 – 11 December 1474), King of Castile, nicknamed the Impotent (ruled 1454–1474), was the last of the weak late medieval kings of Castile. During Henry's reign the nobles increased in power and the nation became less centralised.

John Fordham

John Fordham (died 1425) was Bishop of Durham and Bishop of Ely.

Fordham was keeper of the privy seal of Prince Richard from 1376 to 1377 and Dean of Wells before being named Lord Privy Seal in June 1377. He held that office until December 1381.Fordham was nominated to Durham on 9 September 1381 and consecrated on 5 January 1382. He was translated to Ely on 3 April 1388.Fordham briefly served as Lord High Treasurer in 1386.Fordham died on 19 November 1425. His executors, listed in 1430, were Robert Wetheryngsete, John Bernard, William Derby, Thomas Reynald & Robert Crowe.

John Wakering

John Wakering (or Wakeryng; died 9 April 1425) was a medieval Bishop of Norwich.

Wakering was appointed Archdeacon of Canterbury from 1408, resigning in 1415.

Wakering was named Lord Privy Seal in June 1415 and dismissed from that office in July 1416.Wakering was elected Bishop of Norwich about 24 November 1415 and was consecrated on 31 May 1416. He died on 9 April 1425.

Man o' War Boulevard

Man o' War Boulevard, named after the racehorse Man o' War, is a 17-mile (27 km) urban arterial, circling Lexington, Kentucky to its south. Its western terminus is at US 60 Versailles Road at Keeneland Race Course's main entrance, from which the highway heads southeast, intersecting with US 68 (Harrodsburg Road), US 27 (Nicholasville Road), and other roads. It then turns east and northeast, intersecting KY 1974 (Tates Creek Road), Alumni Drive, US 25/US 421 (Richmond Road), and I-75, before ending at US 60 (Winchester Road) at Brighton. The majority of the road is a four-lane divided highway with curbs and sidewalks maintained by the Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government, but the 1.429-mile (2.300 km) portion east of I-75 is maintained by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet as Supplemental Road Kentucky Route 1425 (KY 1425), and only carries two lanes.

Manuel II Palaiologos

Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος, Manouēl II Palaiologos; 27 June 1350 – 21 July 1425) was Byzantine Emperor from 1391 to 1425. Shortly before his death he was tonsured a monk and received the name Matthew. His wife Helena Dragaš saw to it that their sons, John VIII Palaiologos and Constantine XI Palaiologos, become emperors. Manuel is commemorated on July 21.

Minhlange

Minhlange (Burmese: မင်းလှငယ်, pronounced [mɪ́ɴ l̥a̰ ŋɛ̀]; 1418–1425) was king of Ava for about three months in 1425. Minhlange ascended to the throne in August 1425 after his father King Thihathu had been killed in an ambush by raiders from the Shan State of Hsipaw (Thibaw). He was only about seven years old. The ambush was arranged by Thihathu's powerful queen Shin Bo-Me who wanted to place her lover, Kale Kyetaungnyo, the Saopha of Kale, on the throne. About three months later, Shin Bo-Me poisoned the young king in early November 1425 and made Kyetaungnyo king a few days later.

No. 511 Squadron RAF

No. 511 Squadron was a Royal Air Force transport squadron, active during World War II, the Berlin Airlift and during the sixties and early seventies. It operated, during its three periods of existence, aircraft such as the Douglas Dakota, the Avro York, the Handley Page Hastings and the Bristol Britannia.

Old University of Leuven

The Old University of Leuven (or of Louvain) is the name historians give to the university, or studium generale, founded in Leuven, Brabant (then part of the Burgundian Netherlands, now part of Belgium), in 1425. The university was closed in 1797, a week after the cession to the French Republic of the Austrian Netherlands and the principality of Liège (jointly the future Belgium) by the Treaty of Campo Formio.

The name was in medieval Latin Studium generale Lovaniense or Universitas Studii Lovaniensis, in humanistical Latin Academia Lovaniensis, and most usually, Universitas Lovaniensis, in Dutch Universiteyt Loven and also Hooge School van Loven.It is commonly referred to as the University of Leuven or University of Louvain, sometimes with the qualification "old" to distinguish it from the Catholic University of Leuven (established 1835 in Leuven). This might also refer to a short-lived but historically important State University of Leuven, 1817–1835. The immediate official and legal successor and inheritor of the old University, under the laws in force in 1797, was the École centrale de Bruxelles, which itself closed down in 1802.

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the University of Leuven was until its closure a great centre of Jansenism in Europe, with professors such as Cornelius Jansen, Petrus Stockmans, Johannes van Neercassel, Josse Le Plat and especially Zeger Bernhard van Espen and his famous disciple Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim under the pseudonym Febronius. To shake off this reputation, the faculty of theology thrice declared its adherence to the papal condemnation of Jansenist beliefs in the papal bull Unigenitus (1713).

Pratapgarh State

For the former state in present-day Assam, see Pratapgarh State (Northeast India).

Pratapgarh State, also known as 'Partabgarh', was one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. The state was founded in 1425 as Kanthal state and was later renamed after its capital located in Pratapgarh, Rajasthan.

Pratapgarh was a 15 gun salute princely state; its last ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union on 7 April 1949.

Reuss-Lobenstein

Reuss-Lobenstein (German: Reuß-Lobenstein) was a state located in the German part of the Holy Roman Empire. The members of Reuss-Lobenstein family belonged to the Reuss Junior Line. Reuss-Lobenstein has existed on two different occasions, it was firstly created in 1425 as a lordship with Heinrich II, Lord of Reuss-Lobenstein becoming the first ruler. The first Lordship of Reuss-Lobenstein came to an end in 1547 when the territory went to Reuss-Plauen.

Reuss-Lobenstein was recreated in 1647 again as a lordship which it remained until 1673 when the title of lord was upgraded to count. Following the death of Count Heinrich X in 1671, Reuss-Lobenstein was ruled jointly by his three sons Heinrich III, Heinrich VIII and Heinrich X. In 1678 Reuss-Lobenstein was partitioned with Heinrich III remaining Count of Reuss-Lobenstein, Heinrich VIII becoming Count of Reuss-Hirschberg and Heinrich X becoming the Count of Reuss-Ebersdorf. Reuss-Lobenstein was partitioned for a second time in 1710 following the death of Heinrich III with Reuss-Selbitz being created for a younger son Heinrich XXVI while his eldest son Heinrich XV succeeded him as count of Reuss-Lobenstein.

Reuss-Lobenstein was raised to a principality in 1790 and joined the Confederation of the Rhine on 15 December 1806. With the death of Prince Heinrich LIV in 1824 the Reuss-Lobenstein line became extinct and was inherited by the Prince of Reuss-Ebersdorf.

Thihathu of Ava

Thihathu of Ava (Burmese: သီဟသူ (အင်းဝ), pronounced [θìha̰ðù]; 1394–1425) was king of Ava from 1421 to 1425. It was during his reign that the Forty Years' War (1385–1424) between Ava and Hanthawaddy Pegu kingdoms came to a formal close. Unlike his late elder brother Minye Kyawswa, he did not consider Pegu his enemy, and followed a policy of conciliation and friendship toward Pegu. In 1423, he actually helped to broker a truce between two rival claimants to the Hanthawaddy throne. For his help in breaking up the fight, Thihathu was given the rival princes' sister Lady Shin Sawbu whom he made his queen.

Though he made peace with Hanthawaddy Pegu in the south, the Shans from various Shan States in the north continued to raid Avan territory. In August 1425, Thihathu was killed in an ambush by the Shan raiders of Hsipaw. The ambush was arranged by his queen Shin Bo-Me who wanted to put her lover Kale Kyetaungnyo on the throne.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1425

United Nations Security Council resolution 1425, adopted unanimously on 22 July 2002, after recalling resolutions on the situation in Somalia, particularly resolutions 733 (1992) and 1407 (2002), the Council established a panel of experts to investigate violations of the arms embargo against the country.The Security Council President said that the adoption of the resolution was aimed at hindering arms flows into the country, particularly as a recent United Nations report found that weapons had entered Somalia from neighbouring countries and others including Iran, Latvia, Libya, Poland, the United Arab Emirates and United States.

Vasily I of Moscow

Vasily I Dmitriyevich (Russian: Василий I Дмитриевич; 30 December 1371 – 27 February 1425) was the Grand Prince of Moscow (r. 1389—1425), heir of Dmitry Donskoy (r. 1359—1389). He ruled as a Golden Horde vassal between 1389-1395, and again in 1412-1425. The raid on the Volgan regions in 1395 by Mongol emir Timur resulted in a state of anarchy for the Golden Horde and the independence of Moscow. In 1412, Vasily reinstated himself as a vassal of the Horde. He had entered an alliance with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1392 and married the only daughter of Vytautas the Great, Sophia, though the alliance turned out to be fragile, and they waged war against each other in 1406–1408.

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