|1423 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2176|
|Balinese saka calendar||1344–1345|
|English Regnal year||1 Hen. 6 – 2 Hen. 6|
|Chinese calendar||壬寅年 (Water Tiger)|
4119 or 4059
— to —
癸卯年 (Water Rabbit)
4120 or 4060
|- Vikram Samvat||1479–1480|
|- Shaka Samvat||1344–1345|
|- Kali Yuga||4523–4524|
|Japanese calendar||Ōei 30|
|Minguo calendar||489 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1965–1966|
1549 or 1168 or 396
— to —
1550 or 1169 or 397
Events from the 1420s in England.1423 in France
Events from the year 1423 in France1423 in Ireland
Events from the year 1423 in Ireland.1425 in France
Events from the year 1425 in FranceAntipope Benedict XIII
Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor (25 November 1328 – 23 May 1423), known as el Papa Luna in Spanish and Pope Luna in English, was an Aragonese nobleman, who as Benedict XIII, is considered an antipope (see Western Schism) by the Catholic Church.Battle of Cravant
The Battle of Cravant was fought on 31 July 1423, during the Hundred Years' War between English and French forces at the village of Cravant in Burgundy, at a bridge and ford on the banks of the river Yonne, a left-bank tributary of the Seine, southeast of Auxerre. The battle ended in a victory for the English and their Burgundian allies.Ferdinand I of Naples
Ferdinand I of Naples should not be confused with Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, a later king of Naples.Ferdinand I (2 June 1423 – 25 January 1494), also called Ferrante, was the King of Naples from 1458 to 1494. He was the son of Alfonso V of Aragon and his mistress, Giraldona Carlino.Henry Bowet
Henry Bowet (died 20 October 1423) was both Bishop of Bath and Wells and Archbishop of York.House of Oettingen-Oettingen
Oettingen-Oettingen was a noble family and county in modern-day eastern Baden-Württemberg and western Bavaria, Germany.
Oettingen-Oettingen was created as a partition of Oettingen in 1423, became extinct in 1731 and was inherited by Oettingen-Wallerstein.House of Oettingen-Wallerstein
Oettingen-Wallerstein is a noble family related to a former County in modern-day eastern Baden-Württemberg and western Bavaria, Germany. The other formerly sovereign branch of the Oettingen family is the House of Oettingen-Spielberg.John Russell (speaker)
John Russell (died 1437) was an English landowner and Justice of the Peace who held the position of Speaker of the House of Commons of England between 1423 and 1424.Russell sat in the Parliaments of 1410, 1411 and 1417 as a proxy for the Abbot of Gloucester; and also in later parliaments between 1414 and 1433 having been elected to the House of Commons as knight of the shire for Herefordshire in his own right. He was appointed High Sheriff of Herefordshire in 1417. He made an unsuccessful attempt to become speaker in 1420 losing to Roger Hunt, but was elected to the role in 1423.Russell gave the speech of welcome at the infant Henry VI's first appearance before the assembled House of Commons and House of Lords on 17 November 1423.He was again elected as Speaker in 1432.Margravate of Meissen
The Margravate of Meissen (German: Markgrafschaft Meißen) was a medieval principality in the area of the modern German state of Saxony. It originally was a frontier march of the Holy Roman Empire, created out of the vast Marca Geronis (Saxon Eastern March) in 965. Under the rule of the Wettin dynasty, the margravate finally merged with the former Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg into the Saxon Electorate by 1423.NGC 94
NGC 94 (PGC 1423) is a lenticular galaxy in the constellation Andromeda. It was discovered by Guillaume Bigourdan in 1884. This object is extremely faint and small. A little above the galaxy is NGC 96. NGC 94 is about 260 million light-years away and 50,000 light-years across.Richard Baynard
Richard Baynard (ca. 1371 – 7 January 1434) was an English administrator, MP and Speaker of the House of Commons of England in 1421.He was the fourth son and heir of Thomas Baynard of Messing, Essex.
He was elected Knight of the shire (MP) for Essex six times (1406, Nov 1414, Dec 1421, 1423, 1427 and 1433). and elected Speaker of the House in Dec 1421.
He was Controller, customs and subsidies Ipswich, Suffolk (1407–1408) and Keeper of Colchester gaol, Essex before March 1417.
He died in 1434. He had married four times. Firstly Joan, secondly Joyce, daughter and heiress of John Vyne, a London draper thirdly another Joan, daughter and heiress of John Sandherst, a London chandler, and fourthly Grace, daughter of John Burgoyne, and widow of John Peyton of Easthorpe, Essex with whom he had two sons and four daughters. He was survived by his widow Grace, his natural sons Richard and Lewis and an illegitimate son, John, and two of his four daughters.Richard Whittington
Richard Whittington (c. 1354–1423) was an English merchant and a politician of the late medieval period. He is also the real-life inspiration for the English folk tale Dick Whittington and His Cat. He was four times Lord Mayor of London, a member of parliament and a sheriff of London. In his lifetime he financed a number of public projects, such as drainage systems in poor areas of medieval London, and a hospital ward for unmarried mothers. He bequeathed his fortune to form the Charity of Sir Richard Whittington which, nearly 600 years later, continues to assist people in need.Siege of Thessalonica (1422–1430)
The siege of Thessalonica between 1422 and 1430 saw the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Murad II capture the city of Thessalonica. Thessalonica remained in Ottoman hands for the next five centuries, until it became part of the Kingdom of Greece in 1912.
Thessalonica had already been under Ottoman control from 1387 to 1403 before returning to Byzantine rule in the aftermath of the Battle of Ankara. In 1422, after the Byzantines supported Mustafa Çelebi as a rival pretender against him, Murad attacked Thessalonica. Unable to provide manpower or resources for the city's defense, its ruler, Andronikos Palaiologos, handed it over to the Republic of Venice in September 1423. The Venetians attempted to persuade the Sultan to recognize their possession, but failed as Murad considered the city his by right and the Venetians to be interlopers. This impasse led to an Ottoman blockade of Thessalonica, which occasionally flared up with direct attacks on the city. At the same time, the conflict was mostly fought as a series of raids by both sides against the other's territories in the Balkans and the Aegean islands. The Venetians repeatedly tried to apply pressure by blocking the passage of the Dardanelles at Gallipoli, with little success.
The blockade quickly reduced the inhabitants to near starvation, and led many to flee the city. The restrictions placed on them by the siege, the inability of Venice to properly supply and guard the city, the violations of their customary rights, and rampant profiteering by Venetian officials led to the formation of a pro-surrender party within the city, which gained strength among the inhabitants. The city's metropolitan bishop, Symeon, encouraged his flock to resist. However, by 1426, with Venice's inability to secure peace on its own terms evident, a majority of the local population had come to prefer a surrender to avoid the pillage that would accompany a forcible conquest. Venice's efforts to find allies against the Ottomans also failed: the other regional potentates either pursued their own course, were themselves antagonistic to the Venetians, or were defeated by the Ottomans.
After years of inconclusive exchanges, the two sides prepared for a final confrontation in 1429. In March, Venice formally declared war on the Ottomans, but even then the conservative mercantile aristocracy running the Republic were uninterested in raising an army sufficient to protect Thessalonica, let alone to force the Sultan to seek terms. In early 1430, Murad was able to concentrate his forces against Thessalonica, taking it by storm on 29 March 1430. The privations of the siege and the subsequent sack reduced the city to a shadow of its former self, from perhaps as many as 40,000 inhabitants to c. 2,000, and necessitated large-scale resettlement in the following years. Venice concluded a peace treaty with the Sultan in July, recognizing the new status quo. Over the next few decades, the antagonism between Venice and the Ottomans morphed into a rivalry over control of Albania.Thomas Rotherham
Thomas Rotherham (24 August 1423 – 29 May 1500), also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. He is considered a venerable figure in Rotherham, South Yorkshire, his town of birth.Tommaso Mocenigo
Tommaso Mocenigo (1343–1423) was doge of Venice from 1414 until his death.William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (died 1469)
William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke KG (c. 1423 – 27 July 1469), known as "Black William", was a Welsh nobleman, politician, and courtier. He was the son of William ap Thomas, founder of Raglan Castle, and Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam, and grandson of Dafydd Gam, an adherent of King Henry V of England.
His father had been an ally of Richard of York, and Herbert supported the Yorkist cause in the Wars of the Roses. In 1461 Herbert was rewarded by King Edward IV with the title Baron Herbert of Raglan (having assumed an English-style surname in place of the Welsh patronymic), and was invested as a Knight of the Garter.
Soon after the decisive Yorkist victory at the Battle of Towton in 1461, Herbert replaced Jasper Tudor as Earl of Pembroke which gave him control of Pembroke Castle. However, he fell out with Lord Warwick "the Kingmaker" in 1469, when Warwick turned against the King. William and his brother Richard were executed by the Lancastrians, now led by Warwick, after the Battle of Edgecote Moor, near Banbury.Herbert was succeeded by his son, William, but the earldom was surrendered in 1479. It was later revived for a grandson, another William Herbert, the son of Black William's illegitimate son, Sir Richard Herbert of Ewyas.