1421 Esperanto

1421 Esperanto, provisional designation 1936 FQ, is a dark background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 55 kilometers (34 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 18 March 1936, by Finnish astronomer Yrjö Väisälä at the Iso-Heikkilä Observatory in Turku, southwest Finland. The presumed C-type asteroid has a rotation period of nearly 22 hours.[12] It was named for the artificial language Esperanto.[1]

1421 Esperanto
Discovery [1]
Discovered byY. Väisälä
Discovery siteTurku Obs.
Discovery date18 March 1936
MPC designation(1421) Esperanto
Named after
(artificial language)
1936 FQ · 1931 HC
1958 GD · A906 UD
A917 XD · A920 GD
main-belt[1][2] · (outer)
Orbital characteristics[2]
Epoch 27 April 2019 (JD 2458600.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc111.92 yr (40,879 d)
Aphelion3.3505 AU
Perihelion2.8280 AU
3.0893 AU
5.43 yr (1,983 d)
0° 10m 53.4s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
43.31±3.1 km[5]
51.95±10.21 km[6][7]
56.68±0.96 km[8]
62.06±17.35 km[9]
64.37±25.60 km[10]
21.982±0.005 h[11]
C (assumed)[12]

Orbit and classification

Esperanto has been determined a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population by means of modern HCM-analysis, after it had previously been grouped to the Eos family by Zappalà in the 1990s.[3][4]

It orbits the Sun in the outer asteroid belt at a distance of 2.8–3.4 AU once every 5 years and 5 months (1,983 days; semi-major axis of 3.09 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.08 and an inclination of 10° with respect to the ecliptic.[2] The body's observation arc begins with its first observation as 1906 UD at Heidelberg Observatory in October 1906, almost 30 years prior to its official discovery observation at Turku.[1]


This minor planet was named by the discoverer after the artificial language, Esperanto, which was created by inventor and writer, Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (1859–1917), who used the pseudonym "Doktoro Esperanto".[1] The discoverer also named another asteroid, 1462 Zamenhof, directly after the inventor. Both asteroids are considered to be the most remote Zamenhof-Esperanto objects. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 1350).[13]

Physical characteristics

Esperanto is an assumed, carbonaceous C-type asteroid.[12]

Rotation period

In March 2012, a rotational lightcurve of Esperanto was obtained from photometric observations by Andrea Ferrero at the Bigmuskie Observatory (B88) in northern Italy. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 21.982±0.005 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.15 magnitude (U=3-).[11]

Diameter and albedo

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Esperanto measures between 43.3 and 64.3 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.03 and 0.098.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts the results obtained by IRAS, that is, an albedo of 0.0714 and a diameter of 43.31 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.3.[12][5]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "1421 Esperanto (1936 FQ)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1421 Esperanto (1936 FQ)" (2018-09-18 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Asteroid 1421 Esperanto". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Asteroid (1421) Esperanto – Proper elements". AstDyS-2, Asteroids – Dynamic Site. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System – IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; Kramer, E. A.; Masiero, J. R.; et al. (June 2016). "NEOWISE Diameters and Albedos V1.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2016PDSS..247.....M. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 9 December 2018. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  9. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  11. ^ a b Ferrero, Andrea (July 2012). "Lightcurve Photometry of Six Asteroids". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 39 (3): 138–139. Bibcode:2012MPBu...39..138F. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  12. ^ a b c d "LCDB Data for (1421) Esperanto". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  13. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 9 December 2018.

External links

1422 Strömgrenia

1422 Strömgrenia, provisional designation 1936 QF, is a stony Florian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 5.5 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 23 August 1936, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in southern Germany, and named after Swedish-Danish astronomer Svante Elis Strömgren.

1462 Zamenhof

1462 Zamenhof, provisional designation 1938 CA, is a carbonaceous Themistian asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 27 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 6 February 1938, by Finnish astronomer Yrjö Väisälä at the Iso-Heikkilä Observatory in Finland. The asteroid was named after L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto. It is a recognized Zamenhof-Esperanto object.


Esperanto () is the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. It was created in the late 19th century by L. L. Zamenhof, a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist. In 1887, he published a book detailing the language, Unua Libro ("First Book"), under the pseudonym Dr. Esperanto. Esperanto translates to English as "one who hopes".Zamenhof's goal was to create an easy and flexible language that would serve as a universal second language to foster peace and international understanding, and to build a community of speakers, as he correctly inferred that one can’t have a language without a community of speakers.His original title for the language was simply the international language (lingvo internacia), but early speakers grew fond of the name Esperanto and began to use it as the name for the language in 1889; the name quickly gained prominence and has been used as an official name ever since.In 1905, Zamenhof published Fundamento de Esperanto as a definitive guide to the language. Later that year, he organized the first World Esperanto Congress, an ongoing annual conference, in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. The first congress ratified the Declaration of Boulogne, which established several foundational premises for the Esperanto movement. One of its pronouncements is that Fundamento de Esperanto is the only obligatory authority over the language. Another is that the Esperanto movement is exclusively a linguistic movement and that no further meaning can ever be ascribed to it. Zamenhof also proposed to the first congress that an independent body of linguistic scholars should steward the future evolution of Esperanto, foreshadowing the founding of the Akademio de Esperanto, in part modeled after the Académie française, which was established soon thereafter. Since 1905, congresses have been held in various countries every year, with the exceptions of years during the World Wars. In 1908, a group of young Esperanto speakers led by Hector Hodler established the Universal Esperanto Association, in order to provide a central organization for the global Esperanto community.

Esperanto grew throughout the 20th century, both as a language and as a linguistic community. Despite speakers facing persecution in regimes such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union under Stalin, Esperanto speakers continued to establish organizations and publish periodicals tailored to specific regions and interests. In 1954, the United Nations granted official support to Esperanto as an international auxiliary language in the Montevideo Resolution. Several writers have contributed to the growing body of Esperanto literature, including William Auld, who received the first nomination for the Nobel Prize in Literature for a literary work in Esperanto in 1999, followed by two more in 2004 and 2006. Esperanto-language writers are also officially represented in PEN International, the worldwide writers association, through Esperanto PEN Centro.Esperanto has continued to develop in the 21st century. The advent of the Internet has had a significant impact on the language, as learning it has become increasingly accessible on platforms such as Duolingo and as speakers have increasingly networked on platforms such as Amikumu. With approximately two million speakers, a small portion of whom are native speakers, it is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world. Although no country has adopted Esperanto officially, Esperantujo is the collective name given to places where it is spoken, and the language is widely employed in world travel, correspondence, cultural exchange, conventions, literature, language instruction, television and radio broadcasting.

While its advocates continue to hope for the day that Esperanto becomes officially recognized as the international auxiliary language, an increasing number have stopped focusing on this goal and instead view the Esperanto community as a "stateless diasporic linguistic minority" based on freedom of association, with a culture worthy of preservation based on its own merit. Some have also chosen to learn Esperanto due to its purported help in third language acquisition.

L. L. Zamenhof

Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (; Polish: Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof, Yiddish: לײזער לֵוִי זאַמענהאָף‎; 15 December [O.S. 3 December] 1859 – 14 April [O.S. 1 April] 1917), credited as L. L. Zamenhof and sometimes as the pseudonymous Dr. Esperanto, was a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist and the initiator of the international language Esperanto, the most successful constructed language in the world.Zamenhof first developed the language in 1873 while still in school. He grew up fascinated by the idea of a world without war and believed that this could happen with the help of a new international auxiliary language as a tool that can help to gather people together through a neutral, fair, and equitable communication. He succeeded to form a speech community which still lives today in spite of two World Wars in the 20th century and has developed in the same way as all other languages, primarily through the interaction and creativity of its users.

In light of his achievements, and his support of intercultural dialogue, UNESCO selected Zamenhof as one of its eminent personalities of 2017, on the 100th anniversary of his death.

List of Esperanto speakers

An Esperantist (Esperanto: Esperantisto) is a person who speaks Esperanto. According to the Declaration of Boulogne, a document agreed upon at the first World Esperanto Congress in 1905, an Esperantist is someone who speaks Esperanto and uses it for any purpose.

Yrjö Väisälä

Yrjö Väisälä [ˈyrjø ˈʋæisælæ] (listen) (6 September 1891 in Utra, Kontiolahti, Grand Duchy of Finland – 21 July 1971 in Rymättylä, Finland) was a Finnish astronomer and physicist.His main contributions were in the field of optics, but he was also very active in geodetics, astronomy and optical metrology. He had even an affectionate nickname of Wizard of Tuorla (Observatory/Optics laboratory), and there is a book with the same title in Finnish describing his works. His discoveries include 128 minor planets and 3 comets.His brothers were mathematician Kalle Väisälä (1893–1968) and meteorologist Vilho Väisälä (1889–1969). His daughter Marja Väisälä (1916–2011) was also an astronomer and discoverer of minor planets.

Väisälä was also a fervent supporter of Esperanto, presiding the Internacia Scienca Asocio Esperantista ("International Association of Esperanto Scientists") in 1968.

Zamenhof-Esperanto object

A Zamenhof-Esperanto object (Esperanto: Zamenhof/Esperanto-Objekto, ZEO) is a monument or a place linked to L. L. Zamenhof, the constructed language Esperanto he created and first published in 1887, or the community of Esperanto speakers which has been using the language since.

Minor planets

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