1418

Year 1418 (MCDXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1418 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1418
MCDXVIII
Ab urbe condita2171
Armenian calendar867
ԹՎ ՊԿԷ
Assyrian calendar6168
Balinese saka calendar1339–1340
Bengali calendar825
Berber calendar2368
English Regnal yearHen. 5 – 6 Hen. 5
Buddhist calendar1962
Burmese calendar780
Byzantine calendar6926–6927
Chinese calendar丁酉(Fire Rooster)
4114 or 4054
    — to —
戊戌年 (Earth Dog)
4115 or 4055
Coptic calendar1134–1135
Discordian calendar2584
Ethiopian calendar1410–1411
Hebrew calendar5178–5179
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1474–1475
 - Shaka Samvat1339–1340
 - Kali Yuga4518–4519
Holocene calendar11418
Igbo calendar418–419
Iranian calendar796–797
Islamic calendar820–821
Japanese calendarŌei 25
(応永25年)
Javanese calendar1332–1333
Julian calendar1418
MCDXVIII
Korean calendar3751
Minguo calendar494 before ROC
民前494年
Nanakshahi calendar−50
Thai solar calendar1960–1961
Tibetan calendar阴火鸡年
(female Fire-Rooster)
1544 or 1163 or 391
    — to —
阳土狗年
(male Earth-Dog)
1545 or 1164 or 392

Events

January–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

1410s in England

Events from the 1410s in England.

1418 in France

Events from the year 1418 in France.

1418 in Ireland

Events from the year 1418 in Ireland.

Al-Qalqashandi

Shihab al-Din abu 'l-Abbas Ahmad ben Ali ben Ahmad Abd Allah al-Qalqashandi al-Fazari (1355 or 1356 – 1418) was a medieval Egyptian writer and mathematician.

Born in a village in the Nile Delta, al-Qalqashandi was scribe of the scroll (katib al-darj) in the Mamluk chancery in Cairo. He is the author of Subh al-a 'sha, completed in fourteen volumes in 1412, "one of the final expressions of the genre of Arabic administrative literature".The Subh al-a 'sha included a section on cryptology. This information was attributed to Ibn al-Durayhim who lived from 1312 to 1361, but whose writings on cryptology have been lost. The list of ciphers in this work included both substitution and transposition, and for the first time, a cipher with multiple substitutions for each plaintext letter. Also traced to Ibn al-Durayhim is an exposition on and worked example of cryptanalysis, including the use of tables of letter frequencies and sets of letters which can not occur together in one word.

Albert VI, Archduke of Austria

Albert VI (German: Albrecht VI.; 18 December 1418 – 2 December 1463), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria from 1424, elevated to Archduke in 1453. As a scion of the Leopoldian line, he ruled over the Inner Austrian duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola from 1424, from 1457 also over the Archduchy of Austria until his death, rivalling with his elder brother Emperor Frederick III. According to tradition, Albert, later known as the Prodigal, was the exact opposite of Frederick: energetic and inclined to thoughtlessness.

Council of Constance

The Council of Constance is the 15th-century ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418 in the Bishopric of Constance. The council ended the Western Schism by deposing or accepting the resignation of the remaining papal claimants and by electing Pope Martin V.

The council also condemned Jan Hus as a heretic and facilitated his execution by the civil authority. It also ruled on issues of national sovereignty, the rights of pagans and just war, in response to a conflict between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Kingdom of Poland and the Order of the Teutonic Knights. The council is important for its relationship to ecclesial conciliarism and Papal supremacy.

Earl of Tankerville

Earl of Tankerville is a noble title drawn from Tancarville in Normandy. The title has been created three times: twice in the Peerage of England, and once (in 1714) in the Peerage of Great Britain for Charles Bennet, 2nd Baron Ossulston. His father, John Bennett, 1st Baron Ossulston, was the elder brother of Henry Bennett, 1st Earl of Arlington.

The Earl of Tankerville holds the subsidiary title of Baron Ossulston, of Ossulston in the County of Middlesex (1682), in the Peerage of England.

Goharshad Mosque

Goharshad Mosque (Persian: مسجد گوهرشاد‎) is a former free standing mosque in Mashhad of the Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran, which now serves as one of the prayer halls within the Imam Reza shrine complex.

Manasija

Manasija (Serbian pronunciation: [manǎsija]), also known as Resava ([rɛ̌saʋa]) (Serbian Cyrillic: Манасија, Ресава), is a Serbian Orthodox monastery near Despotovac, Serbia, founded by Despot Stefan Lazarević between 1406 and 1418. The church is dedicated to the Holy Trinity. It is one of the most significant monuments of medieval Serbian culture and it belongs to the "Morava school". The monastery is surrounded by massive walls and towers. Immediately following its foundation, the monastery became the cultural centre of the Serbian Despotate. Its School of Resava was well known for its manuscripts and translations throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, even after the fall of the Despotate to the Ottoman Turks. Manasija complex was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1979, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia, and monastery have entered a UNESCO Tentative List Process in 2010.

Minhlange

Minhlange (Burmese: မင်းလှငယ်, pronounced [mɪ́ɴ l̥a̰ ŋɛ̀]; 1418–1425) was king of Ava for about three months in 1425. Minhlange ascended to the throne in August 1425 after his father King Thihathu had been killed in an ambush by raiders from the Shan State of Hsipaw (Thibaw). He was only about seven years old. The ambush was arranged by Thihathu's powerful queen Shin Bo-Me who wanted to place her lover, Kale Kyetaungnyo, the Saopha of Kale, on the throne. About three months later, Shin Bo-Me poisoned the young king in early November 1425 and made Kyetaungnyo king a few days later.

Mircea I of Wallachia

Mircea the Elder (Romanian: Mircea cel Bătrân, pronounced [ˈmirt͡ʃe̯a t͡ʃel bəˈtrɨn] (listen), d. 31 January 1418) was Voivode of Wallachia from 1386 until his death. The byname "elder" was given to him after his death in order to distinguish him from his grandson Mircea II ("Mircea the Younger"), although some historians believe the epithet was given to him as a sign of respect by later generations. He is considered the most important Wallachian ruler during the Middle Ages and one of the great rulers of his era, and starting in the 19th century Romanian historiography has also referred to him as Mircea the Great (Mircea cel Mare).

NURP.43.CC.1418

NURP.43.CC.1418 was a pigeon who received the Dickin Medal in 1947 from the People's Dispensary for Sick Animals for bravery in service during the Second World War.

Nicolas Flamel

Nicolas Flamel (French: [nikɔla flamɛl]; c. 1340 – 22 March 1418) was a French scribe and manuscript-seller. After his death, Flamel developed a reputation as an alchemist believed to have discovered the philosopher's stone and to have thereby achieved immortality. These legendary accounts first appeared in the 17th century.

According to texts ascribed to Flamel almost 200 years after his death, he had learned alchemical secrets from a Jewish converso on the road to Santiago de Compostela. He has since appeared as a legendary alchemist in various fictional works.

Palcho Monastery

The Palcho Monastery or Pelkor Chode Monastery or Shekar Gyantse is the main monastery in the Nyangchu river valley in Gyantse, Gyantse County, Shigatse Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region, China. The monastery precinct is a complex of structures which, apart from the Tsuklakhang Monastery, also includes its Kumbum, believed to be the largest such structure in Tibet, that is most notable for its 108 chapels in its several floors and the old Dzong or fort.

Richard Kingston (priest)

Richard Kingston (d. November 1418) was a Canon of Windsor from 1400 to 1402 and the Dean of Windsor from 1402 to 1418.

Richard Young (bishop of Rochester)

Richard Young (before 1398–1418) was a medieval Bishop of Bangor and Bishop of Rochester.

Young was elected to Bangor about 2 December 1398 and was absent from the see after 1401. He was translated to Rochester on 28 July 1404.Young died between 17 October and 28 October 1418.

Sejong the Great

Sejong the Great (Korean pronunciation: [se(ː)dʑoŋ]; 7 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. He was the third son of King Taejong and Queen consort Min. He was designated as heir-apparent, Crown Prince, after his older brother Prince Yangnyeong was stripped of his title. He ascended to the throne in 1418. During the first four years of his reign, Taejong governed as regent, after which his father-in-law, Sim On, and his close associates were executed.

Sejong reinforced Confucian policies and executed major "legal amendments" (공법; 貢法). He also personally created and promulgated the Korean alphabet Hangul, encouraged advancements of scientific technology, and instituted many other efforts to stabilize and improve prosperity. He dispatched military campaigns to the north and instituted the Samin policy (사민정책; 徙民政策) to attract new settlers to the region. To the south, he subjugated Japanese pirates and captured Tsushima Island (also known as Daema Island in the Korean language).

During his reign from 1418 to 1450, he governed along with his father, the King Emeritus Taejong from 1418 to 1422, then governing as the sole monarch from 1422 to 1450. Since 1442, the king was increasingly ill so his son Crown Prince Munjong acted as regent for him.

Although the appellation "the Great" / "(대왕;大王)" was given posthumously to almost every ruler of Goryeo and Joseon, this title is usually associated with Gwanggaeto and Sejong.

Siege of Ceuta (1419)

The Siege of Ceuta of 1419 (sometimes reported as 1418) was fought between the besieging forces of the Marinid Sultanate of Morocco, led by Sultan Abu Said Uthman III, including allied forces from the Emirate of Granada, and the Portuguese garrison of Ceuta, led by Pedro de Menezes, 1st Count of Vila Real. After the loss of the city in a surprise attack in 1415 known as the Conquest of Ceuta, the Sultan gathered an army four years later and besieged the city. The Portuguese gathered a fleet under the command of princes Henry the Navigator and John of Reguengos to relieve Ceuta. According to the chroniclers, the relief fleet turned out to be quite unnecessary. In a bold gambit, D. Pedro de Menezes led the Portuguese garrison in a sally against the Marinid siege camp and forced the lifting of the siege before the relief fleet even arrived.Blamed for losing Ceuta, the Marinid sultan was assassinated in a coup in Fez in 1420, leaving only a child as his heir. Morocco descended into anarchic chaos, as rival pretenders vied for the throne and local governors carved out regional fiefs for themselves, selling their support to the highest bidder. The political crisis in Morocco released the pressure on Ceuta for the next few years.

Simon Sydenham

Simon Sydenham (died 1438) was a medieval Dean of Salisbury and Bishop of Chichester.

Sydenham was briefly Archdeacon of Berkshire in 1404, Archdeacon of Salisbury from 1404 to 1418 and Dean of Salisbury from 1418 to 1431.

Sydenham was nominated to the office of Bishop of Chichester on 14 October 1429 and consecrated on 11 February 1431. He died on 26 January 1438.

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