1397

Year 1397 (MCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1397 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1397
MCCCXCVII
Ab urbe condita2150
Armenian calendar846
ԹՎ ՊԽԶ
Assyrian calendar6147
Balinese saka calendar1318–1319
Bengali calendar804
Berber calendar2347
English Regnal year20 Ric. 2 – 21 Ric. 2
Buddhist calendar1941
Burmese calendar759
Byzantine calendar6905–6906
Chinese calendar丙子(Fire Rat)
4093 or 4033
    — to —
丁丑年 (Fire Ox)
4094 or 4034
Coptic calendar1113–1114
Discordian calendar2563
Ethiopian calendar1389–1390
Hebrew calendar5157–5158
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1453–1454
 - Shaka Samvat1318–1319
 - Kali Yuga4497–4498
Holocene calendar11397
Igbo calendar397–398
Iranian calendar775–776
Islamic calendar799–800
Japanese calendarŌei 4
(応永4年)
Javanese calendar1311–1312
Julian calendar1397
MCCCXCVII
Korean calendar3730
Minguo calendar515 before ROC
民前515年
Nanakshahi calendar−71
Thai solar calendar1939–1940
Tibetan calendar阳火鼠年
(male Fire-Rat)
1523 or 1142 or 370
    — to —
阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
1524 or 1143 or 371

Events

January–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ "Islamic Culture and the Medical Arts – Hospitals". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
1397 in Ireland

Events from the year 1397 in Ireland.

Antony IV of Constantinople

Antony IV (? – May 1397) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople for two terms, from January 1389 to July 1390, and again from early 1391 until his death.

He was originally a hieromonk, possibly from the Dionysiou monastery in Mount Athos. He was deposed during the usurpation of John VII Palaiologos in April 1390, and replaced by Macarius, who had already served in the office in 1377–1379. After the restoration of John V Palaiologos and Manuel II Palaiologos a few months later, he was restored to his post.

He is notable for his correspondence with Jagiello, Grand Duke of Lithuania, urging him to join in a crusade against the Turks along with the Hungarians, and with Basil I of Muscovy, to whom he defended not only the universal spiritual authority of the Constantinopolitan patriarchate, but also the universal authority of the Byzantine emperors, regardless of the actual diminished state of the Byzantine Empire.

Callistus II of Constantinople

Callistus II Xanthopoulos or Xanthopulus (Greek: Κάλλιστος Β' Ξανθόπουλος), (? – after 1397) was a Byzantine Hesychast monk and spiritual writer who reigned as Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople in 1397. He was Patriarch through the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos, and through his short Patriarchal reign Constantinople was under siege by the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I.

His surname indicates that he was from the monastery of Xanthopoulos. With another monk, Ignatius Xanthopoulos, Callistus composed the important Century, a tract of 100 sections on the ascetical practices of the Hesychastic monks; it was incorporated in the Philokalia of Nicodemus the Hagiorite and had a great influence on Orthodox spirituality. The majority of Patriarchs in the 14th century were monks in the Hesychast tradition. Within the Orthodox Church, his memory is celebrated on 22 November.

Duke of Norfolk

The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the peerage of England, and also, as Earl of Arundel, the premier earl. The Duke of Norfolk is, moreover, the Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England. The seat of the Duke of Norfolk is Arundel Castle in Sussex, although the title refers to the county of Norfolk. The current duke is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk. The dukes have historically been Catholic, a state of affairs known as recusancy in England.

All past and present dukes have been descended from Edward I (see Dukes of Norfolk family tree). The son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, was Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey; the earl was descended from both Edward I and Edward III.

Duke of Somerset

Duke of Somerset, from the county of Somerset, is a title that has been created four times in the peerage of England. It is particularly associated with two families: the Beauforts, who held the title from the creation of 1448, and the Seymours, from the creation of 1547, in whose name the title is still held. The present dukedom is unique, in that the first holder of the title created it for himself in his capacity of Lord Protector of the Kingdom of England, using a power granted in the will of his nephew King Edward VI.

The only subsidiary title of the Duke of Somerset is Baron Seymour, which is used as a courtesy title by the eldest son and heir of the Duke. This courtesy title is the lowest in rank of all heirs to Dukedoms in the peerages of the British Isles, yet a Lord Seymour's precedence is higher than his title suggests, by virtue of the seniority of the Dukedom of Somerset (the only more senior non-royal duke is the Duke of Norfolk).

Several other titles have been held by the Dukes of Somerset, but have become extinct. These include: Earl of Kendal (created 1443, extinct 1444), Earl of Somerset (created 1397, forfeit 1461), Marquess of Dorset (created 1397, degraded 1399; created 1442, forfeit 1461), Marquess of Somerset (created 1397, degraded 1399), Earl of Dorset (created 1441, forfeit 1461), Viscount Rochester (created 1611, extinct 1645), Viscount Beauchamp of Hache (created 1536, forfeit 1552), Earl of Hertford (created 1537, forfeit 1552; and created 1559, extinct 1750), Marquess of Hertford (created 1640, extinct 1675), Baron Seymour of Trowbridge (created 1641, extinct 1750), Baron Percy (created 1722, separated 1750), Baron Cockermouth (created 1749, separated 1750), Earl of Egremont (created 1749, separated 1750), and Earl St. Maur (created 1863, extinct 1885).

The ducal seat is Bradley House in Maiden Bradley, west Wiltshire, with a secondary estate at Berry Pomeroy Castle, Totnes, Devon. The principal burial place for the Seymour family today is All Saints' Church, Maiden Bradley, adjacent to Bradley House; the church and the family cemetery can be reached from the grounds of Bradley House via private access.

Earl of Westmorland

Earl of Westmorland is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of England. The title was first created in 1397 for Ralph Neville. It was forfeited in 1571 by Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland for leading the Rising of the North. It was revived in 1624 in favour of Sir Francis Fane, whose mother, Mary Neville, was a descendant of a younger son of the first Earl. The first Earl of the first creation had already become Baron Neville de Raby, and that was a subsidiary title for his successors. The current Earl holds the subsidiary title Baron Burghersh (1624).

Isabella of Portugal, Duchess of Burgundy

Isabella of Portugal (22 February 1397 – 17 December 1471) was Duchess of Burgundy as the third wife of Duke Philip the Good. Born a Portuguese infanta of the House of Aviz, Isabella was the only surviving daughter of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster. Her son by Philip was Charles the Bold, the last Valois Duke of Burgundy. Isabella was the regent of the Burgundian Low Countries during the absence of her spouse in 1432 and in 1441–1443. She served as her husband's representative in negotiations with England regarding trade relations in 1439 and those with the rebellious cities of Holland in 1444.

John Gilbert (bishop of St David's)

John Gilbert (died 1397) was a medieval Bishop of Bangor, Bishop of Hereford and Bishop of St. David's.

Gilbert was nominated to Bangor on 17 March 1372.Gilbert translated to Hereford on 12 September 1375.Gilbert was Lord High Treasurer from 1386 to 1389 and then again from late 1389 to 1391.Gilbert was translated to St. David's on 5 May 1389 and died on 28 July 1397.

Kalmar Union

The Kalmar Union (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish: Kalmarunionen; Latin: Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of Finland's populated areas), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas dependencies (then including Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the Northern Isles). The union was not quite continuous; there were several short interruptions. Legally, the countries remained separate sovereign states, but with their domestic and foreign policies being directed by a common monarch.

One main impetus for its formation was to block German expansion northward into the Baltic region. The main reason for its failure to survive was the perpetual struggle between the monarch, who wanted a strong unified state, and the Swedish and Danish nobility, which did not. Diverging interests (especially the Swedish nobility's dissatisfaction with the dominant role played by Denmark and Holstein) gave rise to a conflict that would hamper the union in several intervals from the 1430s until its definitive breakup in 1523, when Gustav Vasa was elected as king of Sweden.Norway continued to remain a part of the realm of Denmark–Norway under the Oldenburg dynasty for nearly three centuries, until its dissolution in 1814. The ensuing loose union between Sweden and Norway lasted until 1905, when a grandson of the incumbent king of Denmark was elected as king of Norway; his direct descendants still reign in Norway.

Kingdom of Norway (872–1397)

The term Norwegian Realm (Old Norse: Norégveldi, Bokmål: Norgesveldet, Nynorsk: Noregsveldet) and the Old Kingdom of Norway, refer to the Kingdom of Norway's peak of power at the 13th century after a long period of civil war before 1240. The kingdom was a loosely unified nation including the territory of modern-day Norway, modern-day Swedish territory of Jämtland, Herjedalen, Ranrike and Idre and Särna, as well as Norway's overseas possessions which had been settled by Norwegian seafarers for centuries before being annexed or incorporated into the kingdom as 'tax territories'. To the North, Norway also bordered extensive tax territories on the mainland. Norway, whose expansionalism starts from the very foundation of the Kingdom in 872, reached the peak of its power in the years between 1240 and 1319.

At the peak of Norwegian expansion before the civil war (1130–1240), Sigurd I led the Norwegian Crusade (1107–1110). The crusaders won battles in Lisbon and the Balearic Islands. In the Siege of Sidon they fought alongside Baldwin I and Ordelafo Faliero, and the siege resulted in an expansion of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.. Leif Erikson, an Icelander of Norwegian origin and official hirdman of King Olaf I of Norway, explored America 500 years before Columbus. Adam of Bremen wrote about the new lands in "Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum" (1076) when meeting Sweyn I of Denmark, but no other sources indicate that this knowledge went farther into Europe than Bremen, Germany. The Kingdom of Norway was the second European country after England to enforce a unified code of law to be applied for the whole country, called Magnus Lagabøtes landslov (1274).

The secular power was at its strongest at the end of King Haakon Haakonsson's reign in 1263. An important element of the period was the ecclesiastical supremacy of the archdiocese of Nidaros from 1152. There are no reliable sources for when Jämtland was placed under the archbishop of Uppsala. Uppsala was established later, and was the third metropolitan diocese in Scandinavia after Lund and Nidaros. The church participated in a political process both before and during the Kalmar Union that aimed at Swedish side, to establish a position for Sweden in Jämtland. This area had been a borderland in relation to the Swedish kingdom, and probably in some sort of alliance with Trøndelag, just as with Hålogaland.

A unified realm was initiated by King Harald I Fairhair in the 9th century. His efforts in unifying the petty kingdoms of Norway, resulted in the first known Norwegian central government. The country however fragmented soon, and was again collected into one entity in the first half of the 11th century. Norway has been a monarchy since Fairhair, passing through several eras.

List of Danish monarchs

This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and Queens regnant of Denmark. This includes:

The Kingdom of Denmark (up to 1397)

Personal union of Denmark and Norway (1380–1397)

The Kalmar Union (1397–1536)

Union of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1397–1523)

Union of Denmark and Norway (1523–1536)

The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway (1536–1814)

The Kingdom of Denmark (1814–present)

Iceland (since the union between Denmark and Norway in 1380; independent kingdom in a personal union with Denmark 1918–1944; a sovereign republic since 1944)

Greenland (since the union between Denmark and Norway in 1380; effective Danish control began in 1721; integrated into the Danish realm in 1953; internal home rule introduced 1979; self-determination assumed in 2009; Greenland has two out of 179 seats in the Danish parliament Folketinget)

Faroe Islands (since the union between Denmark and Norway in 1380; County of Denmark 1816–1948; internal home rule introduced 1948; The Faroe Islands have two out of 179 seats in the Danish parliament Folketinget)The house of Oldenburg held the Danish Crown between 1448 and 1863, when it passed to the house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a cadet branch of the same house, patrilineally descended from King Christian III of Denmark. The kingdom had been elective (although the eldest son or brother of the previous king was usually elected) until 1660, when it became hereditary and absolutist. Until 1864 Denmark was also united in a personal union with the duchies of Holstein and Saxe-Lauenburg (1814-1864), and in a political and personal union with the Duchy of Schleswig.

List of years in Norway

This is a list of years in Norway.

Louis, Duke of Guyenne

Louis (22 January 1397 – 18 December 1415) was the eighth of twelve children of King Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. He was their third son and the second to hold the titles Dauphin of Viennois and Duke of Guyenne, inheriting them in 1401, at the death of his older brother, Charles (1392–1401).

Louis was born between the eighth and ninth hours of the evening in the royal Hôtel Saint-Pol in Paris. He was baptised the next day in the parish church of Saint-Paul, with eight prelates attending, including the abbot of Saint-Denis. Present also was a large assembly of noblemen and ladies. The infant was carried to the font by Duke Louis of Orléans, Pierre le Bègue de Villaines and Countess Joan of Ligny. They gave him the name Louis and the archbishop of Vienne performed the baptism.

Ming intervention in Mong Mao (1397–1398)

The Ming–Mong Mao Intervention was a military conflict between the Ming dynasty and rebel Mong Mao forces that had deposed their previous ruler Si Lunfa. Si Lunfa enlisted Ming aid in re-assuming control over his territory.

Robert Waldby

Robert Waldby (died 1397) was a native of York and friar of the Order of Saint Augustine who followed Edward, the Black Prince into Aquitaine. After studying at Toulouse, he became professor of theology there.

There is a possibility Waldby was Bishop of Sodor and Man in 1381, although at the time John Dongan was the bishop from 1374 to 1391. He definitely became Bishop of Aire in Gascony in 1387, and translated to the archbishopric of Dublin in Ireland on 14 November 1390. Five years later he translated to the bishopric of Chichester in England on 25 October 1395, and finally became Archbishop of York on 5 October 1396.Waldby died on 29 December 1397 with his bishopric being sede vacante on 6 January 1398. He was buried in the Chapel of St. Edmund in Westminster Abbey, where his monumental brass still remains.

Sratsimir dynasty

The House of Sratsimir, also Sracimir or Sratsimirovtsi (Bulgarian: Срацимировци) was a medieval Bulgarian dynasty that ruled the Tsardom of Tarnovo and Tsardom of Vidin, the Principality of Valona and Kanina, and the Despotate of Lovech. Paternally, they descended from the Asen dynasty, and maternally, they descended from the Shishman dynasty.

SratsimirIvan Alexander of Bulgaria (1331 – 1371)co-emperor Michael Asen IV of Bulgaria (b. c. 1322, co-emperor 1332-1355)

Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria (b. 1324/1325, ruled 1356-1397 in Vidin)Queen Dorothea of Bosnia

Constantine II of Bulgaria (b. early 1370s, ruled 1397-1422 in Vidin and in exile)Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria (b. 1350/1351, ruled 1371-1395 in Tarnovo)Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople (Patriarch of Constantinople 1416-1439)

Fruzhin (d. c. 1460)John Komnenos Asen (1332 – 1363)Alexander Komnenos Asen (1363 – 1372)

Komnena (1372 – 1395)Helena (fl. 1332–59), Queen consort of Serbia

Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent

Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (1350 – 25 April 1397) was an English nobleman and a councillor of his half-brother, King Richard II of England.

Thomas Hungerford (Speaker)

Sir Thomas de Hungerford (died 3 December 1397) of Farleigh Castle in Wiltshire, was the first person to be recorded in the rolls of the Parliament of England as holding the office of Speaker of the House of Commons of England, although that office had existed before his tenure.

Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester

Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, Duke of Aumale, Earl of Buckingham, jure uxoris Earl of Essex, KG, or Thomas de Wodestoke, (7 January 1355 – 8 or 9 September 1397) was the fifth surviving son and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.

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