1392

Year 1392 (MCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1392 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1392
MCCCXCII
Ab urbe condita2145
Armenian calendar841
ԹՎ ՊԽԱ
Assyrian calendar6142
Balinese saka calendar1313–1314
Bengali calendar799
Berber calendar2342
English Regnal year15 Ric. 2 – 16 Ric. 2
Buddhist calendar1936
Burmese calendar754
Byzantine calendar6900–6901
Chinese calendar辛未(Metal Goat)
4088 or 4028
    — to —
壬申年 (Water Monkey)
4089 or 4029
Coptic calendar1108–1109
Discordian calendar2558
Ethiopian calendar1384–1385
Hebrew calendar5152–5153
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1448–1449
 - Shaka Samvat1313–1314
 - Kali Yuga4492–4493
Holocene calendar11392
Igbo calendar392–393
Iranian calendar770–771
Islamic calendar794–795
Japanese calendarMeitoku 3
(明徳3年)
Javanese calendar1305–1307
Julian calendar1392
MCCCXCII
Korean calendar3725
Minguo calendar520 before ROC
民前520年
Nanakshahi calendar−76
Thai solar calendar1934–1935
Tibetan calendar阴金羊年
(female Iron-Goat)
1518 or 1137 or 365
    — to —
阳水猴年
(male Water-Monkey)
1519 or 1138 or 366

Events

January–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

1392 in Ireland

Events from the year 1392 in Ireland.

Alexander Neville

Alexander Neville (c. 1340–1392) was a late medieval prelate who served as Archbishop of York from 1374 to 1388.

Barbara of Cilli

Barbara of Cilli (1392 – 11 July 1451) was the Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. She was actively involved in politics and economy of her times, independently administering large feudal fiefdoms and taxes, and was instrumental in creating the famous royal Order of the Dragon. She served as the regent of Hungarian kingdom in the absence of her husband four times: in 1412, 1414, 1416, and 1418.

Emperor Go-Komatsu

Emperor Go-Komatsu (後小松天皇 Go-Komatsu-tennō) (August 1, 1377 – December 1, 1433) was the 100th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, and the sixth and final Emperor of the Northern Court.

He is officially considered to have been the Northern pretender from May 24, 1382 to October 21, 1392, when upon Emperor Go-Kameyama's abdication, Go-Komatsu is understood to have been a legitimate emperor (the 100th sovereign) from that date. In 1392, following the post-Nanboku-chō unification of the two formerly contending courts, the Southern Emperor Emperor Go-Kameyama reached an agreement with Go-Komatsu to alternate control of the throne between the Northern and Southern courts on a ten-year plan which effectively signaled the end of the southern court's claims to sovereignty. However, Go-Komatsu reneged, not only ruling for 20 years until his own abdication on October 5, 1412, but was succeeded by his own son, rather than by one from the former Southern Court. According to pre-Meiji scholars, Go-Komatsu's reign as a legitimate emperor spanned the years from 1392 through 1412. The present Japanese Imperial Family is descended from the Northern Court emperors.

This Nanboku-chō "sovereign" was named after the 9th-century Emperor Kōkō, and go- (後), translates literally as "later." Jien's Gukanshō explains that Kōkō was called "the Emperor of Komatsu". The 14th-century pretender and emperor may be called the "later Emperor Kōkō" or the "later Emperor Komatsu". The Japanese word go has also been translated to mean the "second one;" and in some older sources, this would-be emperor may be identified as "Komatsu, the second", or as "Komatsu II."

Filippo Maria Visconti

Filippo Maria Visconti (3 September 1392 – 13 August 1447) was the duke of Milan from 1412 to 1447.

GB 18030

GB 18030 is a Chinese government standard, described as Information Technology — Chinese coded character set and defines the required language and character support necessary for software in China. GB18030 is the registered Internet name for the official character set of the People's Republic of China (PRC) superseding GB2312. As a Unicode Transformation Format (i.e. an encoding of all Unicode code points), GB18030 supports both simplified and traditional Chinese characters. It is also compatible with legacy encodings including GB2312, CP936, and GBK 1.0.

In addition to the "GB18030 character encoding", this standard contains requirements about which scripts must be supported, font support, etc.

Goryeo

Goryeo (고려; 高麗; Koryŏ; [ko.ɾjʌ]) was a Korean kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a "true national unification" by Korean historians as it not only unified the Later Three Kingdoms but also incorporated much of the ruling class of the northern kingdom of Balhae, who had origins in Goguryeo of the earlier Three Kingdoms of Korea. The name "Korea" is derived from the name of Goryeo, also spelled Koryŏ, which was first used in the early 5th century by Goguryeo.The once prosperous kingdom of Later Silla, which had ruled much of the Korean Peninsula since the late 7th century, began crumbling by the late 9th century due to internal turmoil, leading to the revival of the ancient states of Baekje and Goguryeo, known in historiography as "Later Baekje" and "Later Goguryeo". Later Goguryeo, also known as Taebong, was overthrown from within in 918 by Wang Geon, a prominent general of noble Goguryeo descent, who established Goryeo in its place. Goryeo peacefully annexed Later Silla in 935 and militarily conquered Later Baekje in 936, successfully reunifying the Korean Peninsula. Beginning in 993, Goryeo faced multiple invasions by the Khitan Liao dynasty, a powerful nomadic empire to the north, but a decisive military victory in 1019 brought about a century of peace and prosperity as Goryeo entered its golden age. During this period, a balance of power was maintained in East Asia between Goryeo, Liao, and Song.The Goryeo period was the "golden age of Buddhism" in Korea, and as the national religion, Buddhism achieved its highest level of influence in Korean history, with 70 temples in the capital alone in the 11th century. Commerce flourished in Goryeo, with merchants coming from as far as the Middle East, and the capital in modern-day Kaesong, North Korea was a center of trade and industry, with merchants employing a system of double-entry bookkeeping since the 11th or 12th century. In addition, Goryeo was a period of great achievements in Korean art and culture, such as Koryo celadon, which was highly praised in the Song dynasty, and the Tripitaka Koreana, which was described by UNESCO as "one of the most important and most complete corpus of Buddhist doctrinal texts in the world", with the original 81,258 engraved printing blocks still preserved at Haeinsa Temple. In the early 13th century, Goryeo developed movable type made of metal to print books, 200 years before Johannes Gutenberg in Europe.Beginning in 1170, the government of Goryeo was de facto controlled by a succession of powerful families from the warrior class, most notably the Choe family, in a military dictatorship akin to a shogunate. During the military rule, Goryeo resisted invasions by the Mongol Empire for almost 30 years, until the ruling head of the Choe family was assassinated in 1258 by opponents in the court, after which authority was restored to the monarchy and peace was made with the Mongols; however, power struggles continued in the court and military rule did not end until 1270. From that point on, Goryeo became a semi-autonomous "son-in-law nation" of the Mongol Yuan dynasty through royal intermarriage and blood ties. Independence was regained during the reign of Gongmin in the mid 14th century, and afterward Generals Choe Yeong and Yi Seong-gye rose to prominence with victories over invading Red Turban armies from the north and Wokou marauders from the south. In 1388, Yi Seong-gye was sent to invade the Ming dynasty at Liaodong, but he turned his forces around and defeated Choe Yeong in a coup d'etat; in 1392, he replaced Goryeo with the new state of Joseon, bringing an end to 474 years of Goryeo rule on the Korean Peninsula.

Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York

Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York (1355 – 23 December 1392) was the daughter of King Peter and his mistress María de Padilla (d. 1361). She accompanied her elder sister, Constance, to England after Constance's marriage to John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and married Gaunt's younger brother, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York.

John VIII Palaiologos

John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος, translit. Iōannēs Palaiologos; 18 December 1392 – 31 October 1448) was the penultimate reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling from 1425 to 1448.

Joseon

Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, Korean: 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, Korean: 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korea and its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty.

During its reign, Joseon encouraged the entrenchment of Chinese Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the new dynasty's state ideology. Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and occasionally faced persecutions by the dynasty. Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade, literature, and science and technology. However, the dynasty was severely weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s and the first and second Manchu invasions nearly overran the Korean Peninsula, leading to an increasingly harsh isolationist policy, for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom" in Western literature. After the end of invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace.

However, whatever power the kingdom recovered during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, and faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions at home, the Joseon dynasty declined rapidly in the late 19th century.

The Joseon period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea; much of modern Korean culture, etiquette, norms, and societal attitudes towards current issues, and the modern Korean language and its dialects derive from the culture and traditions of Joseon.

Korean Seon

Seon Buddhism (Korean: 선, 禪; IPA: [sŏn]) is the transformative facture of Chan Buddhism tradition and creed in Korea. A main feature of Seon Buddhism is a method of meditation, Ganhwa Seon (Korean: 간화선/看話禪). A Korean monk, Jinul (Korean: 지눌/知訥) accepted partially a meditative method of Chan Buddhism in 1205. In Chan Buddhism, hwadu (Korean: 화두/話頭) was a delivery of realising a natural state of the Awakening. Jinul addressed a doctrine of Sagyo Yiepseon (Korean: 사교입선/捨敎入禪)) that monks should live an inborn life after learning and forgetting all creeds and theories. Within the doctrine of Jinul, hwadu is the witnessing of truthful meaning in everyday life.

Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions

The Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions were paramilitary units (battalions) formed during the occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany between 1941 and 1944. Similar units, known as Schutzmannschaft-Bataillonen, were organized in other German-occupied territories of Eastern Europe. In Lithuania, the first battalions originated from units formed during the anti-Soviet Uprising of June 1941. Lithuanian activists hoped that these units would become the basis for the reestablished Lithuanian Army. Instead, these units were absorbed into the German military apparatus and aided German forces: guarded strategic objects, engaged in anti-partisan operations, participated in the Holocaust. The 12th and the 13th battalions, tracing their roots from the Tautinio darbo apsaugos batalionas (TDA), were particularly active in the executions of the Jews and were responsible for estimated 78,000 Jewish deaths in Lithuania and Belarus. While the battalions were often deployed outside Lithuania, they generally did not participate in combat. In total, 26 battalions were formed and approximately 13,000 men served in them. In July–September, 1944, the remaining units were combined into two Lithuanian Volunteer Infantry Regiments.

Lithuanian Civil War (1389–1392)

The Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–92 was the second civil conflict between Jogaila, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his cousin Vytautas. At issue was control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, then the largest state in Europe. Jogaila had been crowned King of Poland in 1386; he installed his brother Skirgaila as ruler of Lithuania. Skirgaila proved unpopular and Vytautas attempted to depose him. When his first attempt to take the capital city of Vilnius failed, Vytautas forged an alliance with the Teutonic Knights, their common enemy – just as both cousins had done during the Lithuanian Civil War between 1381 and 1384. Vytautas and the Knights unsuccessfully besieged Vilnius in 1390. Over the next two years it became clear that neither side could achieve a quick victory, and Jogaila proposed a compromise: Vytautas would become Grand Duke and Jogaila would remain Superior Duke. This proposal was formalized in the Ostrów Agreement of 1392, and Vytautas turned against the Knights. He went on to reign as Grand Duke of Lithuania for 38 years, and the cousins remained at peace.

Meitoku

Meitoku (明徳) was a Japanese era name (年号 nengō, "year name") of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Kōō and before Ōei. This period spanned the years from March 1390 to July 1394. After October 1392, Meitoku replaced the Southern Court's nengō (Genchū).The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Go-Komatsu (後小松天皇, Go-Komatsu-tennō) The Southern Court rival in Yoshino until 1392 was Emperor Go-Kameyama (後亀山天皇, Go-Kameyama-tennō).

Min Khayi

Min Khayi (Burmese: မင်းခရီ, Burmese pronunciation: [mɪ́ɴ kʰəjì]; also spelled Min Khari, Arakanese pronunciation: [máɴ kʰəɹì]; also known as Ali Khan; 1392–1459) was king of the Mrauk-U Kingdom from 1433 to 1459.

He began his reign as a vassal of the Bengal Sultinate, and successfully unified the entire Arakan coastline (present-day Rakhine State) in 1437. He then took full advantage of the political turmoil in Bengal by seizing Ramu, the southernmost territory of his erstwhile overlord, and raiding as far north as Chittagong. In 1455, his kingdom finally achieved recognition by Ava, which had long interfered in the affairs of Arakan, as the sovereign Mrauk-U Kingdom state. His 25-year reign brought much needed stability to the Arakan littoral, and prepared his nascent kingdom for future expansions by his successors.The earliest extant work of Arakanese literature in Burmese script, Rakhine Minthami Eigyin was composed during his reign in 1455.

Northern Court

The Northern Court (北朝, hokuchō), also known as the Ashikaga Pretenders or Northern Pretenders, were a set of six pretenders to the throne of Japan during the Nanboku-chō period from 1336 through 1392. The present Japanese Imperial Family is descended of the Northern Court emperors.

The Northern dynasty is also referred to as the "senior line" or the Jimyōin line (持明院統, Jimyōin-tō); Jimyō-in was a temple and retirement residence of this line's emperors Go-Fukakusa and Fushimi.

Southern Court

The Southern Court (南朝, Nanchō) were a set of four emperors (Emperor Go-Daigo and his line) whose claims to sovereignty during the Nanboku-chō period spanning from 1336 through 1392 were usurped by the Northern Court. This period ended with the Southern Court definitively losing the war, and they were forced to completely submit sovereignty to the Northern Court. This had the result that, while later Japanese sovereigns were descended from the Northern Court, posterity assigns sole legitimacy during this period to the Southern Court.

The Southern descendants are also known as the "junior line" and the Daikakuji line (大覚寺統, Daikakuji-tō), Daikaku-ji being the cloistered home of Go-Uda, a Southern ruler. Because it was based in Yoshino, Nara, it is also called the Yoshino court (吉野朝廷, Yoshino chōtei).

Taejo of Joseon

Taejo of Joseon (October 27, 1335 – May 24, 1408), born Yi Seong-gye, whose changed name is Yi Dan, was the founder and the first king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea reigning from 1392 to 1398, and the main figure in overthrowing the Goryeo Dynasty.

Taejo's father Yi Ja-chun was a minor Mongol official, but his ethnicity was Korean. Taejo's mother Queen Uihye was originally Chinese from the Yantai-Weihai area of Shandong. Taejo joined the Goryeo army and rose through the ranks, seizing the throne in 1392. He abdicated in 1398 during the strife between his sons and died in 1408.

Thomas Rushhook

Thomas Rushhook (died c. 1392) was an English Dominican, bishop and chaplain to Richard II of England.

Rushhook was Provincial of the Dominican Order in England 1373 to 1382, being deposed at one point. He was Archdeacon of St Asaph 1382-3, bishop of Llandaff on 16 January 1383, and then was transferred to be bishop of Chichester on 16 October 1385.A supporter of Richard II, Rushhook was impeached in 1388. Subsequently he was in Ireland, as bishop of Breifne (Kilmore), where he died about 1392.

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