1381

Year 1381 (MCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1381 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1381
MCCCLXXXI
Ab urbe condita2134
Armenian calendar830
ԹՎ ՊԼ
Assyrian calendar6131
Balinese saka calendar1302–1303
Bengali calendar788
Berber calendar2331
English Regnal yearRic. 2 – 5 Ric. 2
Buddhist calendar1925
Burmese calendar743
Byzantine calendar6889–6890
Chinese calendar庚申(Metal Monkey)
4077 or 4017
    — to —
辛酉年 (Metal Rooster)
4078 or 4018
Coptic calendar1097–1098
Discordian calendar2547
Ethiopian calendar1373–1374
Hebrew calendar5141–5142
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1437–1438
 - Shaka Samvat1302–1303
 - Kali Yuga4481–4482
Holocene calendar11381
Igbo calendar381–382
Iranian calendar759–760
Islamic calendar782–783
Japanese calendarKōryaku 3 / Eitoku 1
(永徳元年)
Javanese calendar1294–1295
Julian calendar1381
MCCCLXXXI
Korean calendar3714
Minguo calendar531 before ROC
民前531年
Nanakshahi calendar−87
Thai solar calendar1923–1924
Tibetan calendar阳金猴年
(male Iron-Monkey)
1507 or 1126 or 354
    — to —
阴金鸡年
(female Iron-Rooster)
1508 or 1127 or 355

Events

January–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Brook, Timothy (1998). The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22154-3
1380s in England

Events from the 1380s in England.

1381 in Ireland

Events from the year 1381 in Ireland.

Battle of Dubravnica

The Battle of Dubravnica was fought in the summer of 1380 or December 1381, on the Dubravnica River near Paraćin in today's central Serbia, between the Serbian forces of Prince Lazar of Serbia led by commanders Vitomir and Crep and the invading Ottoman Turks of Sultan Murad I. Vitomir and Crep were the regional lords, and one of their fortresses, Petrus, was in the vicinity of the battle.

Battle of Dubravnica was the first historical mention of any Ottoman movements into Prince Lazar's territory. The Serbian army emerged victorious, although details of the battle itself are scarce. After this battle the Turks didn't linger into Serbia until 1386, when their armies were routed near Pločnik.

Beatrice, Countess of Alburquerque

Beatrice of Portugal (c. 1347–(1381-07-05)5 July 1381) was Countess of Alburquerque as the wife of Sancho Alfonso of Alburquerque. She was the daughter of Peter I of Portugal and his wife Inês de Castro.

County of Nassau-Saarbrücken

The County of Saarbrücken was an Imperial State in the Upper Lorraine region, with its capital at Saarbrücken. From 1381 it belonged to the Walram branch of the Rhenish House of Nassau.

Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March

Edmund de Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March and jure uxoris Earl of Ulster (1 February 1352 – 27 December 1381) was son of Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, by his wife Philippa, daughter of William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison.

Eitoku

Eitoku (永徳) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Kōryaku and before Shitoku. This period spanned the years from February 1381 to February 1384. The emperors in Kyoto were Emperor Go-En'yū (後円融天皇, Go-En'yū-tennō) and Emperor Go-Komatsu (後小松天皇, Go-Komatsu-tennō) The Southern Court rivals in Yoshino during this time-frame were Emperor Chōkei (長慶天皇, Chōkei-tennō) and Emperor Go-Kameyama (後亀山天皇, Go-Kameyama-tennō).

John Ball (priest)

John Ball (c. 1338 – 15 July 1381) was an English Lollard priest who took a prominent part in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381.

John Fordham

John Fordham (died 1425) was Bishop of Durham and Bishop of Ely.

Fordham was keeper of the privy seal of Prince Richard from 1376 to 1377 and Dean of Wells before being named Lord Privy Seal in June 1377. He held that office until December 1381.Fordham was nominated to Durham on 9 September 1381 and consecrated on 5 January 1382. He was translated to Ely on 3 April 1388.Fordham briefly served as Lord High Treasurer in 1386.Fordham died on 19 November 1425. His executors, listed in 1430, were Robert Wetheryngsete, John Bernard, William Derby, Thomas Reynald & Robert Crowe.

John I, Duke of Bourbon

Jean de Bourbon (1381–1434) was Duke of Bourbon, from 1410 to his death and Duke of Auvergne since 1416. He was the eldest son of Louis II and Anne of Auvergne. Through his mother, John inherited the County of Forez.

During the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War he took sides against the Burgundians. John was captured at the Battle of Agincourt and died a prisoner in London, in spite of the payment of several ransoms, and promises to support the king of England as king of France.In 1400 in Paris, he married Marie, Duchess of Auvergne, daughter of John, Duke of Berry, who inherited the Auvergne title from her father. They had three sons:

Charles de Bourbon (1401–1456), Duke of Bourbon

Louis of Bourbon (1403–1412, Paris), Count of Forez

Louis de Bourbon (1405–1486), Count of MontpensierIn addition, he had an illegitimate daughter:

Margaret, married to Rodrigo de Villandrando.

Kōwa (Muromachi period)

Kōwa (弘和) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Southern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Tenju and before Genchū. This period spanned the years from February 1381 to April 1384. The Southern Court emperors in Yoshino during this time-frame were Emperor Chōkei (長慶天皇, Chōkei-tennō) and Emperor Go-Kameyama (後亀山天皇, Go-Kameyama-tennō). The Northern court emperors in Kyoto were Emperor Go-En'yū (後円融天皇, Go-En'yū-tennō) and Emperor Go-Komatsu (後小松天皇, Go-Komatsu-tennō)

Lithuanian Civil War (1381–84)

The Lithuanian Civil War of 1381–1384 was the first struggle for power between the cousins Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania and later King of Poland, and Vytautas the Great. It began after Jogaila signed the Treaty of Dovydiškės with the Teutonic Knights which was aimed against his uncle Kęstutis, father of Vytautas. Kęstutis briefly seized power in the Grand Duchy, but was betrayed by adherents of Jogaila primarily from Vilnius. During negotiations for a truce Kęstutis and Vytautas were arrested and transported to the Kreva Castle. Kęstutis died there a week later but Vytautas managed to escape and then sought an alliance with the Teutonic Knights. Subsequently their joint forces raided Lithuanian lands. Eventually the cousins were reconciled as Jogaila needed internal stability in anticipation of negotiations with the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Kingdom of Poland regarding the possible Christianization of Lithuania. The war did not settle the power struggle; it continued during the next Lithuanian Civil War (1389–1392) which was resolved by the signing of the Ostrów Agreement. After more than ten years of struggle, Vytautas finally became the Grand Duke of Lithuania and ruled the country for thirty-eight years.

Ming conquest of Yunnan

The Ming conquest of Yunnan was the final phase in the Chinese Ming dynasty expulsion of Mongol Yuan dynasty rule from China in the 1380s.

NGC 1381

NGC 1381 is a lenticular galaxy located in the constellation Fornax. It is located at a distance of circa 60 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 1381 is about 55,000 light years across. It is a member of the Fornax Cluster. NGC 1381 appears edge-on and features a thin disk with high surface brightness and a boxy bulge. Both the box-shaped bulge and the kinematics of the central area of the galaxy suggest that NGC 1381 has a bar.NGC 1381 was discovered by Johann Friedrich Julius Schmidt on January 19, 1865. Julius Schmidt was then director of the National Observatory of Athens and he was inspecting the Cape catalogue nebulae with a 6 ft refractor. Along with NGC 1381, he also discovered the nearby galaxies NGC 1382, NGC 1386, NGC 1389, and NGC 1428. The publication of their discovery was delayed by 10 years and was published in 1876 with the work Über einige im Cape-Catalog fehlende Nebel.NGC 1381 lies at the core of the Fornax Cluster. It lies within a region with increased density of candidate globular clusters nearly half a degree across that connects the elliptical galaxy NGC 1399 with its surrounding galaxies like NGC 1404, NGC 1387, and NGC 1380B. This structure is considered to be the result of the interactions between the cluster galaxies. A region with intracluster light has also being discovered between NGC 1381, NGC 1387, and NGC 1379. It is suggested that it was created by the tidal stripping of stars and globular clusters from the galaxies.

Peasants' Revolt

The Peasants' Revolt, also named Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381. The revolt had various causes, including the socio-economic and political tensions generated by the Black Death in the 1340s, the high taxes resulting from the conflict with France during the Hundred Years' War, and instability within the local leadership of London. The final trigger for the revolt was the intervention of a royal official, John Bampton, in Essex on 30 May 1381. His attempts to collect unpaid poll taxes in Brentwood ended in a violent confrontation, which rapidly spread across the south-east of the country. A wide spectrum of rural society, including many local artisans and village officials, rose up in protest, burning court records and opening the local gaols. The rebels sought a reduction in taxation, an end to the system of unfree labour known as serfdom, and the removal of the King's senior officials and law courts.

Inspired by the sermons of the radical cleric John Ball and led by Wat Tyler, a contingent of Kentish rebels advanced on London. They were met at Blackheath by representatives of the royal government, who unsuccessfully attempted to persuade them to return home. King Richard II, then aged 14, retreated to the safety of the Tower of London, but most of the royal forces were abroad or in northern England. On 13 June, the rebels entered London and, joined by many local townsfolk, attacked the gaols, destroyed the Savoy Palace, set fire to law books and buildings in the Temple, and killed anyone associated with the royal government. The following day, Richard met the rebels at Mile End and acceded to most of their demands, including the abolition of serfdom. Meanwhile, rebels entered the Tower of London, killing the Lord Chancellor and the Lord High Treasurer, whom they found inside.

On 15 June, Richard left the city to meet Tyler and the rebels at Smithfield. Violence broke out, and Richard's party killed Tyler. Richard defused the tense situation long enough for London's mayor, William Walworth, to gather a militia from the city and disperse the rebel forces. Richard immediately began to re-establish order in London and rescinded his previous grants to the rebels. The revolt had also spread into East Anglia, where the University of Cambridge was attacked and many royal officials were killed. Unrest continued until the intervention of Henry le Despenser, who defeated a rebel army at the Battle of North Walsham on 25 or 26 June. Troubles extended north to York, Beverley and Scarborough, and as far west as Bridgwater in Somerset. Richard mobilised 4,000 soldiers to restore order. Most of the rebel leaders were tracked down and executed; by November, at least 1,500 rebels had been killed.

The Peasants' Revolt has been widely studied by academics. Late 19th-century historians used a range of sources from contemporary chroniclers to assemble an account of the uprising, and these were supplemented in the 20th century by research using court records and local archives. Interpretations of the revolt have shifted over the years. It was once seen as a defining moment in English history, but modern academics are less certain of its impact on subsequent social and economic history. The revolt heavily influenced the course of the Hundred Years' War, by deterring later Parliaments from raising additional taxes to pay for military campaigns in France. The revolt has been widely used in socialist literature, including by the author William Morris, and remains a potent political symbol for the political left, informing the arguments surrounding the introduction of the Community Charge in the United Kingdom during the 1980s.

Rita of Cascia

Saint Rita of Cascia (Born Margherita Lotti 1381 – 22 May 1457) was an Italian widow and Augustinian nun venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. Rita was a child bride, married before the age of 12. The marriage lasted for eighteen years, during which she is remembered for her Christian values as a model wife and mother who made efforts to convert her husband from his abusive behavior. Upon the murder of her husband by another feuding family, she sought to dissuade her sons from revenge.

Rita subsequently joined an Augustinian community of religious sisters, where she was known both for practicing mortification of the flesh and for the efficacy of her prayers. Various miracles are attributed to her intercession, and she is often portrayed with a bleeding wound on her forehead, which is understood to indicate a partial stigmata.

Pope Leo XIII canonized Rita on 24 May 1900. Her feast day is celebrated on May 22. At her canonization ceremony she was bestowed the title of Patroness of Impossible Causes, while in many Catholic countries, Rita came to be known to be as the patroness of abused wives and heartbroken women.

Simon Sudbury

Simon Sudbury (c. 1316-14 June 1381) was Bishop of London from 1361 to 1375, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1375 until his death, and in the last year of his life Lord Chancellor of England.

Thomas Hatfield

Thomas Hatfield (died 1381) was Bishop of Durham from 1345 to 1381.

Hatfield was Receiver of the Chamber when he was selected to be Lord Privy Seal in late 1344. He relinquished that office to his successor in July 1345.Hatfield was elected on 8 May 1345 and consecrated on 7 August 1345. He died on 8 May 1381.Hatfield College, a constituent college of the University of Durham is named after him.

Wat Tyler

Walter "Wat" Tyler (died 15 June 1381) was a leader of the 1381 Peasants' Revolt in England. He marched a group of rebels from Canterbury to the capital to oppose the institution of a poll tax and demand economic and social reforms. While the brief rebellion enjoyed early success, Tyler was killed by officers loyal to King Richard II during negotiations at Smithfield, London.

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