1371

Year 1371 (MCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1371 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1371
MCCCLXXI
Ab urbe condita2124
Armenian calendar820
ԹՎ ՊԻ
Assyrian calendar6121
Balinese saka calendar1292–1293
Bengali calendar778
Berber calendar2321
English Regnal year44 Edw. 3 – 45 Edw. 3
Buddhist calendar1915
Burmese calendar733
Byzantine calendar6879–6880
Chinese calendar庚戌(Metal Dog)
4067 or 4007
    — to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
4068 or 4008
Coptic calendar1087–1088
Discordian calendar2537
Ethiopian calendar1363–1364
Hebrew calendar5131–5132
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1427–1428
 - Shaka Samvat1292–1293
 - Kali Yuga4471–4472
Holocene calendar11371
Igbo calendar371–372
Iranian calendar749–750
Islamic calendar772–773
Japanese calendarŌan 4
(応安4年)
Javanese calendar1284–1285
Julian calendar1371
MCCCLXXI
Korean calendar3704
Minguo calendar541 before ROC
民前541年
Nanakshahi calendar−97
Thai solar calendar1913–1914
Tibetan calendar阳金狗年
(male Iron-Dog)
1497 or 1116 or 344
    — to —
阴金猪年
(female Iron-Pig)
1498 or 1117 or 345

Events

January–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

1371 in Ireland

Events from the year 1371 in Ireland.

Battle of Maritsa

The Battle of Maritsa, or Battle of Chernomen (Serbian: Marička bitka/ Маричка битка, Bulgarian: Битката при Марица, битката при Черномен, Turkish: Çirmen Muharebesi, İkinci Meriç Muharebesi in tr. Second Battle of Maritsa) took place at the Maritsa River near the village of Chernomen (today Ormenio in Greece) on 26 September 1371 between the forces of Ottoman commanders Lala Shahin Pasha and Evrenos and Serbian commanders King Vukašin Mrnjavčević and his brother Despot Jovan Uglješa who also wanted to get revenge after the First Battle of Maritsa.

David II of Scotland

David II (Medieval Gaelic: Daibhidh a Briuis, Modern Gaelic: Dàibhidh Bruis; Norman French: Dauid de Brus, Early Scots: Dauid Brus; 5 March 1324 – 22 February 1371) was King of Scots for over 41 years, from 1329 until his death in 1371. He was the last male of the House of Bruce. Although David spent long periods in exile or captivity, he managed to resist English attempts to annex his kingdom, and left the monarchy in a strong position.

Earl of Winton

The title Earl of Winton was once created in the Peerage of Scotland, and again the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It is now held by the Earl of Eglinton.

The title was first bestowed on Robert Seton, 8th Lord Seton. His descendants held it until George Seton, 5th Earl of Winton was convicted of high treason in 1716, when his titles were forfeit. Lord Winton was also condemned to death, but he managed to escape the Tower of London, and went to Rome, where he later died.

In 1834 there were two claimants: the Earl of Eglinton, and George Seton as a descendant of Sir George Seton of Garleton.The title had a second creation for the thirteenth Earl of Eglinton, a kinsman of the last Earl from the first creation.

The Lords Seton were the Premier Barons of Scotland until the creation of the Earldom of Winton in 1600. Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington wrote in his History of the House of Seytoune to the Year 1559, that Sir William Seton, "... was the "First creatit and made Lord of Parliament in Scotland, and he and his posteritie to have ane voit yairin and be callit Lords" by King Robert II, where there were no Lords of Parliament before that time. Noted accordingly in the records of the Scottish parliament, held at Scone 26 March 1371, at the coronation of Robert II, William de Seton is named among the "Nobiles Barones", as "Dominus de Seton". As Knight-Baron's, the Seton's had previously sat in the original parliaments of Scotland from the earliest times, including those of David I, King Balliol, Robert I and David II. Anderson states George Seton accompanied Chancellor Crichton to France & Burgundy in 1448 and "was soon afterwards created a peer of parliament", which referred to the young Seton having finally come of age and being given his family's seat held by his grandfather, and not of the creation. The Complete Peerage cites a jury on which "Sir George de Seton of that Ilk" served on 22 March 1451 (1450/1), and states that "he was created, shortly after that date, a Lord of Parliament as Lord Seton [S]".

House of Stuart

The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house of Scotland with Breton origin. They had held the office of High Steward of Scotland since Walter FitzAlan in around 1150. The royal Stewart line was founded by Robert II whose descendants were kings and queens of Scotland from 1371 until the union with England in 1707. Mary, Queen of Scots was brought up in France where she adopted the French spelling of the name Stuart.

In 1503, James IV married Margaret Tudor, thus linking the royal houses of Scotland and England. Elizabeth I of England died without issue in 1603, and James IV's great grandson James VI of Scotland succeed the thrones of England and Ireland as James I in the Union of the Crowns. The Stuarts were monarchs of the British Isles and its growing empire until the death of Queen Anne in 1714, except for the period of the Commonwealth between 1649 and 1660.In total, nine Stewart/Stuart monarchs ruled Scotland alone from 1371 until 1603. The last ruler of Scotland alone was James VI, who became the first dual monarch of England and Scotland in 1603. Two Stuart queens ruled the isles following the Glorious Revolution in 1688: Mary II and Anne. Both were the Protestant daughters of James VII and II by his first wife Anne Hyde and the great-grandchildren of James VI and I. Their father had converted to Catholicism and his new wife gave birth to a son in 1688, who was brought up a Roman Catholic and preceded his half-sisters; so James was deposed by Parliament in 1689, in favour of his daughters. But neither had any children who survived to adulthood, so the crown passed to the House of Hanover on the death of Queen Anne in 1714 under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Act of Security 1704.

Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria

Ivan Alexander (Bulgarian: Иван Александър, transliterated Ivan Aleksandǎr; pronounced [iˈvan alɛkˈsandər]; original spelling: ІѠАНЪ АЛЄѮАНдРЪ), also sometimes Anglicized as John Alexander, ruled as Emperor (Tsar) of Bulgaria from 1331 to 1371, during the Second Bulgarian Empire. The date of his birth is unknown. He died on 17 February 1371. The long reign of Ivan Alexander is considered a transitional period in Bulgarian medieval history. Ivan Alexander began his rule by dealing with internal problems and external threats from Bulgaria's neighbours, the Byzantine Empire and Serbia, as well as leading his empire into a period of economic recovery and cultural and religious renaissance.However, the emperor was later unable to cope with the mounting incursions of Ottoman forces, Hungarian invasions from the northwest and the Black Death. In an ill-fated attempt to combat these problems, he divided the country between his two sons, thus forcing it to face the imminent Ottoman conquest weakened and divided.

Khan al-Sabil

Khan al-Sabil (Arabic: خان السبل‎, also spelled Khan Sebil, Khan Sobol or Khan Sabl) is a village in northwestern Syria, administratively part of Idlib District of the Idlib Governorate, located south of Idlib. It is situated on either side of the Aleppo-Damascus highway, just east of the Jabal Zawiya mountain. Nearby localities include Maarrat al-Nu'man and Babila to the south, Masaran to the southeast, Shaykh Idris to the east, Maardibsah, Mardikh and Saraqib to the north and Kafr Battikh to the northwest.

According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics, Khan al-Sabil had a population of 6,551 at the time of the 2004 census.

Kruševac

Kruševac (Serbian Cyrillic: Крушевац [krûʃeʋats] (listen)) is a city and the administrative center of the Rasina District in central Serbia. It is located in the valley of West Morava, on Rasina river. According to the 2011 census, the city administrative area has a population of 128,752, while the urban area has 73,316 inhabitants.

The city was founded in 1371, by Prince Lazar of Serbia (1371–1389), who used it as his seat.

List of Serbian monarchs

This is an archontological list of Serbian monarchs, containing monarchs of the medieval principalities, to heads of state of modern Serbia.

The Serbian monarchy dates back to the Early Middle Ages. The Serbian royal titles used include Knyaz (Prince), Grand Župan (Grand Prince), King, Tsar (Emperor) and Despot.

Lordship of Prilep

The Lordship of Prilep, also known as the Realm of King Marko (Serbian: Област краља Марка / Oblast kralja Marka), was one of the successor-states of the Serbian Empire, covering (mainly) the southern regions, corresponding (in modern terms) to western parts of present-day North Macedonia. Its central region of Pelagonia, with the city of Prilep, was held by lord Vukašin Mrnjavčević, who in 1365 became Serbian king and co-ruler of Serbian emperor Stefan Uroš V (1355-1371). After king Vukašin died at the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, the realm was obtained by his son and designated successor (rex iunior) Marko Mrnjavčević, who took the title of Serbian king. At that time, capital cities of the Serbian realm were Skopje and Prizren, but during the following years king Marko lost effective control over those regions, and moved his residence to Prilep. He ruled there until his death in the Battle of Rovine in 1395. By the end of the same year, the Realm of late King Marko was conquered by Ottoman Turks.

Moravian Serbia

Moravian Serbia (Serbian: Моравска Србија / Moravska Srbija) is the name used in historiography for the largest and most powerful Serbian principality to emerge from the ruins of the Serbian Empire (1371). Moravian Serbia is named after Morava, the main river of the region. Independent principality in the region of Morava was established in 1371, and attained its largest extent in 1379 through the military and political activities of its first ruler, prince Lazar Hrebeljanović. In 1402 it was raised to the Serbian Despotate, which would exist until 1459 (de jure until the 1560s).

The adjective Moravian does not imply that the state (Moravian Serbia) is affiliated in any way with the region of Moravia in the present-day Czech Republic. The term Moravian Serbia refers to the fact that the state comprised the basins of the Great Morava, West Morava, and South Morava rivers in present-day central Serbia.

NGC 83

NGC 83 is an elliptical galaxy estimated to be about 260 million light-years away in the constellation of Andromeda. It was discovered by John Herschel in 1828 and its apparent magnitude is 14.2.

Nemanjić dynasty

The Nemanjić (Serbian Cyrillic: Немањић, pl. Nemanjići / Немањићи, pronounced [nɛ̌maɲitɕ]) was the most prominent dynasty of Serbia in the Middle Ages. The princely, royal and imperial house produced eleven Serbian monarchs between 1166 and 1371.Its progenitor was Stefan Nemanja, who descended from a cadet line of the Vukanović dynasty (1101–1166). After Nemanja, all monarchs used Stefan as a personal name, a tradition adopted for the royal pretensions. The monarchs began as Grand Princes, and with the crowning of Stefan Nemanjić in 1217, the realm was promoted to a Kingdom, and the Serbian Church was established. In 1346, Stefan Dušan was crowned Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks, and the Archbishopric of Serbia was elevated to a Patriarchate.In 1371, with the death of child-less Uroš the Weak (r. 1355–1371), the fall of the Serbian Empire was ensured; provincial lords obtained the rule of the past provinces, and the Nemanjić survived only through maternal lines in several Serbian houses.

Philip VI of France

Philip VI (French: Philippe; 1293 – 22 August 1350), called the Fortunate (French: le Fortuné) and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois. He reigned from 1328 until his death.

Philip's reign was dominated by the consequences of a succession dispute. When King Charles IV died without a male heir in 1328, the nearest male relative was his maternal nephew Edward III of England. It was held in France, however, that Edward was ineligible to inherit the French throne through the female line according to the ancient Salic Law. Philip, being Charles IV's cousin in the male line, acceded instead. At first, Edward seemed to accept the Valois succession to the crown, but he pressed his claim to the throne of France after a series of disagreements with Philip. The result was the beginning of the Hundred Years' War in 1337.

After initial successes at sea, Philip's navy was annihilated at the Battle of Sluys in 1340, ensuring that the war would occur on the continent. The English took another decisive advantage at the Battle of Crécy (1346), while the Black Death struck France, further destabilizing the country.

In 1349, Philip VI bought the Dauphiné from its ruined ruler Humbert II and entrusted the government of this province to his grandson Charles. Philip VI died in 1350 and was succeeded by his son John II, the Good.

Prince Marko

Marko Mrnjavčević (Serbian Cyrillic: Марко Мрњавчевић, pronounced [mâːrko mr̩̂ɲaːʋt͡ʃeʋit͡ɕ] (listen); c. 1335 – 17 May 1395) was the de jure Serbian king from 1371 to 1395, while he was the de facto ruler of territory in western Macedonia centered on the town of Prilep. He is known as Prince Marko (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљевић Марко, Kraljević Marko, IPA: [krǎːʎeʋit͡ɕ mâːrko]) and King Marko (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Марко; Bulgarian: Крали Марко; Macedonian: Kрaле Марко) in South Slavic oral tradition, in which he has become a major character during the period of Ottoman rule over the Balkans. Marko's father, King Vukašin, was co-ruler with Serbian Tsar Stefan Uroš V, whose reign was characterised by weakening central authority and the gradual disintegration of the Serbian Empire. Vukašin's holdings included lands in western Macedonia and Kosovo. In 1370 or 1371, he crowned Marko "young king"; this title included the possibility that Marko would succeed the childless Uroš on the Serbian throne.

On 26 September 1371, Vukašin was killed and his forces defeated in the Battle of Maritsa. About two months later, Tsar Uroš died. This formally made Marko the king of the Serbian land; however, Serbian noblemen, who had become effectively independent from the central authority, did not even consider to recognise him as their supreme ruler. Sometime after 1371, he became an Ottoman vassal; by 1377, significant portions of the territory he inherited from Vukašin were seized by other noblemen. King Marko, in reality, came to be a regional lord who ruled over a relatively small territory in western Macedonia. He funded the construction of the Monastery of Saint Demetrius near Skopje (better known as Marko's Monastery), which was completed in 1376. Marko died on 17 May 1395, fighting for the Ottomans against the Wallachians in the Battle of Rovine.

Although a ruler of modest historical significance, Marko became a major character in South Slavic oral tradition. He is venerated as a national hero by the Serbs, Macedonians and Bulgarians, remembered in Balkan folklore as a fearless and powerful protector of the weak, who fought against injustice and confronted the Turks during the Ottoman occupation.

Robert II of Scotland

Robert II (2 March 1316 – 19 April 1390) reigned as King of Scots from 1371 to his death as the first monarch of the House of Stewart. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of the Scottish king Robert the Bruce by his first wife Isabella of Mar.

Edward Bruce, younger brother of Robert the Bruce, was named heir to the throne but he died without heirs on 3 December 1318. Marjorie had died probably in 1317 in a riding accident and parliament decreed her infant son, Robert Stewart, as heir presumptive, but this lapsed on 5 March 1324 on the birth of a son, David, to King Robert and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. Robert Stewart became High Steward of Scotland on his father's death on 9 April 1326, and in same year parliament confirmed the young Steward as heir should Prince David die without a successor. In 1329 King Robert I died and the six-year-old David succeeded to the throne under the guardianship of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray.

Edward Balliol, son of King John Balliol—assisted by the English and those Scottish nobles who had been disinherited by Robert I—invaded Scotland inflicting heavy defeats on the Bruce party on 11 August 1332 at Dupplin Moor and Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333. Robert, who had fought at Halidon joined his uncle, King David in refuge in Dumbarton Castle. David escaped to France in 1334 and parliament, still functioning, appointed Robert and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray as joint Guardians of the kingdom. Randolph was captured by the English in July 1335 and in the same year Robert submitted to Balliol bringing about the removal of his guardianship. The office was reinstated in 1338 and Robert held it until David's return from France in June 1341. Hostilities continued and Robert was with David at the Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 and either escaped or fled the field but David was captured and remained a prisoner until he was ransomed in October 1357.

Robert married Elizabeth Mure around 1348, legitimising his four sons and five daughters. His subsequent marriage to Euphemia de Ross in 1355 produced two sons and two surviving daughters. Robert rebelled against the King in 1363 but submitted to him following a threat to his right of succession. David died in 1371 and Robert succeeded him at the age of fifty-five. The border magnates continued to attack English-held zones in southern Scotland and by 1384, the Scots had re-taken most of the occupied lands. Robert ensured that Scotland was included in the Anglo-French truce of 1384 and that was a factor in the coup in November when he lost control of the country first to his eldest son, John, and then from 1388 to John's younger brother, Robert. King Robert died in Dundonald Castle in 1390 and was buried at Scone Abbey.

Serbian Empire

The Serbian Empire (Serbian: Српско царство/Srpsko carstvo, pronounced [sr̩̂pskoː tsâːrstʋo]) is a historiographical term for the empire in the Balkan peninsula that emerged from the medieval Serbian Kingdom. It was established in 1346 by King Stefan Dušan, known as "the Mighty", who significantly expanded the state. Under Dušan's rule Serbia was the major power in the Balkans, and a multi-lingual empire that stretched from the Danube to the Gulf of Corinth, with its capital in Skopje. He also promoted the Serbian Archbishopric to the Serbian Patriarchate. His son and successor, Uroš the Weak, lost most of the territory conquered by Dušan, hence his epithet. The Serbian Empire effectively ended with the death of Uroš V in 1371 and the break-up of the Serbian state. Some successors of Stefan V claimed the title of Emperor in parts of Serbia until 1402, but the territory in Greece was never recovered.

Sratsimir dynasty

The House of Sratsimir, also Sracimir or Sratsimirovtsi (Bulgarian: Срацимировци) was a medieval Bulgarian dynasty that ruled the Tsardom of Tarnovo and Tsardom of Vidin, the Principality of Valona and Kanina, and the Despotate of Lovech. Paternally, they descended from the Asen dynasty, and maternally, they descended from the Shishman dynasty.

SratsimirIvan Alexander of Bulgaria (1331 – 1371)co-emperor Michael Asen IV of Bulgaria (b. c. 1322, co-emperor 1332-1355)

Ivan Sratsimir of Bulgaria (b. 1324/1325, ruled 1356-1397 in Vidin)Queen Dorothea of Bosnia

Constantine II of Bulgaria (b. early 1370s, ruled 1397-1422 in Vidin and in exile)Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria (b. 1350/1351, ruled 1371-1395 in Tarnovo)Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople (Patriarch of Constantinople 1416-1439)

Fruzhin (d. c. 1460)John Komnenos Asen (1332 – 1363)Alexander Komnenos Asen (1363 – 1372)

Komnena (1372 – 1395)Helena (fl. 1332–59), Queen consort of Serbia

Stefan Uroš V

Saint Stefan Uroš V (Serbian: Свети Стефан Урош V pronounced [stêfaːn ûroʃ peːti] (listen); 1336 – 2/4 December 1371), known in historiography as Uroš the Weak (Урош Нејаки/Uroš Nejaki), was the second Emperor (Tsar) of the Serbian Empire (1355–1371), and before that he was Serbian King and co-ruler (since 1346) with his father, Emperor Stefan Dušan.

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