135 is photographic film in a film format used for still photography. It is a cartridge film with a film gauge of 35 mm (1.4 in), typically used for hand-held photography in 35 mm film cameras. Its engineering standard for the film is controlled by ISO 1007.
The term 135 (ISO 1007) was introduced by Kodak in 1934 as a designation for the cassette for 35 mm film, specifically for still photography. It quickly grew in popularity, surpassing 120 film by the late 1960s to become the most popular photographic film size. Despite competition from formats such as 828, 126, 110, and APS, it remains so today.
135 camera film always comes perforated with Kodak Standard perforations.
The size of the 135 film frame has been adopted by many high-end digital single-lens reflex and digital mirrorless cameras, commonly referred to as "full frame". Even though the format is much smaller than historical medium format and large format film, it is much larger than image sensors in most compact cameras and smart phone cameras.
Individual rolls of 135 film are enclosed in single-spool, light-tight, metal cassettes to allow cameras to be loaded in daylight. The film is clipped or taped to a spool and exits via a slot lined with flocking. The end of the film is cut on one side to form a leader. It has the same dimensions and perforation pitch as 35 mm movie print film (also called "long pitch", KS-1870, whereas 35mm professional motion picture camera films are always "short pitch", BH-1866).
Most cameras require the film to be rewound before the camera is opened. Some motorized cameras unwind the film fully upon loading and then expose the images in reverse order, returning the film to the cassette; this protects all images except the last one or two, should the camera back be accidentally opened. Disposable cameras use the same technique so that the user does not have to rewind.
Since the 1980s film cassettes have been marked with a DX encoding pattern; conforming cameras detect this and set their light meters according to film speed. Different films are sensitive to light at different degrees; this film speed is standardised by ISO.
135 film has been made in several emulsion types and sensitivities (film speeds). Since the introduction of digital cameras the most usual films have colour emulsions of ISO 100/21° to ISO 800/30°. Films of lower sensitivity (and better picture quality) and higher sensitivity (for low light) are for more specialist purposes. There are colour and monochrome films, negative and positive. Monochrome film is usually panchromatic; orthochromatic has fallen out of use. Film designed to be sensitive to infrared radiation can be obtained, both monochrome and with false-colour (or pseudocolour) rendition. More exotic emulsions have been available in 135 than other roll-film sizes.
The term 135 format usually refers to a 36×24 mm film format, commonly known as 35 mm format. The 36×24 mm format is common to digital image sensors, where it is typically referred to as full frame format.
On 135 film, the longer dimension of the 36×24 mm frame runs parallel to the length of the film. The perforation size and pitch are according to the standard specification KS-1870. For each frame, the film advances 8 perforations. This is specified as 38.00 mm. This allows for 2 mm gaps between frames. Each camera model has a different location for the sprocket which advances the film. Therefore, each camera model's frame will vary in position relative to the perforations. The film is approximately 0.14 mm thick.
Other image formats have been applied to 135 film, such as the half-frame format of 18×24 mm which earned some popularity in the 1960s, and the 24×24 mm of the Robot cameras. The successful range of Olympus Pen cameras utilized the smaller half-frame size, allowing the design of a very compact SLR camera. Unusual formats include the 24×32 mm and 24×34 mm on the early Nikon rangefinders, and 24×23 mm for use with some stereo cameras. In 1967, the Soviet KMZ factory introduced a 24×58 mm panoramic format with its Horizont camera (descendants of which are called, in the Roman alphabet, Horizon). In 1998, Hasselblad and Fuji introduced a 24×65 mm panoramic format with the XPan/TX-1 camera. There is also a 21×14 mm format used by Tessina subminiature camera.
The film is available in lengths for varying numbers of exposures. The standard full-length roll has always been 36 exposures (assuming a standard 24×36 frame size). Through about 1980, 20 exposure rolls were the only shorter length with widespread availability. Since then, 20 exposure rolls have been largely discontinued in favour of 24 and 12 exposure rolls. With most cameras it is possible to get 3 more exposures than the nominal capacity on the film if the camera is loaded in a darkroom and some cameras allow this with daylight loading. 27 exposure disposable cameras are loaded in the dark with standard 24 exposure cassette.
Other, mostly shorter lengths have been manufactured. There have been some 6, 8, 10, and 15 exposure rolls given away as samples, sometimes in disposable cameras, or used by insurance adjusters to document damage claims. 12 exposure rolls have been used widely in the daily press. Photographers who load their own cassettes can use any length of film – with thinner film base up to 45 exposures will fit.
The 135 film size is derived from earlier still cameras using lengths of 35 mm cine film, the same size as, but with different perforations than, 135 film. The 35 mm film standard for motion picture film was established in Thomas Edison's lab by William Kennedy Laurie Dickson. Dickson took 70 mm film stock supplied by George Eastman's Eastman Kodak Company. The 70 mm film was cut lengthwise into two equal width (35 mm) strips, spliced together end to end, and then perforated along both edges. The original picture size was 18×24 mm (half the full frame size later used in still photography). There were four perforations on each side of a motion picture frame.
While the Leica camera popularized the format, several 35 mm still cameras used perforated movie film before the Leica was introduced in the 1920s. The first patent for one was issued to Leo, Audobard and Baradat in England in 1908. The first full-scale production camera was the Homeos, a stereo camera, produced by Jules Richard in 1913, and was sold until 1920. It took 18x24 mm stereo pairs, using two Tessar lenses.
In 1909, the French Étienne Mollier designed a device small-format photography, the "Cent-Vues", which used the 35 mm perforated film to take consecutive hundred views in 18×24 mm. He manufactured, won the gold medal in the Concours Lépine, and in 1910 sold at a small scale and without much success.
The first big-selling 35 mm still camera was the American Tourist Multiple, which also appeared in 1913, at a cost of $175 (at today's prices, the same cost as a modern $3000 Leica.) The first camera to take full-frame 24×36 mm exposures seems to be the Simplex, introduced in the U.S. in 1914. It took either 800 half-frame or 400 full-frame shots on 50 ft (15.2 m) rolls.
The Minigraph, by Levy-Roth of Berlin, another half-frame small camera was sold in Germany in 1915. The patent for the Debrie Sept camera, a combination 35 mm still and movie camera was issued in 1918; the camera sold from 1922.
The Furet camera made and sold in France in 1923 took full-frame 24x36 mm negatives, and was the first cheap small 35 mm camera of similar appearance to more modern models.
Although Barnack designed his prototype camera around 1913, the first experimental production run of ur-Leicas (Serial No. 100 to 130) did not take place until 1923. Full-scale production of the Leica did not begin until 1925. While by that time there were at least a dozen other 35 mm cameras available, the Leica was a success, and came to be associated with the format. Mostly because of this 35 mm popularity, as well as the entire company legacy, early Leica cameras are considered as highly collectible items these days. The original Leica prototype holds the record as being the world's most expensive camera, selling for €2.16 million in 2012.
In the earliest days, the photographer had to load the film into reusable cassettes and, at least for some cameras, cut the film leader. In 1934, Kodak introduced a 135 daylight-loading single-use cassette. This cassette was engineered so that it could be used in both Leica and Zeiss Ikon Contax cameras along with the camera for which it was invented, namely the Kodak Retina camera. The Retina camera and this daylight loading cassette were the invention of Dr. August Nagel of the Kodak AG Dr. Nagel Werk in Stuttgart. Kodak bought Dr. August Nagel's company in December, 1931, and began marketing the Kodak Retina in the summer of 1934. The first Kodak Retina camera was a Typ 117. The 35 mm Kodak Retina camera line remained in production until 1969. Kodak also introduced a line of American made cameras that were simpler and more economical than the Retina. Argus, too, made a long-lived range of 35mm cameras; notably the Argus C3. Kodak launched 135-format Kodachrome color film in 1936. AGFA followed with the introduction of Agfacolor Neu later in the same year.
The designations 235 and 435 refer to 35 mm film in daylight-loading spools, that could be loaded into Leica or Contax style reusable cassettes without need of a darkroom. The 335 was a daylight loading spool for the 24 × 23 mm stereo format.
Reflex viewfinders, both twin-and single-lens, had been used with earlier cameras using plates and rollfilm.
The first 35 mm single-lens reflex (SLR) was the Kine Exakta, introduced in 1936. World War II interrupted development of the type. After the war, Exakta resumed development and the Contax S model with the now familiar pentaprism viewing feature was introduced in 1949. In the 1950s, the SLR also began to be produced in Japan by such companies as Asahi and Miranda. Asahi's Pentax introduced the instant-return mirror, important for the popularity of SLRs; until then the viewfinder on an SLR camera blanked as the mirror sprang out of the optical path just before taking the picture, returning when the film was wound on. Nikon's F model, introduced in March 1959, was a system camera that greatly improved the quality and utility of 35 mm format cameras, encouraging professionals (especially photojournalists) to switch from larger format cameras to the versatile, rugged, and fast SLR design. Numerous other film formats waxed and waned in popularity, but by the 1970s, interchangeable-lens SLR cameras and smaller rangefinders, from expensive Leicas to "point-and-shoot" pocket cameras, were all using 35 mm film, and manufacturers had proliferated.
Colour films improved, both for print negatives and reversal slides, while black-and-white films offered smoother grain and faster speeds than previously available. Since 35 mm was preferred by both amateur and professional photographers, makers of film stock have long offered the widest range of different film speeds and types in the format. The DX film-speed encoding system was introduced in the 1980s, as were single-use cameras pre-loaded with 35 mm film and using plastic lenses of reasonable enough quality to produce acceptable snapshots. Automated all-in-one processing and printing machines made 35 mm developing easier and less expensive, so that quality colour prints became available not only from photographic specialty stores, but also from supermarkets, drugstores, and big box retailers, often in less than an hour.
In 1996 a smaller format called Advanced Photo System (APS) was introduced by a consortium of photographic companies in an attempt to supersede 135 film. Due in part to its small negative size, APS was not taken seriously as a professional format, despite the production of APS SLRs. In the point-and-shoot markets at which the format was primarily aimed, it enjoyed moderate initial success, but still never rivalled the market penetration of 135. Within five years of its launch, cheap digital compact cameras started becoming widely available, and APS sales plummeted.
Such digital compact cameras also eroded the market for 35 mm compact cameras. Digital SLRs at a price (and quality) comparable with consumer-level 35 mm SLRs were developed, further reducing the demand for 135 film. Most of these use so-called "APS-C" sized sensors, approximately 16×24 mm in size (half-frame). A few digital SLRs use "full frame" sensors, the same size as 135 film. Sales of all film sizes declined to a very large extent; of the remaining sizes, 135 is the most popular.
While they have shifted the vast majority of their product lines to digital, major camera manufacturers such as Canon and Nikon continue to make expensive professional-grade 35 mm film SLRs (such as the Canon EOS-1v and the Nikon F6). Introductory 35 mm SLRs, compact film point-and-shoot cameras, and single-use cameras continue to be built and sold by a number of makers. Leica finally introduced the digital Leica M8 rangefinder in 2007, but continues to make its M series rangefinder film cameras and lenses. A digital camera back for the Leica R9 SLR camera was discontinued in 2007. On March 25, 2009, Leica discontinued the R9 SLR and R-series lenses.
120 is a popular film format for still photography introduced by Kodak for their Brownie No. 2 in 1901. It was originally intended for amateur photography but was later superseded in this role by 135 film. 120 film and its close relative, 220 film, survive to this day as the only medium format films that are readily available to both professionals and amateur enthusiasts. As of December 2018 all production of 220 film has stopped/paused worldwide. The only remaining stocks are from the last Fujifilm production run (2018) and they are mostly found in Japan.828 film
828 is a film format for still photography. Kodak introduced it in 1935, only a year after 135 film. 828 film was introduced with the Kodak Bantam, a consumer-level camera.
The 828 format uses the same basic film stock as 135 film (standard 35mm film), but the film lacks the sprocket holes of 135. The standard image format is 40 × 28 mm. This provides a 30% larger image compared to 135's standard 24 × 36 mm, yet on the same film stock. Because Kodak targeted 828 at a lower-end consumer market, the film was much shorter, at a standard 8 exposures per roll. 828 film originally had one perforation per frame, much like 126 film. Unlike 135 (a single-spool cartridge film) or 126 (a dual-spool cartridge film), 828 is a roll film format, like 120 film. Like 120, it has a backing paper and frames are registered through a colored window on the back of the camera (except on the original folding Bantams, where images were registered with an index hole).
828 cameras never achieved widespread popularity, and the format had a rather limited run. Kodak's last 828 cameras were the Pony 828 in the US, produced until 1959, and the Bantam Colorsnap 3 in the UK, produced until 1963. Kodak ceased production of 828 format film in 1985. The Traid Fotron, sold in the late 1960s, used 828 format film as well. However, the film was enclosed in a proprietary pop-in cartridge and so the consumer never actually saw the film; instead, they merely returned the entire cartridge to Traid for processing.
Those wishing to photograph with an 828-format camera have few options. As of 2005, 828 film is available for purchase on the Internet; this film is probably respooled from bulk unperforated 35mm film. Another option is to use standard 135 film, with sprocket holes, and respool it with used 828 backing paper onto old spools. The effective image size will be reduced with this method as the perforations will intrude on the image area. Finally, as with other obsolete film types, 120 film can be cut (with backing paper) and respooled onto 828 spools.Canon Canonflex
The Canonflex is a Canon 35 mm film single-lens reflex (SLR) camera introduced in May 1959. Its standard lens is the Canon Camera Co. Super-Canomatic R 50mm lens f/1.8. The camera was in production for one year before it was replaced by the Canonflex R2000, adding a 1/2000 sec. shutter speed.Canon Pellix
The Canon Pellix is a manual focus camera released in 1965 that uses a semitransparent stationary reflex mirror behind which a metering cell is raised during the reading.Kodak 35
The Kodak 35 was introduced in 1938 as the first US manufactured 35mm camera from Eastman Kodak Company. It was developed in Rochester, New York when it became likely that imports from the Kodak AG factory in Germany could be disrupted by war.
While Kodak had invented the Kodak 135 daylight-loading film cassette in 1934, prior to 1938 they only offered the German made Kodak Retina' to work with this cartridge. US built 35mm cameras used the 828 paper backed 35mm roll-film (Bantam Series).Kodak 35 Rangefinder
The Kodak 35 Rangefinder is an improved version of the Kodak 35 that was launched by the Eastman Kodak Company in 1938 as their first 35mm camera manufactured in the USA. After some two years, the Company presented this improved Kodak 35 camera, with a new superstructure housing containing a viewfinder and a separate rangefinder, but without any addition to the identifying inscription on the body. It is generally referred to as the Kodak 35 Rangefinder model.Kodak DCS 300 series
The Kodak DCS 300 series comprised two cameras, the DCS 315 and DCS 330. They were professional-level digital SLR cameras built by Eastman Kodak's Kodak Professional Imaging Solutions division. They were based on the Nikon Pronea 6i APS SLR camera and were aimed at a lower price point than other models in the Kodak DCS range. The 1.5 megapixel DCS 315 was launched in 1998, while the 3 megapixel DCS 330 was launched in 1999.
The DCS 315 was the first digital SLR camera to incorporate an image preview LCD and inbuilt JPEG processing.
The two cameras had different sized CCD imaging chips, both of which were smaller than either 135 film or APS-C film frames. The 315's imager had a crop factor of 2.6 relative to 135 film ("35mm"), while the 330's was larger with a factor of 1.9.
The Kodak modification to the Pronea 6i involved removing the camera's film back and mounting instead a Kodak digital back. This not only covered the back of the camera, but also extended beneath it, approximately doubling the camera's height. This was required to accommodate the large PC cards used as storage media, the six AA batteries required to power the camera, and the circuitry for image processing. The Kodak back had two display screens. The upper was a full-color screen used for viewing taken shots. The lower LCD displayed the camera's settings.
An infrared filter was mounted just behind the lens mount. This had to be removed in order to fit certain Nikkor lenses, including the IX-Nikkor lenses designed for the APS format camera.
The DCS 315 was substantially faster than the 330 since only half as much data needed to be stored per shot. The 315 also allowed image storage in the smaller JPEG format, while the 330 only allowed Kodak's proprietary .TIF RAW format.Kodak Retinette
Kodak Retinette is the name of a classic series of cameras manufactured by the Eastman Kodak company. They were introduced in 1939 as a less expensive alternative to the Kodak Retina series. The first models were of the folding type using bellows and their lenses had three elements as compared to the four element Tessar lenses (Greek: Tessera meaning four) of the Retina series. The first non-folding (rigid) variant was introduced in 1954 with the model 022. They most often featured Schneider Kreuznach Reomar lenses but, sometimes, Rodenstock Reomar lenses were installed. The Rodenstock lenses were based on the original Schneider Kreuznach triplet (three optical element) design. Kodak Anastigmat Angénieux lenses were also used especially for the French market. Common shutters included Compur–Rapid as well as various Pronto, Vero and Kodak models.Leica R3
The Leica R3 was a 35mm SLR camera by Leica.
Leica launched the Leica R3 in 1976. It was the successor of the Leicaflex SL2, and was developed in cooperation with Minolta, together with the Minolta XE bodies.
It was a 35mm SLR with a Copal Leitz CLS electronic focal plane shutter.Leica Standard
The Leica Standard, Model E was the fourth version of the original 35 mm Leica camera to be launched from Ernst Leitz in Wetzlar, Germany. The concept was conceived by their employee Oskar Barnack in 1913. Production of the camera began in 1925 but it was not until the end of the decade that it was perfected and full-scale production was established.Mamiya
Mamiya Digital Imaging Co., Ltd. (マミヤ・デジタル・イメージング, マミヤ・デジタル・イメージング ー株式会社, Mamiya Dejitaru Imejingu Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese company that manufactures high-end cameras and other related photographic and optical equipment. With headquarters in Tokyo, it has two manufacturing plants and a workforce of over 200 people. The company was founded in May 1940 by camera designer Seiichi Mamiya (間宮精一) and financial backer Tsunejiro Sugawara.Minolta Maxxum 7000
The Minolta MAXXUM 7000 (7000 AF in Europe and α-7000 in Japan) 35mm SLR camera was introduced in February 1985. It was the first camera to feature both integrated autofocus (AF) and motorised film advance, the standard configuration for later amateur and professional single lens reflex cameras.Minolta Maxxum 9000
The Minolta 9000 AF is a professional Single-lens reflex autofocus camera, introduced by Minolta in August 1985. It was both Minolta's and the world's first professional autofocus SLR. It was called Minolta Maxxum 9000 in the US and Minolta α-9000 in Japan.
As the first professional autofocus SLR system ever made, the Minolta 9000 AF sports of number of unique features showing the transition from electro-mechanical cameras to the next generation of fully electronic cameras. For instance, it is the only autofocus system ever made with a manual film transport rather than automatic electronic winding.Minolta TC-1
TC-1 is a camera that was produced by Minolta. It is a compact 35 mm point and shoot camera with G-Rokkor 28mm f/3.5 lens. As a new camera it was expensive, and it remains expensive used. It has a high quality lens and body. One uncommon feature is the circular diaphragm. It has received praise for its bokeh (out-of-focus characteristics).In 1996, the Camera Journal Press Club of Japan awarded the TC-1 with the Camera Grand Prix.Minolta X-570
The Minolta X-570 (X-500 in Europe) was introduced in 1983 as a lower cost alternative to the X-700. It used the same chassis as the rest of the Minolta X series and the standard Minolta SR mount. The primary difference between the top-of-the-line X-700 and the X-570 is that the latter lacked the fully automatic Program exposure mode. However, the X-570 added an important feature that would be part of all subsequent X series cameras, but never added to the X-700, a match LED exposure meter. This system indicated the selected shutter speed with a blinking LED and the suggested shutter speed, based on the exposure value and the selected lens aperture, with a solid LED. Some consider the X-500 more of an enthusiast's camera than the X-700, since it offered no P mode and therefore required some photographic knowledge.Minolta XD-7
The Minolta XD-7 (sold as the XD-11 in North America and as the XD in Japan) is a 35mm SLR film camera manufactured by Minolta from 1977 until 1984. It was the first camera to feature both shutter priority and aperture priority automatic exposure modes. The camera also offered fully metered manual exposure as well as depth of field preview and an eyepiece shutter. Also, included were fully mechanical "O" (1/100 sec) and bulb settings, which allowed it to operate without a battery. The XD-7 was the top-of-the-line Minolta camera when it was in production and retains a reputation for quality. It was Minolta's last metal-bodied SLR design before the company switched to plastic with the X-700.
There was also a less-expensive version of the XD-7 called the XD-5. Introduced in 1979, the XD-5 was mostly identical to the XD-7 but without some higher-end features like the eyepiece shutter or the display of the selected shutter speed in the viewfinder in manual exposure mode.
Many professional photographers have used the XD-7. One of the best known is Harry Benson, who often acknowledged the XD-7 in the various photography books he published in the 1980s.Minolta XE
The Minolta XE, known as the XE-1 in Europe and the XE-7 in North America, is a manual focus, 35 mm single-lens reflex camera produced by Minolta of Japan between 1974 and 1977. It was developed in collaboration with Leica Camera and has many similarities to the Leica R3.
The XE uses a Leitz-Copal electronic, vertically traveling, metal blade focal plane shutter supporting exposure times of 1/1000 of a second to four seconds, plus bulb setting. In aperture priority auto-exposure mode, the shutter speed is varied steplessly; in manual mode, the shutter speeds are selected in whole stop increments. The camera has a very short shutter lag of about 38ms, among the best for an SLR regardless of manufacturer.Minolta XE-5
The Minolta XE-5 was a 35 mm single-lens reflex camera from Minolta of Japan, introduced in 1975.
It was a simplified and lower-cost version of Minolta's XE/XE-1/XE-7, keeping that camera's automatic exposure but removing viewfinder displays, multiple-exposure capability, the built-in eyepiece shutter (replaced by a viewfinder cap on the shoulder strap), the film tab holder and the film advance window. The model was produced until 1977, when it was replaced by the Minolta XG-7.Nikon DX format
The Nikon DX format is an alternative name used by Nikon corporation for APS-C image sensor format being approximately 24x16 mm. Its dimensions are about 2⁄3 (29 mm vs 43 mm diagonal, approx.) those of the 35mm format. The format was created by Nikon for its digital SLR cameras, many of which are equipped with DX-sized sensors. DX format is very similar in size to sensors from Pentax, Sony and other camera manufacturers. All are referred to as APS-C, including the slightly smaller Canon cameras.
Nikon has produced 23 lenses for the DX format, from macro to telephoto lenses. 35mm format lenses can also be used with DX format cameras, with additional advantages: less vignetting, less distortion and often better border sharpness. Disadvantages of 35mm lenses include generally higher weight and incompatible features such as autofocus with some lower-end DX cameras. Nikon has also produced digital SLRs that feature the larger Nikon FX format sensor that is the size of the 135 film format.
In 2013, Nikon introduced a high-end compact camera with a DX-sized sensor, the Nikon Coolpix A, featuring an 18.5 mm lens.
ISO standards by standard number