|1351 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2104|
|Balinese saka calendar||1272–1273|
|English Regnal year||24 Edw. 3 – 25 Edw. 3|
|Chinese calendar||庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)|
4047 or 3987
— to —
辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
4048 or 3988
|- Vikram Samvat||1407–1408|
|- Shaka Samvat||1272–1273|
|- Kali Yuga||4451–4452|
|Japanese calendar||Kannō 2|
|Minguo calendar||561 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1893–1894|
1477 or 1096 or 324
— to —
1478 or 1097 or 325
Events from the 1350s in England.1351 in Ireland
Events from the year 1351 in Ireland.Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro (Spanish for "Royal Road of the Interior Land") was a 2560 kilometer (1,600 mile) long trade route between Mexico City and San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico, from 1598 to 1882.In 2010, 55 sites and 5 existing World Heritage Sites along the Mexican section of the route became an entry on the Unesco World Heritage List. Those sites include historic cities, towns, bridges, haciendas and other monuments along the 1,400 km route between the Historic Center of Mexico City (independent World Heritage Site) and the town of Valle de Allende, Chihuahua.
The 404 mile (646 kilometer) section of the route within the United States was proclaimed as a part of the National Historic Trail system on 13 October 2000. El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail is overseen by both the National Park Service and the U.S. Bureau of Land Management with aid from El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Assoc. also known as CARTA. A portion of the trail near San Acacia, New Mexico was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014.Dartmouth (UK Parliament constituency)
Dartmouth, also sometimes called Clifton, Dartmouth and Hardness, was a parliamentary borough in Devon which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons in 1298 and to the Commons of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom from 1351 until 1832, and then one member from 1832 until 1868, when the borough was disfranchised.Dinkelsbühl
Dinkelsbühl is a historic town in Central Franconia, a region of Germany that is now part of the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Dinkelsbühl is a former Free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. In local government terms, Dinkelsbühl lies near the western edge of the Landkreis (or local government district) of district of Ansbach, north of Aalen.
Dinkelsbühl lies on the northern part of the Romantic Road, and is one of three particularly striking historic towns on the northern part of the route, the others being Rothenburg ob der Tauber and Nördlingen.
The town lies on the southern edge of the Franconian Heights and on the River Wörnitz, which rises in the town of Schillingsfürst. The population in 2013 was 11,315Duke of Lancaster
The Duke of Lancaster is the owner of the estates of the Duchy of Lancaster. It is also an ancient title that is informally used within Lancaster to describe Elizabeth II, the monarch of the United Kingdom. The Duchy of Lancaster exists as a separate entity from the Crown Estate and currently provides income for the British monarch.It is customary at formal dinners in the historic county boundaries of Lancashire and in Lancastrian regiments of the armed forces for the Loyal Toast to the crown to be announced as "The Queen, Duke of Lancaster." In addition, in Lancaster it was quite common as late as the second half of the twentieth century to hear the national anthem sung as "God save our gracious Queen, long live our noble Duke," but this is a tradition that has no constitutional warrant, and the British monarch is not styled legally so within either the County Palatine of Lancashire nor the Duchy of Lancaster in any official capacity (for example, Letters Patent or Acts of Parliament), merely as a sign of local, 'Lancastrian' loyalty.Eleanor de Guzmán
Eleanor de Guzman (Leonor) (1310–1351) was a Castilian noblewoman and long-term mistress to Alfonso XI of Castile. She was the mother of King Henry II of Castile.Emperor Sukō
Emperor Sukō (崇光天皇, Sukō Tennō) (May 25, 1334 – January 31, 1398) was the third of Emperors of Northern Court during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts in Japan. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1348 through 1351.Gian Galeazzo Visconti
Gian Galeazzo Visconti (16 October 1351 – 3 September 1402), son of Galeazzo II Visconti and Bianca of Savoy, was the first Duke of Milan (1395) and ruled the late-medieval city just before the dawn of the Renaissance. He was the founding patron of the Certosa di Pavia, completing the Visconti Castle at Pavia begun by his father and furthering work on the Duomo of Milan.Gliese 674
Not to be confused with Gliese 676.Gliese 674 (Gliese–Jahreiß 674) is a pre-main-sequence red dwarf approximately 15 light years away in the southern constellation of Ara.Jion (monk)
Jion (1351–1409) was a monk during the Sengoku period (15th century) of Japan. Jion had been the founder of the Nen ryu fighting style, in which it was famed through the simple saying "Strike with the left arm extended". Throughout Jion's life, he had thoroughly trained fourteen disciples; Tsutsumi Hozan had been the 12th, in which he was thoroughly trained with the jitte fighting style. Tsutsumi Hozan once ripped off another disciples' jaw. Jion would see him never again. Jion had been rather strict into who would be transmitted of his teachings. Jion had assigned the system so that only one disciple could attain it within each specific fief. This was to make sure that Jion's influence would greatly spread between regions. Thus, in the end, Jion's fourteen disciples effectively developed and transmitted Jion's art throughout fourteen different regions. Due to this, many famed swordsmen such as Kamiizumi Nobutsuna and Yagyu Muneyoshi would be descended through Jion's teachings. It is known that Miyamoto Musashi himself had also somewhat followed some principles laid down from the monk Jion.Leopold III, Duke of Austria
Leopold III (1 November 1351 – 9 July 1386), known as the Just, a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria from 1365. As head and progenitor of the Leopoldian line, he ruled over the Inner Austrian duchies of Carinthia, Styria and Carniola as well as the County of Tyrol and Further Austria from 1379 until his death.Muhammad bin Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq (also Prince Fakhr Malik, Jauna Khan, Ulugh Khan; died 20 March 1351) was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. He was the eldest son of Ghiyas -ud -Din -Tughlaq, the Turko-Indian founder of the Tughluq dynasty. He was born in New Delhi. His wife was the daughter of the Raja of Dipalpur. Ghiyas-ud-din sent the young Muhammad to the Deccan to campaign against king Prataparudra of the Kakatiya dynasty whose capital was at Warangal in 1321 and 1323. Muhammad ascended to the Delhi throne upon his father's death in 1325.
He was interested in medicine and was skilled in several languages — Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Sanskrit. Ibn Battuta, the famous traveler and jurist from Morocco, was a guest at his court and wrote about his suzerainty in his book. From his accession to the throne in 1325 until his death in 1351, Muhammad contended with 22 rebellions, pursuing his policies, consistently and ruthlessly.NGC 80
NGC 80 is a lenticular galaxy located in the constellation Andromeda. It is interacting with NGC 47 and NGC 68, and is the brightest cluster galaxy of the NGC 80 group, a galaxy group named after it.Philip VI of France
Philip VI (French: Philippe; 1293 – 22 August 1350), called the Fortunate (French: le Fortuné) and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois. He reigned from 1328 until his death.
Philip's reign was dominated by the consequences of a succession dispute. When King Charles IV died without a male heir in 1328, the nearest male relative was his maternal nephew Edward III of England. It was held in France, however, that Edward was ineligible to inherit the French throne through the female line according to the ancient Salic Law. Philip, being Charles IV's cousin in the male line, acceded instead. At first, Edward seemed to accept the Valois succession to the crown, but he pressed his claim to the throne of France after a series of disagreements with Philip. The result was the beginning of the Hundred Years' War in 1337.
After initial successes at sea, Philip's navy was annihilated at the Battle of Sluys in 1340, ensuring that the war would occur on the continent. The English took another decisive advantage at the Battle of Crécy (1346), while the Black Death struck France, further destabilizing the country.
In 1349, Philip VI bought the Dauphiné from its ruined ruler Humbert II and entrusted the government of this province to his grandson Charles. Philip VI died in 1350 and was succeeded by his son John II, the Good.Standard state
In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions. In principle, the choice of standard state is arbitrary, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommends a conventional set of standard states for general use. IUPAC recommends using a standard pressure p⦵ = 105 Pa. Strictly speaking, temperature is not part of the definition of a standard state. For example, as discussed below, the standard state of a gas is conventionally chosen to be unit pressure (usually in bar) ideal gas, regardless of the temperature. However, most tables of thermodynamic quantities are compiled at specific temperatures, most commonly 298.15 K (25.00 °C; 77.00 °F) or, somewhat less commonly, 273.15 K (0.00 °C; 32.00 °F).
The standard state should not be confused with standard temperature and pressure (STP) for gases, nor with the standard solutions used in analytical chemistry.For a given material or substance, the standard state is the reference state for the material's thermodynamic state properties such as enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, and for many other material standards. The standard enthalpy change of formation for an element in its standard state is zero, and this convention allows a wide range of other thermodynamic quantities to be calculated and tabulated. The standard state of a substance does not have to exist in nature: for example, it is possible to calculate values for steam at 298.15 K and 105 Pa, although steam does not exist (as a gas) under these conditions. The advantage of this practice is that tables of thermodynamic properties prepared in this way are self-consistent.Statute of Labourers 1351
The Statute of Labourers was a law created by the English parliament under King Edward III in 1351 in response to a labour shortage, designed to suppress the labour force by prohibiting increases in wages and prohibiting the movement of workers from their home areas in search of improved conditions. It was poorly enforced and did not stop the rise in wages.Treason Act 1351
The Treason Act 1351 is an Act of the Parliament of England which codified and curtailed the common law offence of treason. No new offences were created by the statute. It is one of the earliest English statutes still in force, although it has been very significantly amended. It was extended to Ireland in 1495 and to Scotland in 1708. The Act was passed at Westminster in the Hilary term of 1351, in the 25th year of the reign of Edward III and was entitled "A Declaration which Offences shall be adjudged Treason". It was passed to clarify precisely what was treason, as the definition under common law had been expanded rapidly by the courts until its scope was controversially wide. The Act was last used to prosecute William Joyce in 1945 for collaborating with Germany in World War II.
The Act is still in force in the United Kingdom. It is also still in force in some former British colonies, including New South Wales. Like other laws of the time, it was written in Norman French.
The Act is the origin of the definition of treason in the United States (in Article III of the Constitution). Joseph Story wrote in his Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States that:
they have adopted the very words of the Statute of Treason of Edward the Third; and thus by implication, in order to cut off at once all chances of arbitrary constructions, they have recognized the well-settled interpretation of these phrases in the administration of criminal law, which has prevailed for ages.