1327

Year 1327 (MCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1327 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1327
MCCCXXVII
Ab urbe condita2080
Armenian calendar776
ԹՎ ՉՀԶ
Assyrian calendar6077
Balinese saka calendar1248–1249
Bengali calendar734
Berber calendar2277
English Regnal year20 Edw. 2 – 1 Edw. 3
Buddhist calendar1871
Burmese calendar689
Byzantine calendar6835–6836
Chinese calendar丙寅(Fire Tiger)
4023 or 3963
    — to —
丁卯年 (Fire Rabbit)
4024 or 3964
Coptic calendar1043–1044
Discordian calendar2493
Ethiopian calendar1319–1320
Hebrew calendar5087–5088
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1383–1384
 - Shaka Samvat1248–1249
 - Kali Yuga4427–4428
Holocene calendar11327
Igbo calendar327–328
Iranian calendar705–706
Islamic calendar727–728
Japanese calendarKaryaku 2
(嘉暦2年)
Javanese calendar1238–1240
Julian calendar1327
MCCCXXVII
Korean calendar3660
Minguo calendar585 before ROC
民前585年
Nanakshahi calendar−141
Thai solar calendar1869–1870
Tibetan calendar阳火虎年
(male Fire-Tiger)
1453 or 1072 or 300
    — to —
阴火兔年
(female Fire-Rabbit)
1454 or 1073 or 301

Events

January–December

Births

Deaths

In literature

1320s in England

Events from the 1320s in England.

1327 in Ireland

Events from the year 1327 in Ireland.

1327 in Scotland

Events from the year 1327 in the Kingdom of Scotland.

Battle of Stanhope Park

The Battle of Stanhope Park, part of the First War of Scottish Independence, took place during the night of 3–4 August 1327. The Scots under James Douglas led a raid into Weardale, and Roger Mortimer, accompanied by the newly crowned Edward III on his first campaign, led an army to drive them back. Douglas led, among other ambushes, an attack into the English camp, with 500 cavalry, and almost captured the king.

Edward II of England

Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir apparent to the throne following the death of his elder brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, and in 1306 was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Following his father's death, Edward succeeded to the throne in 1307. He married Isabella of France, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV, in 1308, as part of a long-running effort to resolve tensions between the English and French crowns.

Edward had a close and controversial relationship with Piers Gaveston, who had joined his household in 1300. The precise nature of his and Gaveston's relationship is uncertain; they may have been friends, lovers or sworn brothers. Gaveston's arrogance and power as Edward's favourite provoked discontent among both the barons and the French royal family, and Edward was forced to exile him. On Gaveston's return, the barons pressured the king into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms, called the Ordinances of 1311. The newly empowered barons banished Gaveston, to which Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite. Led by Edward's cousin, the Earl of Lancaster, a group of the barons seized and executed Gaveston in 1312, beginning several years of armed confrontation. English forces were pushed back in Scotland, where Edward was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Widespread famine followed, and criticism of the king's reign mounted.

The Despenser family, in particular Hugh Despenser the Younger, became close friends and advisers to Edward, but Lancaster and many of the barons seized the Despensers' lands in 1321, and forced the King to exile them. In response, Edward led a short military campaign, capturing and executing Lancaster. Edward and the Despensers strengthened their grip on power, formally revoking the 1311 reforms, executing their enemies and confiscating estates. Unable to make progress in Scotland, Edward finally signed a truce with Robert. Opposition to the regime grew, and when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty in 1325, she turned against Edward and refused to return. Instead, she allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and invaded England with a small army in 1326. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled to Wales, where he was captured in November. The king was forced to relinquish his crown in January 1327 in favour of his 14-year-old son, Edward III, and he died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September, probably murdered on the orders of the new regime.

Edward's relationship with Gaveston inspired Christopher Marlowe's 1592 play Edward II, along with other plays, films, novels and media. Many of these have focused on the possible sexual relationship between the two men. Edward's contemporaries criticised his performance as king, noting his failures in Scotland and the oppressive regime of his later years, although 19th-century academics later argued that the growth of parliamentary institutions during his reign was a positive development for England over the longer term. Debate has continued into the 21st century as to whether Edward was a lazy and incompetent king, or simply a reluctant and ultimately unsuccessful ruler.

Elizabeth de Burgh

Elizabeth de Burgh (c. 1284 – 27 October 1327) was the second wife and the only queen consort of King Robert the Bruce. Elizabeth was born sometime around 1284, probably in Down or Antrim in Ireland.

She was the daughter of one of the most powerful Irish nobles of the period, Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster, who was a close friend and ally of Edward I of England.

Not much is known about Elizabeth, despite her husband's status as one of the most famous Scottish kings and warriors. As is the case with most medieval women, records of Elizabeth are scarce; however, it is clear that she was caught up in the political turmoil that unfolded between the Scottish and the English during the reign of her husband King Robert, had to move several times to keep safe and was eventually seized as a prisoner.

Hervey de Stanton

Hervey de Stanton (or Staunton) (1260 – November 1327) was an English judge (serving both as Chief Justice of the King's Bench and as Chief Justice of the Common Pleas) and Chancellor of the Exchequer.

James Berkeley

James Berkeley (died 1327) was Bishop of Exeter for a period of three months in 1327, which term was cut short by his death or possible murder.

James II of Aragon

James II (10 April 1267 – 2 or 5 November 1327), called the Just, was the King of Aragon and Valencia and Count of Barcelona from 1291 to 1327. He was also the King of Sicily (as James I) from 1285 to 1295 and the King of Majorca from 1291 to 1298. From 1297 he was nominally the King of Sardinia and Corsica, but he only acquired the island of Sardinia by conquest in 1324. His full title for the last three decades of his reign was "James, by the grace of God, king of Aragon, Valencia, Sardinia and Corsica, and count of Barcelona" (Latin: Iacobus Dei gracia rex Aragonum, Valencie, Sardinie, et Corsice ac comes Barchinone).

Born at Valencia, James was the second son of Peter III of Aragon and Constance of Sicily. He succeeded his father in Sicily in 1285 and his elder brother Alfonso III in Aragon and the other Spanish territories, including Majorca, in 1291. He was forced to cede Sicily to the papacy in 1295, after which it was seized by his younger brother, Frederick III, in 1296. In 1298 he returned Majorca to the deposed king of Majorca, a different James II, having received rights to Sardinia and Corsica from Pope Boniface VIII. On 20 January 1296, Boniface issued the bull Redemptor mundi granting James the titles of Standard-bearer, Captain General and Admiral of the Roman church.

List of Farm to Market Roads in Texas (1300–1399)

Farm to Market Roads in Texas are owned and maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT).

Polish–Teutonic War (1326–1332)

Polish–Teutonic War (1326–1332) was the war between the Kingdom of Poland and the State of the Teutonic Order over Pomerelia, fought from 1326 to 1332.

Robert Baldock

Robert Baldock (or de Baldock; died 28 May 1327) was the Lord Privy Seal and Lord Chancellor of England, during the reign of King Edward II of England.

Saw Yun

Athinhkaya Saw Yun (Burmese: အသင်္ခယာ စောယွမ်း [ʔəθɪ̀ɴ kʰəjà sɔ́ jʊ́ɴ]; also spelled Sawyun; c. 1299 – 5 February 1327) was the founder of the Sagaing Kingdom of Myanmar (Burma). The eldest son of King Thihathu set up a rival kingdom in 1315 after Thihathu appointed Uzana I as heir-apparent. Saw Yun successfully resisted two small expeditions by Pinya by 1317. While Saw Yun nominally remained loyal to his father, he was the de facto king of the area roughly corresponding to present-day Sagaing Region and northern Mandalay Region.After Thihathu's death, Sagaing and Pinya formally went separately ways. Saw Yun died in 1327. Saw Yun had four children, three sons and a daughter. All of his sons became king of Sagaing. His only daughter was the mother of Thado Minbya, the founder of the Kingdom of Ava.

Tarabya II of Sagaing

Tarabya II of Sagaing (Burmese: ဆင်ဖြူရှင် တရဖျား, pronounced [sʰɪ̀ɴ pʰjú ʃɪ̀ɴ təja̰pʰjá]; 1327–1352) was king of Sagaing from 1349 to 1352. He reestablished peace with Sagaing's rival Pinya.

Thomas Cobham

Thomas Cobham (died 1327) was an English churchman, who was Archbishop-elect of Canterbury in 1313 and later Bishop of Worcester from 1317 to 1327.

Cobham earned a Doctor of Theology and a Doctor of Canon Law and served as Archdeacon of Lewes from 1301 to around 1305. Cobham was nominated to replace Archbishop Robert Winchelsey in 1313, by the monks of Christ Church Priory, Canterbury. The election took place on 28 May 1313. King Edward II intervened and petitioned the pope to appoint the Bishop of Worcester – Walter Reynolds to Canterbury instead of Cobham. Pope Clement V acquiesced and issued a bull dismissing the election of Cobham on 1 October 1313 and installing Reynolds in his stead.On 31 March 1317, Cobham was provided to the bishopric of Worcester, and was consecrated on 22 May 1317. Cobham, along with Archbishop Melton, and the bishops of London and Rochester alone spoke up in Edward II's defence during the Parliamentary session that deposed Edward.Cobham died on 27 August 1327.

Walter Reynolds

Walter Reynolds (died 1327) was Bishop of Worcester and then Archbishop of Canterbury (1313–1327) as well as Lord High Treasurer and Lord Chancellor.

Worshipful Company of Girdlers

The Worshipful Company of Girdlers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London.

Girdlers were granted the right to regulate their trade in the City from 1327 and obtained a Royal Charter in 1449. Girdlers, or makers of belts and girdles, are no longer closely related to their original trade. Along with the products of many other Livery Companies, girdles have become of less importance than in medieval times. However, the Company continues its long tradition as a charitable body.The Girdlers' Company ranks twenty-third in the order of precedence of City Livery Companies. The Company's motto is Give Thanks To God.

Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths

The Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths is one of the Great Twelve Livery Companies of the City of London. The company's headquarters are at Goldsmiths' Hall in the City of London.The Company, which originates from the twelfth century, received a Royal Charter in 1327 and ranks fifth in the order of precedence of City Livery Companies. Its motto is Justitia Virtutum Regina, Latin for Justice is Queen of Virtues.

Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors

The Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors is one of the 110 livery companies of the City of London.

The Company, originally known as the Guild and Fraternity of St John the Baptist in the City of London, was founded prior to 1300, first incorporated under a Royal Charter in 1327, confirmed by later charters in 1408, 1503 and 1719.

Its seat is the Merchant Taylors' Hall between Threadneedle Street and Cornhill, a site it has occupied since at least 1347. The Company's motto is Concordia Parvae Res Crescunt, from the Roman historian Sallust meaning In Harmony Small Things Grow.

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