1304

Year 1304 (MCCCIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1304 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1304
MCCCIV
Ab urbe condita2057
Armenian calendar753
ԹՎ ՉԾԳ
Assyrian calendar6054
Balinese saka calendar1225–1226
Bengali calendar711
Berber calendar2254
English Regnal year32 Edw. 1 – 33 Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar1848
Burmese calendar666
Byzantine calendar6812–6813
Chinese calendar癸卯(Water Rabbit)
4000 or 3940
    — to —
甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)
4001 or 3941
Coptic calendar1020–1021
Discordian calendar2470
Ethiopian calendar1296–1297
Hebrew calendar5064–5065
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1360–1361
 - Shaka Samvat1225–1226
 - Kali Yuga4404–4405
Holocene calendar11304
Igbo calendar304–305
Iranian calendar682–683
Islamic calendar703–704
Japanese calendarKagen 2
(嘉元2年)
Javanese calendar1215–1216
Julian calendar1304
MCCCIV
Korean calendar3637
Minguo calendar608 before ROC
民前608年
Nanakshahi calendar−164
Thai solar calendar1846–1847
Tibetan calendar阴水兔年
(female Water-Rabbit)
1430 or 1049 or 277
    — to —
阳木龙年
(male Wood-Dragon)
1431 or 1050 or 278

Events

January–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Foss, Clive (1979). Ephesus After Antiquity: A Late Antique, Byzantine, and Turkish City. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 0521220866.
  2. ^ Lock, Peter (2013). The Routledge Companion to the Crusades. Routledge. p. 124. ISBN 9781135131371.
  3. ^ Miller, William (1921). "The Zaccaria of Phocaea and Chios (1275-1329)". Essays on the Latin Orient. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 283–298.
1300s in England

Events from the 1300s in England.

1304–05 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1304–05 (from July 10 (or 17), 1304 to June 5, 1305), held in Perugia, was the protracted papal conclave that elected non-cardinal Raymond Bertrand de Got as Pope Clement V and immediately preceded the beginning of the Avignon Papacy.

Battle of Happrew

The Battle of Happrew was a skirmish which took place around February 1304, during the First War of Scottish Independence. A chevauchée of English knights, which included Robert de Clifford, William de Latimer and the later Scottish King, Robert the Bruce had been sent south from Dunfermline under Sir John Segrave to locate and capture the rebels Sir William Wallace and Sir Simon Fraser.Fraser and Wallace escaped.

Battle of Skafida

The Battle of Skafida (Bulgarian: Битка при Скафида) was an engagement between the Second Bulgarian Empire and the Byzantine Empire which occurred in 1304 near Poros (Burgas), modern Bulgaria. The outcome was a Bulgarian victory. As a result, the Bulgarian Empire overcame the crisis from the end of the 13th century, achieved internal stability and regained most of Thrace. For a time afterwards, Byzantium was not a serious threat to it.

Emperor Go-Fukakusa

Emperor Go-Fukakusa (後深草天皇, Go-Fukakusa-tennō) (June 28, 1243 – August 17, 1304) was the 89th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. This reign spanned the years 1246 through 1260.This 13th-century sovereign was named after the 9th-century Emperor Ninmyō and go- (後), translates literally as "later", and thus he could be called the "Later Emperor Fukakusa". The Japanese word go has also been translated to mean the "second one"; and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as "Fukakusa, the second", or as "Fukakusa II".

German submarine U-1304

German submarine U-1304 was a Type VIIC/41 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

She was ordered on 2 April 1942, and was laid down on 17 May 1943, at Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft, Flensburg, as yard number 497. She was launched on 4 August 1944, and commissioned under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Walter Süss on 6 September 1944.

Ghazan

Mahmud Ghazan (1271– 11 May 1304) (Mongolian: Газан хаан, Arabic: محمود غازان, sometimes referred to as Casanus by Westerners) was the seventh ruler of the Mongol Empire's Ilkhanate division in modern-day Iran from 1295 to 1304. He was the son of Arghun and Quthluq Khatun, continuing a long line of rulers who were direct descendants of Genghis Khan. Considered the most prominent of the Ilkhans, he is best known for making a political conversion to Islam in 1295 when he took the throne, marking a turning point for the dominant religion of Mongols in West Asia (Iran, Iraq, Anatolia and Trans-Caucassia). His principal wife was Kököchin, a Mongol princess (originally betrothed to Ghazan's father Arghun before his death) sent by his Khagan Kublai Khan.

Military conflicts during Ghazan's reign included war with the Egyptian Mamluks for control of Syria, and battles with the Turko-Mongol Chagatai Khanate. Ghazan also pursued diplomatic contacts with Europe, continuing his predecessors' unsuccessful attempts at forming a Franco-Mongol alliance. A man of high culture, Ghazan spoke multiple languages, had many hobbies, and reformed many elements of the Ilkhanate, especially in the matter of standardizing currency and fiscal policy.

Ibn al-Shatir

ʿAbu al-Ḥasan Alāʾ al‐Dīn ʿAlī ibn Ibrāhīm al-Ansari known as Ibn al-Shatir or Ibn ash-Shatir (Arabic: ابن الشاطر‎; 1304–1375) was a Syrian Arab astronomer, mathematician and engineer. He worked as muwaqqit (موقت, religious timekeeper) in the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus and constructed a sundial for its minaret in 1371/72.

John II, Count of Holland

John II of Avesnes (1247 – 22 August 1304) was Count of Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland.

John of Pontoise

John of Pontoise (a.k.a. John de Pontissara; died 1304) was a medieval Bishop of Winchester in England.

List of elections in 1304

The following elections occurred in the year 1304.

Papal conclave, 1304–1305

List of elections in 1305

The following elections occurred in the year 1305.

Papal conclave, 1304–1305

Lostwithiel (UK Parliament constituency)

Lostwithiel was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1304 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.

Maria of Portugal (nun)

Infanta Maria of Portugal (Coimbra, 21 November 1264 – Coimbra, 6 June 1304; Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐˈɾiɐ]) was a Portuguese infanta (princess) daughter of King Afonso III of Portugal and his second wife Beatrice of Castile

Maria was born on 21 November 1264 in Coimbra was for the majority of her life a nun in the Convent of the Lady Canons of Saint John (Convento das Donas Cónegas de São João), near the Monastery of Santa Cruz of Coimbra. She died in the same city on 6 June 1304.

Marie of Luxembourg, Queen of France

Not to be confused with Marie de Luxembourg, Countess of Vendôme.Marie of Luxembourg (1304 – 26 March 1324), was by birth member of the House of Luxembourg and by marriage Queen of France and Navarre.

She was the daughter of Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor and Margaret of Brabant. Her two siblings were John of Luxembourg and Beatrice of Luxembourg, Queen of Hungary.

Petrarch

Francesco Petrarca (Italian: [franˈtʃesko peˈtrarka]; July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch (), was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists. His rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. Petrarch is often considered the founder of Humanism. In the 16th century, Pietro Bembo created the model for the modern Italian language based on Petrarch's works, as well as those of Giovanni Boccaccio, and, to a lesser extent, Dante Alighieri. Petrarch would be later endorsed as a model for Italian style by the Accademia della Crusca.

Petrarch's sonnets were admired and imitated throughout Europe during the Renaissance and became a model for lyrical poetry. He is also known for being the first to develop the concept of the "Dark Ages."

Pope Benedict XI

Pope Benedict XI (Latin: Benedictus XI; 1240 – 7 July 1304), born Nicola Boccasini, (Niccolò of Treviso) was Pope from 22 October 1303 to his death on 7 July, 1304. He was also a member of the Order of Preachers.

He was beatified with his cultus confirmed by Pope Clement XII in 1736. He is a patron of Treviso.

Sieges of Stirling Castle

There have been at least eight sieges of Stirling Castle, a strategically important fortification in Stirling, Scotland. Stirling is located at the crossing of the River Forth, making it a key location for access to the north of Scotland.

The castle changed hands several times between English and Scottish control during the Wars of Scottish Independence (1296–1357). In 1299, the castle was in English hands, when the constable, John Sampson, was besieged by the Scots. In 1304, Edward I of England besieged the Scots, deploying siege engines to force the garrison to surrender. In 1337, a siege by Sir Andrew Murray failed to retake the castle. Between 1571 and 1585, the castle was besieged three times by Scots factions during the reign of James VI. In 1651, Oliver Cromwell captured the castle during his invasion of Scotland. The final siege took place in 1746, when Charles Edward Stuart besieged the castle during the final Jacobite rising.

Thomas of Corbridge

Thomas of Corbridge (sometimes Thomas Corbridge; died 1304) was Archbishop of York between 1299 and 1304.

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