12 Monkeys

12 Monkeys, also known as Twelve Monkeys, is a 1995 American neo-noir science fiction film directed by Terry Gilliam, inspired by Chris Marker's 1962 short film La Jetée, and starring Bruce Willis, Madeleine Stowe, and Brad Pitt, with Christopher Plummer and David Morse in supporting roles. After Universal Studios acquired the rights to remake La Jetée as a full-length film, David and Janet Peoples were hired to write the script.

Under Gilliam's direction, Universal granted the filmmakers a $29.5 million budget, and filming lasted from February to May 1995. The film was shot mostly in Philadelphia and Baltimore, where the story was set.

The film was released to critical praise and grossed $168 million worldwide. Pitt was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, and won a Golden Globe Award for his performance. The film also won and was nominated for various categories at the Saturn Awards.

12 Monkeys
Twelve monkeysmp
Theatrical release poster
Directed byTerry Gilliam
Produced byCharles Roven
Screenplay by
Based onLa Jetée
by Chris Marker
Starring
Music byPaul Buckmaster
CinematographyRoger Pratt
Edited byMick Audsley
Production
company
Distributed byUniversal Pictures
Release date
  • December 29, 1995
Running time
129 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$29.5 million
Box office$168.8 million[2]

Plot

A deadly virus released in 1996 wipes out almost all of humanity, forcing survivors to live underground. A group known as the Army of the Twelve Monkeys is believed to have released the virus. In 2035, James Cole is a prisoner living in a subterranean compound beneath the ruins of Philadelphia. Cole is selected to be trained and sent back in time to find the original virus in order to help scientists develop a cure. Meanwhile, Cole is troubled by recurring dreams involving a foot chase and shooting at an airport.

Cole arrives in Baltimore in 1990, not 1996 as planned. He is arrested, then hospitalized in a mental hospital on the diagnosis of Dr. Kathryn Railly. There he encounters Jeffrey Goines, a mental patient with fanatical views. Cole is interviewed by a panel of doctors, and he tries to explain that the virus outbreak has already happened, and nobody can change it. After an escape attempt, Cole is sedated and locked in a cell, but disappears moments later, and wakes up back in 2035. He is interrogated by the scientists, who play a distorted voicemail message that asserts the association of the Army of the Twelve Monkeys with the virus. He is also shown photos of numerous people suspected of being involved, including Goines. The scientists offer Cole a second chance to complete his mission and send him back in time. He arrives at a battlefield during World War I, is shot in the leg, and then is suddenly transported to 1996.

In 1996, Railly gives a lecture about the Cassandra complex to a group of scientists. At the post-lecture book signing, Dr. Peters tells Railly that apocalypse alarmists represent the sane vision, while humanity's gradual destruction of the environment is the real lunacy. Cole arrives at the venue after seeing flyers publicizing it, and when Railly departs, he kidnaps her and forces her to take him to Philadelphia. They learn that Goines is the founder of the Army of the Twelve Monkeys, and set out in search of him. When they confront him, however, Goines denies any involvement with the group and says that in 1990 Cole originated the idea of wiping out humanity with a virus stolen from Goines's virologist father.

About to be apprehended by police, Cole is transported back to 2035, where he reaffirms to the scientists his commitment to his mission. But when he finds Railly again in 1996, he tells her he now believes himself insane. Railly, meanwhile, has discovered evidence of his time travel, which she shows him. They decide to depart for the Florida Keys before the onset of the plague. On their way to the airport, they learn that the Army of the Twelve Monkeys was not the source of the epidemic; the group's major act of protest is releasing animals from a zoo and placing Goines's father in an animal cage.

At the airport, Cole leaves a last message telling the scientists that in following the Army of the Twelve Monkeys they are on the wrong track, and that he will not return. He is soon confronted by Jose, an acquaintance from his own time, who gives Cole a handgun and ambiguously instructs him to follow orders. At the same time, Railly spots Dr. Peters, and recognizes him from a newspaper photograph as an assistant at Goines's father's virology lab. Peters is about to embark on a tour of several cities that match the locations and sequence of the viral outbreaks.

Cole forces his way through a security checkpoint in pursuit of Peters. After drawing the gun he was given, Cole is fatally shot by police. As Cole lies dying in Railly's arms, Railly makes eye contact with a small boy—the young James Cole witnessing the scene of his own death, which will replay in his dreams for years to come. Peters, aboard the plane with the virus, sits down next to Jones, one of the scientists from the future.

Cast

Production

Development

The genesis of 12 Monkeys came from executive producer Robert Kosberg, who had been a fan of the French short film La Jetée (1962). Kosberg persuaded the film's director, Chris Marker, to let him pitch the project to Universal Pictures, seeing it as a perfect basis for a full-length science fiction film. Universal reluctantly agreed to purchase the remake rights and hired David and Janet Peoples to write the screenplay.[3] Producer Charles Roven chose Terry Gilliam to direct, because he believed the filmmaker's style was perfect for 12 Monkeys' nonlinear storyline and time travel subplot.[4] Gilliam had just abandoned a film adaptation of A Tale of Two Cities when he signed to direct 12 Monkeys.[5] The film also represents the second film for which Gilliam did not write or co-write the screenplay. Although he prefers to direct his own scripts, he was captivated by Peoples' "intriguing and intelligent script. The story is disconcerting. It deals with time, madness and a perception of what the world is or isn't. It is a study of madness and dreams, of death and re-birth, set in a world coming apart."[4]

Universal took longer than expected to approve 12 Monkeys, although Gilliam had two stars (Willis and Pitt) and a firm budget of $29.5 million (low for a Hollywood science fiction film). Universal's production of Waterworld (1995) had resulted in various cost overruns. To get 12 Monkeys approved for production, Gilliam persuaded Willis to lower his normal asking price.[6] Because of Universal's strict production incentives and his history with the studio on Brazil, Gilliam received final cut privilege. The Writers Guild of America was skeptical of the "inspired by" credit for La Jetée and Chris Marker.[7]

Casting

Gilliam's initial casting choices were Nick Nolte as James Cole and Jeff Bridges as Jeffrey Goines, but Universal objected.[5] Gilliam, who first met Bruce Willis while casting Jeff Bridges' role in The Fisher King (1991), believed Willis evoked Cole's characterization as being "somebody who is strong and dangerous but also vulnerable".[4]

Gilliam cast Madeleine Stowe as Dr. Kathryn Railly because he was impressed by her performance in Blink (1994).[4] The director first met Stowe when he was casting his abandoned film adaptation of A Tale of Two Cities.[5] "She has this incredible ethereal beauty and she's incredibly intelligent", Gilliam said of Stowe. "Those two things rest very easily with her, and the film needed those elements because it has to be romantic."[4]

Gilliam originally believed that Pitt was not right for the role of Jeffrey Goines, but the casting director convinced him otherwise.[5] Pitt was cast for a comparatively small salary, as he was still relatively unknown at the time. By the time of 12 Monkeys' release, however, Interview with the Vampire (1994), Legends of the Fall (1994), and Se7en (1995) had been released, making Pitt an A-list actor, which drew greater attention to the film and boosted its box-office standing. In Philadelphia, months before filming, Pitt spent weeks at Temple University's hospital, visiting and studying the psychiatric ward to prepare for his role.[4]

Filming

Principal photography lasted from February 8 to May 6, 1995. Shooting on location in Philadelphia and Baltimore (including the Senator Theatre)[8][9] in winter was fraught with weather problems. There were also technical glitches with the futuristic mechanical props. Because the film has a nonlinear storyline, continuity errors occurred, and some scenes had to be reshot. Gilliam also injured himself when he went horseback riding. Despite setbacks, however, the director managed to stay within the budget and was only a week behind his shooting schedule. "It was a tough shoot", acknowledged Jeffrey Beecroft (Mr. Brooks, Dances with Wolves), the production designer. "There wasn't a lot of money or enough time. Terry is a perfectionist, but he was really adamant about not going over budget. He got crucified for Munchausen, and that still haunts him."[8]

The filmmakers were not allowed the luxury of sound stages; thus, they had to find abandoned buildings or landmarks to use.[7] The exteriors of the climactic airport scene were shot at the Baltimore–Washington International Airport, while the interior scenes were shot at the Pennsylvania Convention Center (formerly Reading Terminal). Filming at the psychiatric hospital was done at the Eastern State Penitentiary.[10]

Design

Gilliam used the same filmmaking style as he had in Brazil (1985), including the art direction and cinematography (specifically using fresnel lenses).[6] The appearance of the interrogation room where Cole is being interviewed by the scientists was based on the work of Lebbeus Woods; these scenes were shot at three different power stations (two in Philadelphia and one in Baltimore). Gilliam intended to show Cole being interviewed through a multi-screen interrogation TV set because he felt the machinery evoked a "nightmarish intervention of technology. You try to see the faces on the screens in front of you, but the real faces and voices are down there and you have these tiny voices in your ear. To me that's the world we live in, the way we communicate these days, through technical devices that pretend to be about communication but may not be."[11]

The art department made sure that the 2035 underground world would only use pre-1996 technology as a means to depict the bleakness of the future. Gilliam, Beecroft, and Crispian Sallis (set decorator) went to several flea markets and salvage warehouses looking for materials to decorate the sets.[4] The majority of visual effects sequences were created by Peerless Camera, the London-based effects studio that Gilliam founded in the late 1970s with visual effects supervisor Kent Houston (The Golden Compass, Casino Royale). Additional digital compositing was done by The Mill, while Cinesite provided film scanning services.[4]

Janet Maslin wrote in The New York Times, "Since 12 Monkeys has the junk heap aesthetic that Mr. Gilliam favors, nothing in the film is sleek or foolproof, certainly not its time-travel apparatus."[12]

Music

The film's score was composed, arranged, and conducted by English musician Paul Buckmaster. The main theme is based on Argentine tango musician/composer Astor Piazzolla's Suite Punta del Este.[13]

Themes

Memory, time, and technology

"Cole has been thrust from another world into ours and he's confronted by the confusion we live in, which most people somehow accept as normal. So he appears abnormal, and what's happening around him seems random and weird. Is he mad or are we?"
— Director Terry Gilliam[6]

12 Monkeys studies the subjective nature of memories and their effect on perceptions of reality. Examples of false memories include Cole's recollection of the airport shooting, altered each time he has the dream, and a "mentally divergent" man at the asylum who has false memories.[14]

References to time, time travel, and monkeys are scattered throughout the film, including the Woody Woodpecker cartoon "Time Tunnel" playing on the TV in a hotel room, the Marx Brothers film Monkey Business (1931) on TV in the asylum, and the subplots involving monkeys (drug testing, news stories and animal rights). The film is also intended to be a study of people's declining ability to communicate in modern civilization due to the interference of technology.[7]

Allusions to other films and media

12 Monkeys is inspired by the French short film La Jetée (1962); as in La Jetée, characters are haunted by the images of their own deaths.[10] Like La Jetée, 12 Monkeys contains references to Alfred Hitchcock's Vertigo (1958). Toward the end of the film, Cole and Railly hide in a theater showing a 24-hour Hitchcock marathon and watch a scene from Vertigo. Railly then transforms herself with a blonde wig, as Judy (Kim Novak) transforms herself into blonde Madeleine in Vertigo; Cole sees her emerge within a red light, as Scottie (James Stewart) saw Judy emerge within a green light.[10] Brief notes of Bernard Herrmann's film score can also be heard. Railly also wears the same coat Novak wore in the first part of Vertigo. The scene at Muir Woods National Monument, where Judy (as Madeleine) looks at the growth rings of a felled redwood and traces back events in her past life, resonates with larger themes in 12 Monkeys. Cole and Railly later have a similar conversation while the same music from Vertigo is repeated.[10] The Muir Woods scene in Vertigo is also reenacted in La Jetée. In a previous scene in the film, Cole wakes up in a hospital bed with the scientists talking to him in chorus. This is a direct homage to the "Dry Bones" scene in Dennis Potter's The Singing Detective.[15]

James Cole is a notable Christ figure in film.[16][17] The film is significant in the genre of science-fiction film noir, and it alludes to various "canonical noir" films.[18]

Release

Box office

12 Monkeys was given a limited release in the United States on December 29, 1995. When the 1,629-theater wide release came on January 5, 1996, the film earned $13.84 million in its opening weekend. 12 Monkeys eventually grossed $57,141,459 in the US and $111,698,000 in other countries, for a worldwide total of $168,839,459.[2] The film held the No. 1 spot on box office charts for two weeks in January, before dropping due to competition from From Dusk till Dawn, Mr. Holland's Opus and Black Sheep.[19]

Critical reception

Of 59 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, 88% are positive, with an average rating of 7.4/10. The consensus reads: "The plot's a bit of a jumble, but excellent performances and mind-blowing plot twists make 12 Monkeys a kooky, effective experience."[20] By comparison, Metacritic calculated a 74 out of 100 rating, based on 20 reviews.[21] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of B on an A+ to F scale.[22]

Roger Ebert found 12 Monkeys' depiction of the future similar to Blade Runner (1982; also scripted by David Peoples) and Brazil (1985; also directed by Terry Gilliam). "The film is a celebration of madness and doom, with a hero who tries to prevail against the chaos of his condition, and is inadequate", Ebert wrote. "This vision is a cold, dark, damp one, and even the romance between Willis and Stowe feels desperate rather than joyous. All of this is done very well, and the more you know about movies (especially the technical side), the more you're likely to admire it. And as entertainment, it appeals more to the mind than to the senses."[24]

Desson Thomson of The Washington Post praised the art direction and set design. "Willis and Pitt's performances, Gilliam's atmospherics and an exhilarating momentum easily outweigh such trifling flaws in the script", Thomson wrote.[25] Peter Travers from Rolling Stone magazine attributes the film's success to Gilliam's direction and Willis's performance.[26] Internet reviewer James Berardinelli believed the filmmakers had an intelligent and creative motive for the time-travel subplot. Rather than being sent to change the past, James Cole is instead observing it to make a better future.[27] Richard Corliss of Time magazine felt the film's time-travel aspect and apocalyptic depiction of a bleak future were clichés. "In its frantic mix of chaos, carnage and zoo animals, 12 Monkeys is Jumanji for adults", Corliss wrote.[28]

Accolades

Brad Pitt Cannes 2012
Supporting actor Brad Pitt was nominated for an Academy Award for his portrayal of Jeffrey Goines.

Pitt was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, but lost to Kevin Spacey in The Usual Suspects. Costume designer Julie Weiss was also nominated for her work, but lost to James Acheson of Restoration.[29] However, Pitt won a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture.[30]

Gilliam was honored for his direction at the 46th Berlin International Film Festival.[10] 12 Monkeys received positive notices from the science fiction community. The film was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation[31] and the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films awarded 12 Monkeys the Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film. Pitt and Weiss also won awards at the 22nd Saturn Awards. Bruce Willis, Madeleine Stowe, Gilliam and writers David and Janet Peoples received nominations.[32]

Home media

Universal Studios Home Entertainment released 12 Monkeys on VHS on January 28, 1997.[33] They also released a "Signature Collection" laserdisc of the film on February 18, 1997, containing an audio commentary by director Terry Gilliam and producer Charles Roven, The Hamster Factor and Other Tales of Twelve Monkeys (a making-of documentary), an archive of production art, and production notes.[34] They released a Collector's Edition DVD on March 31, 1998, containing the same extras as the laserdisc.[35] They released a Special Edition DVD on May 10, 2005, with a new transfer of the film and identical extras.[36] They released an HD DVD on March 4, 2008, with the same extras.[35] They released a Blu-ray Disc on July 28, 2009, with the same extras.[35] Arrow Films released a new Blu-Ray of the film on October 15, 2018, containing a new transfer of the film, remastered in 4K from the original negative, all of the previous extras, as well as a vintage 1996 interview with Terry Gilliam, and an interview with Gilliam scholar Ian Christie.[37]

Post-release

Lebbeus Woods lawsuit

In the beginning of the film, Cole is brought into the interrogation room and told to sit in a chair attached to a vertical rail on the wall. A sphere supported by a metal armature is suspended directly in front of him, probing for weaknesses as the inquisitors interrogate him.[38] Architect Lebbeus Woods filed a lawsuit against Universal in February 1996, claiming that his work "Neomechanical Tower (Upper) Chamber" was used without permission. Woods won his lawsuit, requiring Universal to remove the scenes, but he ultimately allowed their inclusion in exchange for a "high six-figure cash settlement" from Universal.[38][39]

Trilogy claims

Aaron Stanford - Nikita (cropped)
Actor Aaron Stanford, who portrays the role of James Cole in the television adaptation.

After the release of The Zero Theorem in 2013, claims were made that Gilliam had meant it as part of a trilogy. A 2013 review for The Guardian newspaper said, "Calling it [The Zero Theorem] the third part of a trilogy formed by earlier dystopian satires Brazil and Twelve Monkeys [sic]";[40] but in an interview with Alex Suskind for Indiewire in late 2014, Gilliam said, "Well, it's funny, this trilogy was never something I ever said, but it's been repeated so often it's clearly true [laughs]. I don't know who started it but once it started it never stopped".[41]

TV adaptation

On August 26, 2013, Entertainment Weekly announced that Syfy was developing a 12 Monkeys television series based on the film. Production began in November 2013. The pilot was written by Terry Matalas and Travis Fickett, who had written for the series Terra Nova. Due to the series being labeled as "cast contingent", the series did not move forward until the roles of Cole and Goines were cast.[42] In April 2014, Syfy green-lighted the first season, which consisted of 13 episodes, including the pilot filmed in 2013. The series premiered on January 16, 2015.[43] On March 12, 2015, the series was renewed for a second season that began airing in April 2016.[44] On June 29, 2016, the series was renewed for a 10-episode third season, set to premiere in 2017.[45] In a surprising move, the entire third season aired over three consecutive nights. A fourth and final season was announced on March 16, 2017. The eleven-episode fourth season ran from June 15 to July 6, 2018 for four straight weeks.[46]

References

  1. ^ "TWELVE MONKEYS (15)". British Board of Film Classification. February 1, 1996. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  2. ^ a b "12 Monkeys". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 2009-03-31. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  3. ^ Chris Nashawaty (July 28, 2006). "They Call Him Mr. Pitch". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h DVD production notes
  5. ^ a b c d Ian Christie; Terry Gilliam (1999). Gilliam on Gilliam. London: Faber and Faber. pp. 220–225. ISBN 0-571-20280-2.
  6. ^ a b c Christie, Gilliam, pp.226–230
  7. ^ a b c Terry Gilliam, Charles Roven, DVD audio commentary, 1998, Universal Home Video.
  8. ^ a b Jill Gerston (December 24, 1995). "Terry Gilliam: Going Mainstream (Sort Of)". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  9. ^ Jeff Gordinier (May 19, 1995). "Brass Bald". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  10. ^ a b c d e Christie, Gilliam, pp. 231–233
  11. ^ Nick James (April 1996). "Time and the Machine". Sight and Sound. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  12. ^ Maslin, Janet (December 27, 1995). "FILM REVIEW A Time Traveler With Bad News". The New York Times. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
  13. ^ "Suite Punta del Este". Ástor Piazzolla. Archived from the original on 2010-10-07. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  14. ^ Terry Gilliam, Charles Roven, DVD audio commentary, 1998, Universal Home Video.
  15. ^ "SALON Reviews:12 Monkeys". Salon. Archived from the original on 2005-05-31. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  16. ^ Kozlovic, Anton Karl. "The Structural Characteristics of the Cinematic Christ-figure". Journal of Religion and Popular Culture. Archived from the original on 2005-02-23. Retrieved 2016-01-06.
  17. ^ Christopher McKittrick (2011), "Blasphemy in the Name of Fantasy: The Films of Terry Gilliam in a Catholic Context", in Regina Hansen, Roman Catholicism in Fantastic Film, McFarland, pp. 34–35, ISBN 9780786487240
  18. ^ Jamaluddin Bin Aziz (January 2005), "Future Noir", Transgressing Women: Investigating Space and the Body in Contemporary Noir Thrillers, Lancaster University
  19. ^ "Twelve Monkeys". The Numbers. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
  20. ^ "12 Monkeys". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  21. ^ "12 Monkeys (1995): Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  22. ^ "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com.
  23. ^ Stack, Peter (5 January 1996). "'12 Monkeys' Is Not Exactly a Barrel of Laughs / Willis, Pitt in grimy futuristic thriller about killer virus. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2015-07-26.
  24. ^ Roger Ebert (1996-01-05). "12 Monkeys". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on February 15, 2009. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  25. ^ Desson Howe (January 5, 1996). "Gilliam's Barrel of 'Monkeys' Shines". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  26. ^ Peter Travers (January 1, 1995). "12 Monkeys". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  27. ^ James Berardinelli. "Twelve Monkeys". ReelViews. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
  28. ^ Richard Corliss (January 8, 1996). "Back To The Bleak Future". Time. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  29. ^ "The 68th Academy Awards (1996) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 2012-12-01.
  30. ^ "12 Monkeys". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  31. ^ "1996 Hugo Awards". The Hugo Awards Organization. Archived from the original on May 7, 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  32. ^ "Past Saturn Awards". Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  33. ^ https://www.amazon.com/12-Monkeys-VHS-Bruce-Willis/dp/6304080921
  34. ^ https://www.lddb.com/laserdisc/07155/42923/12-Monkeys
  35. ^ a b c "12 Monkeys (Special Edition) (1996)". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  36. ^ https://www.dvdtalk.com/reviews/15646/12-monkeys-special-edition/
  37. ^ https://arrowfilms.com/product-detail/twelve-monkeys-blu-ray/FCD1821
  38. ^ a b "Copyright Casebook: 12 Monkeys - Universal Studios and Lebbeus Woods". Benedict.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  39. ^ Woods v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 920 F.Supp. 62 (S.D.N.Y. 1996)
  40. ^ Pulver, Andrew (2 September 2013). "Terry Gilliam blames internet for the breakdown in 'real relationships'". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  41. ^ Alex Suskind (September 17, 2014). "Interview: Terry Gilliam On The Zero Theorem, Avoiding Facebook, Don Quixote And His Upcoming Autobiography". IndieWire. Archived from the original on February 25, 2015. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  42. ^ Lynette Rice (August 26, 2013). "SyFy orders '12 Monkeys' pilot". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
  43. ^ Bibel, Sara (April 4, 2014). "Syfy Greenlights 12 Episodes of '12 Monkeys' (Updated)". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
  44. ^ Roots, Kimberly (March 12, 2015). "12 Monkeys Renewed for Season 2". TVLine. Retrieved March 12, 2015.
  45. ^ Abrams, Natalie (June 29, 2016). "12 Monkeys renewed for season 3 — exclusive". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  46. ^ Natalie Abrams (March 16, 2017). "'12 Monkeys' Renewed for Fourth and Final Season". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 16, 2017.

External links

12 Monkeys (TV series)

12 Monkeys is an American television series on Syfy created by Terry Matalas and Travis Fickett. It is a science fiction mystery drama with a time traveling plot loosely based on the 1995 film of the same name, which was written by David and Janet Peoples and directed by Terry Gilliam, itself being inspired by Chris Marker's 1962 short film La Jetée; the series credits both Peoples and Marker for their original works.

In the series, Aaron Stanford and Amanda Schull star as James Cole and Dr. Cassandra "Cassie" Railly in their efforts to take advantage of time travel to stop the destructive plans of the enigmatic organization "Army of the 12 Monkeys". Kirk Acevedo and Noah Bean also star in the first season. In the second season, Bean makes a guest appearance, and Todd Stashwick, Emily Hampshire and Barbara Sukowa are promoted from recurring guests to regulars. In the fourth season, Acevedo moves from starring to recurring guest star. Stanford, Schull and Hampshire play reimagined versions of characters respectively portrayed by Bruce Willis, Madeleine Stowe and Brad Pitt in the 1995 film.

Natalie Chaidez was the showrunner of 12 Monkeys during its first season, assisting Matalas and Fickett. For the second season she stepped down to the role of consultant, and Matalas and Fickett became showrunners. In the third and fourth season Fickett became a consultant, and Matalas was the sole showrunner. The series was produced by Atlas Entertainment, which also made the 1995 film, and Universal Cable Productions. Charles Roven, producer of the original, is one of the executive producers. 12 Monkeys premiered on January 16, 2015, with a 13-episode first season.

In March 2017, the series was renewed for a fourth and final season consisting of 11 episodes, which aired over four consecutive weeks in three blocks of three hours each, with a concluding two-hour finale. The fourth season was broadcast between June 15 and July 6, 2018.

22nd Saturn Awards

The 22nd Saturn Awards, honoring the best in science fiction, fantasy and horror film and television in 1995, were held on June 25, 1996.

2nd Empire Awards

The 2nd Empire Awards ceremony, presented by the British film magazine Empire, honored the best films of 1996 and took place on 5 March 1997 at the Park Lane Hotel in London, England. During the ceremony, Empire presented Empire Awards in nine categories as well as two honorary awards. The award for Best British Director and the honorary Empire Inspiration Award were first introduced this year. The awards were sponsored by Miller Brewing Company.Trainspotting won the most awards with four including Best British Film, Best British Director for Danny Boyle and Best British Actor for Ewan McGregor. Other winners included Seven with two awards including Best Film and 12 Monkeys, Fargo and Secrets & Lies with one. The Monty Python team received the Empire Inspiration Award and Freddie Francis received the Lifetime Achievement Award.

Aaron Stanford

Aaron Stanford (born December 27, 1976) is an American actor best known for his roles as Pyro in X2 and X-Men: The Last Stand, and Doug in the 2006 remake of The Hills Have Eyes. From 2010 to 2013, he starred as Birkhoff in Nikita. He has also starred as James Cole on the television series 12 Monkeys, based on the 1995 film of the same name.

Amanda Schull

Amanda Schull (born August 26, 1978) is an American actress and former professional ballet dancer. She is best known for her lead role in the 2000 film Center Stage and for her recurring roles on One Tree Hill, Pretty Little Liars, and Suits. She also starred in the Syfy television series 12 Monkeys, the fourth and final season of which premiered in June 2018.

Atlas Entertainment

Atlas Entertainment is an American film financing and production company, started by Charles Roven and Dawn Steel in 1995.

Barbara Sukowa

Barbara Sukowa (born 2 February 1950) is a German theatre and film actress. She is known for her work with directors Rainer Werner Fassbinder and Margarethe von Trotta. She won the Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actress for the 1986 film Rosa Luxemburg. Her other film appearances include Lola (1981), Europa (1990), M. Butterfly (1993), and Hannah Arendt (2012). She starred as Katarina Jones on 12 Monkeys.

Bruce Willis

Walter Bruce Willis (born March 19, 1955) is an American actor, producer, and singer. Born to a German mother and American father in Idar-Oberstein, Germany, he moved to the United States with his family in 1957. His career began on the Off-Broadway stage in the 1970s. He later achieved fame with his leading role on the hit television series Moonlighting (1985–89). He has since appeared in over 70 films and is widely regarded as an "action hero", due to his portrayal of John McClane in the Die Hard franchise (1988–2013), and other such roles.

His credits also include Death Becomes Her (1992), Pulp Fiction (1994), 12 Monkeys (1995), The Fifth Element (1997), Armageddon (1998), The Sixth Sense (1999), Sin City (2005), Red (2010), Moonrise Kingdom (2012), The Expendables 2 (2012), Looper (2012), and as David Dunn in the Unbreakable film series: Unbreakable (2000), Split (2016) and Glass (2019). He made his Broadway debut in the stage adaptation of Misery in 2015. As a musician, Willis released his debut album, The Return of Bruno, in 1987. He has since released two more solo albums, in 1989 and 2001.

Willis is the recipient of several accolades, including a Golden Globe, two Primetime Emmy Awards, and two People's Choice Awards. He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2006.

Christopher Meloni

Christopher Peter Meloni (born April 2, 1961) is an American actor. He is known for his television roles as NYPD Detective Elliot Stabler on the NBC legal drama Law & Order: Special Victims Unit for its first twelve seasons and as inmate Chris Keller on the HBO prison drama Oz. In June 2012, he returned to HBO, as the vampire Roman on the main cast of True Blood for the series' fifth season. Meloni is currently starring in and is an executive producer of Happy!, based on the comic book series created by writer Grant Morrison and artist Darick Robertson. The series premiered on Syfy on December 6, 2017.

His films include Man of Steel, Wet Hot American Summer, Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle, 12 Monkeys, Runaway Bride, 42, and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas.

David Morse (actor)

David Bowditch Morse (born October 11, 1953) is an American actor, singer, director and writer. He first came to national attention as Dr. Jack "Boomer" Morrison in the medical drama series St. Elsewhere (1982–88). He continued his film career with roles in The Negotiator, Contact, The Green Mile, Dancer in the Dark, Disturbia, The Long Kiss Goodnight, The Rock and 12 Monkeys.

In 2006, Morse had a recurring role as Detective Michael Tritter on the medical drama series House, for which he received an Emmy Award nomination. He portrayed George Washington in the 2008 HBO miniseries John Adams, which garnered him a second Emmy nomination. He has also received acclaim for his portrayal of Uncle Peck on the Off-Broadway play How I Learned to Drive, earning a Drama Desk Award and Obie Award. He has also had success on Broadway, portraying James "Sharky" Harkin in The Seafarer. From 2010 to 2013, he portrayed Terry Colson, an honest police officer in a corrupt New Orleans police department, on the HBO series Treme. He also appeared in the WGN America series Outsiders (2016–17).

David Peoples

David Webb Peoples (born February 9, 1940) is an American screenwriter who wrote Blade Runner (1982), Unforgiven (1992), and 12 Monkeys (1995). He was nominated for Oscar, Golden Globe, and BAFTA awards. He won the best screenplay awards from the L.A. Film Critics (1991) and National Society of Film Critics (1992) for Unforgiven.

Emily Hampshire

Emily Hampshire is a Canadian actress. She is known for numerous film and television roles, including Angelina in the 1998 romantic comedy Boy Meets Girl, Vivienne in the 2006 film Snow Cake, Stevie Budd in the CBC comedy series Schitt's Creek (2015–present), and Jennifer Goines in the Syfy drama series 12 Monkeys (2015–2018).

Gavyn Wright

Gavyn Wright is a British violinist and orchestra leader with the London Session Orchestra and Penguin Cafe Orchestra.

He is best known for his orchestral arrangements on pop productions (including Elton John, Simply Red, Bush, Mecano, Oasis, Gordon Haskell, Tina Turner, Italian singer-songwriter Alice, Lucio Battisti, Van Morrison) as well as numerous TV and movie soundtracks (including Shrek 1 and 2, The Constant Gardener, Batman Begins, The Black Dahlia, Shakespeare in Love, 12 Monkeys, The Last Emperor, We Were Soldiers, Shall We Dance?).

Kirk Acevedo

Kirk M. Acevedo (born November 27, 1971) is an American actor. He is primarily known for his work on television for the portrayals of Miguel Alvarez in the HBO series Oz, Joe Toye in Band of Brothers, FBI Agent Charlie Francis in the science-fiction series Fringe, and Jose Ramse in 12 Monkeys. His best-known films are The Thin Red Line, Dinner Rush and Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. He currently portrays Ricardo Diaz on Arrow as the main antagonist in seasons six and seven, starting in 2017.

La Jetée

La Jetée (French pronunciation: ​[la ʒəte]) ("The Jetty", here referring to an outdoor viewing pier at an airport) is a 1962 French Left Bank science fiction featurette by Chris Marker. Constructed almost entirely from still photos, it tells the story of a post-nuclear war experiment in time travel. It is 28 minutes long and shot in black and white.

It won the Prix Jean Vigo for short film. The 1995 science fiction film 12 Monkeys was inspired by and borrows several concepts directly from La Jetée, as does the 2015 12 Monkeys television series developed from the film.

List of 12 Monkeys episodes

12 Monkeys is an American television series on Syfy created by Terry Matalas and Travis Fickett. It is a science fiction mystery drama based on the 1995 film of the same name, directed by Terry Gilliam, which itself was based on Chris Marker's 1962 short film La Jetée. The series aired between January 16, 2015 and July 6, 2018.During the course of the series, 47 episodes of 12 Monkeys aired over four seasons.

List of 1996 box office number-one films in the United Kingdom

This is a list of films which have placed number one at the weekend box office in the United Kingdom during 1996.

Madeleine Stowe

Madeleine Marie Stowe (born August 18, 1958) is an American actress. She appeared mostly on television before her breakthrough role in the 1987 crime-comedy film Stakeout. She went on to star in the films Revenge (1990), Unlawful Entry (1992), The Last of the Mohicans (1992), Blink (1993), Bad Girls (1994), China Moon (1994), 12 Monkeys (1995), The General’s Daughter (1999), and We Were Soldiers (2002). For her role in the 1993 independent film Short Cuts, she won the National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actress.

As of 2015, Stowe's most recent film appearance was in the 2003 thriller Octane. From 2011 to 2015, she starred as Victoria Grayson, the main antagonist of the ABC drama series Revenge. For this role, she was nominated for the 2012 Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama.

Terry Gilliam

Terrence Vance Gilliam (; born 22 November 1940) is an American-born British screenwriter, film director, animator, actor, comedian and former member of the Monty Python comedy troupe.

Gilliam has directed 12 feature films, including Time Bandits (1981), Brazil (1985), The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1988), The Fisher King (1991), 12 Monkeys (1995), Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas (1998), The Brothers Grimm (2005), Tideland (2005), and The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus (2009). The only "Python" not born in Britain, he became a naturalised British subject in 1968 and formally renounced his American citizenship in 2006.

Gilliam was born in Minnesota, but spent his high school and college years in Los Angeles. He started his career as an animator and strip cartoonist. He joined Monty Python as the animator of their works, but eventually became a full member and was given acting roles. He became a feature film director in the 1970s. Most of his films explore the theme of imagination and its importance to life, express his opposition to bureaucracy and authoritarianism, and feature characters facing dark or paranoid situations. His own scripts feature black comedy and tragicomedy elements, combined with surprise endings.

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