Year 1299 (MCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1299 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1299
Ab urbe condita2052
Armenian calendar748
Assyrian calendar6049
Balinese saka calendar1220–1221
Bengali calendar706
Berber calendar2249
English Regnal year27 Edw. 1 – 28 Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar1843
Burmese calendar661
Byzantine calendar6807–6808
Chinese calendar戊戌(Earth Dog)
3995 or 3935
    — to —
己亥年 (Earth Pig)
3996 or 3936
Coptic calendar1015–1016
Discordian calendar2465
Ethiopian calendar1291–1292
Hebrew calendar5059–5060
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1355–1356
 - Shaka Samvat1220–1221
 - Kali Yuga4399–4400
Holocene calendar11299
Igbo calendar299–300
Iranian calendar677–678
Islamic calendar698–699
Japanese calendarEinin 7 / Shōan 1
Javanese calendar1210–1211
Julian calendar1299
Korean calendar3632
Minguo calendar613 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−169
Thai solar calendar1841–1842
Tibetan calendar阳土狗年
(male Earth-Dog)
1425 or 1044 or 272
    — to —
(female Earth-Pig)
1426 or 1045 or 273


By place



By topic


  • The city of Florence bans the use of Arabic numerals for commerce, allowing only Roman numerals.




  1. ^ Cancelleri, J.-A. "Sinucello della Rocca". Dizionario biografico. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  2. ^ Ferris, Eleanor (1902). "The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown". American Historical Review. 8 (1).
Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire

The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire were administrative divisions of the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire. Outside this system were various types of vassal and tributary states.

The Ottoman Empire was first subdivided into provinces, in the sense of fixed territorial units with governors appointed by the sultan, in the late 14th century. The beylerbey, or governor, of each province was appointed by the central government. Sanjaks were governed by sanjak-beys, selected from the high military ranks by the central government. Beylerbeyis had authority over all the sancakbeyis in a region. Kaza was a subdivision of sancak and referred to the basic administrative district, governed by a kadi.It is considered extremely difficult to define the number and exact borders of Ottoman provinces and domains, as their borders were changed constantly. Until the Tanzimat period, the borders of administrative units fluctuated, reflecting the changing strategies of the Ottomans, the emergence of new threats in the region, and the rise of powerful Ayans. All the subdivisions were very unequal in regard of area and population, and the presence of numerous nomadic tribes contributed to the extreme variability of the population figures.

Baron Latimer

The title Baron Latimer or Latymer has been created, by the definitions of modern peerage law, four times in the Peerage of England. Of these, one was restored from abeyance in 1913; one is forfeit; the other two are dormant, although their heir is well known.

Baron Stafford

Baron Stafford, referring to the town of Stafford, is a title that has been created several times in the Peerage of England. In the 14th century, the barons of the first creation were made earls. Those of the fifth creation, in the 17th century, became first viscounts and then earls. Since 1913, the title has been held by the Fitzherbert family.

Baron Sudeley

Baron Sudeley is a title that has been created thrice in British history, twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first creation came in the Peerage of England in 1299 when John de Sudeley was summoned to Parliament as Lord Sudeley. On the death of the third Baron in 1367 the title fell into abeyance. The abeyance was terminated in 1380 when Thomas Boteler, the fourth Baron, became sole heir. The sixth Baron was created Baron Sudeley by letters patent in 1441. He served as Lord High Treasurer from 1444 to 1447. On his death in 1473 the 1441 creation became extinct while the 1299 creation once again fell into abeyance.

The third creation came in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1838 when Charles Hanbury-Tracy was created Baron Sudeley, of Toddington in the County of Gloucester. He had previously represented Tewkesbury in the House of Commons as a Whig and served as Lord Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire. He was also as Chairman of the Royal Commission appointed to judge designs for the new Houses of Parliament. He married his cousin Hon. Henrietta Susanna, daughter and heiress of Henry Leigh Tracy, 8th and last Viscount Tracy, through which marriage the estate of Toddington Manor in Gloucestershire came into the Hanbury family. Five days before the marriage Charles Hanbury assumed the additional surname of Tracy.

He was succeeded by his son, the second Baron. He sat as a Member of Parliament for Wallingford and served as Lord Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire. In 1806 Lord Sudeley assumed by Royal licence the surname of Leigh in lieu of his patronymic. However, in 1839 he discontinued the use of this surname and resumed by Royal licence his original surname of Hanbury-Tracy. On his death the title passed to his son, the third Baron. He was also Lord Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire. He was succeeded by his younger brother, the fourth Baron. He was a Liberal Member of Parliament for Montgomery from 1863 to 1877 and served under William Ewart Gladstone as Captain of the Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms in 1886. However, he later came into financial difficulties which caused the sale of the family seat of Toddington Manor. As of 2010 the title is held by his great-grandson, the seventh Baron, who succeeded his first cousin once removed, the sixth Baron, in 1941.

The Hon. Frederick Hanbury-Tracy, younger son of the second Baron, was Member of Parliament for Montgomery.

Baron de Clifford

Baron de Clifford is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1299 for Robert de Clifford (c.1274–1314), feudal baron of Clifford in Herefordshire, feudal baron of Skipton in Yorkshire and feudal baron of Appleby in Westmoreland. The title was created by writ, which means that it can descend through both male and female lines. The Norman family which later took the name de Clifford settled in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066 and was first seated in England at Clifford Castle in Herefordshire. The first Baron served as Earl Marshal of England but was killed at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. His 8th generation descendant the 11th Baron, was created Earl of Cumberland in 1525, whose grandson the 3rd Earl was a noted naval commander. On the latter's death in 1605 the earldom passed to his younger brother, the 4th Earl (see the Earl of Cumberland for later history of this title).

The barony of de Clifford was claimed in 1628 by his daughter and only child, Lady Anne Clifford, but the House of Lords postponed the hearing. The barony remained dormant until 1678, when Nicholas Tufton, 3rd Earl of Thanet, was allowed to claim the peerage and became the fifteenth Baron de Clifford. He was the son of Lady Margaret Sackville, daughter of the aforementioned Anne Clifford. On the death of the Earl's younger brother, the sixth Earl, in 1721, the earldom and barony separated. The earldom was inherited by the late Earl's nephew, the seventh Earl (see the Earl of Thanet for further information on this title).

The barony fell into abeyance between the Earl's five daughters, Lady Katherine, Lady Anne, Lady Isabel, Lady Margaret and Lady Mary. It remained in abeyance until 1734 when the abeyance was terminated in favour of the third daughter, Margaret, who became the nineteenth Baroness. She was the wife of Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester. On her death in 1775 the title again fell into abeyance, this time between her sisters and their heirs. The abeyance was terminated only a year later in favour of Edward Southwell, the 20th Baron. He was the grandson of Lady Catherine Tufton, eldest daughter of the sixth Earl of Thanet. He was succeeded by his son, the 21st Baron. He was childless and on his death in 1832 the barony fell into abeyance between his sisters Hon. Sophia Southwell and Hon. Elizabeth Southwell and the heirs of his deceased sister Hon. Catherine Southwell.

The peerage was called out of abeyance in 1833 in favour of Sophia Coussmaker, the twenty-second holder. She was the only surviving child of Hon. Catherine Southwell and her husband George Coussmaker. The 22nd baroness was the wife of John Russell, third son of Lord William Russell, third son of Francis Russell, Marquess of Tavistock, eldest son and heir of John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford. She was succeeded by her son, the 23rd Baron, Liberal Member of Parliament for Tavistock. As of 2018, the title is held by his great-great-great-grandson, the 28th Baron who succeeded his uncle in that year. As a descendant of the 4th Duke of Bedford, he is also in remainder to that dukedom and its subsidiary titles.

Other members of the Clifford family have been created barons, namely as Baron Clifford (created 1628, in abeyance since 1858) and Baron Clifford of Chudleigh (created 1672), which title is extant and which family is the senior surviving branch of the Norman de Clifford family of Clifford Castle. Members of the family have also been created baronets as Baronet Clifford of Flaxbourne, New Zealand, Baronet Clifford of the Navy and Baronet Clifford-Constable of Tixall, Staffordshire.

Ducati 1199

The Ducati 1199 Panigale was a 1,198 cc (73.1 cu in) Ducati sport bike introduced at the 2011 Milan Motorcycle Show. The motorcycle is named after the small manufacturing town of Borgo Panigale. Ducati had announced a larger displacement 1,285 cc (78.4 cu in) 1299 Panigale for the 2015 model year.

Ducati 1299

The Ducati 1299 Panigale is a 1,285 cc (78.4 cu in) Ducati sport bike unveiled at the 2014 Milan Motorcycle Show and produced since 2015 as a successor to the 1,198 cc (73.1 cu in) 1199. The motorcycle is named after the small manufacturing town of Borgo Panigale.The 1299 wheelbase remains the same at 1437 mm. The base version retains front forks by Marzocchi and Sachs shock absorber; The S variant has new semi-active Öhlins Smart EC suspension that can be switched between different driving modes to match road conditions.

The entire range is now equipped with new generation of electronics, including a new IMU, racing ABS and anti-wheelie. Switchable riding modes and traction controls, similar to the old version, have been ported over onto the new platform.


Einin (永仁) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Shōō and before Shōan. This period spanned the years from August 1293 through April 1299. The reigning emperors were Fushimi-tennō (伏見天皇) and Go-Fushimi-tennō (後伏見天皇).

Eric II of Norway

Eric Magnusson (1268 – 15 July 1299) (Old Norse: Eiríkr Magnússon; Norwegian: Eirik Magnusson) was the King of Norway from 1280 until 1299.

Eşrefoğlu Mosque

Eşrefoğlu Mosque is a 13th-century mosque in Beyşehir, Konya Province, Turkey

It is situated 100 metres (330 ft) north of the Beyşehir Lake

Henry of Newark

Henry of Newark (died 15 August 1299) was a medieval Archbishop of York.

Kyawswa of Pagan

Kyawswa (Burmese: ကျော်စွာ, pronounced [tɕɔ̀zwà]; 2 August 1260 – 10 May 1299) was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1289 to 1297. Son of the last sovereign king of Pagan Narathihapate, Kyawswa was one of many "kings" that emerged after the collapse of the Pagan Empire in 1287. Though still styled as King of Pagan, Kyawswa's effective rule amounted to just the area around Pagan city. Felt threatened by the three brothers of Myinsaing, who were nominally his viceroys, Kyawswa decided to become a Mongol vassal, and received such recognition from the Mongols in March 1297. He was ousted by the brothers in December 1297, and killed along with his son Theingapati on 10 May 1299.

List of peers 1290–1299

This page lists all peers who held extant titles between the years 1290 and 1299.

List of peers 1300–1309

This page lists all peers who held extant titles between the years 1300 and 1309.

Margaret, Countess of Anjou

Margaret, Countess of Anjou (1272 – 31 December 1299) was Countess of Anjou and Maine in her own right and Countess of Valois, Alençon, Chartres and Perche by marriage. Margaret's father was King Charles II of Naples, whilst her husband was Charles of Valois, and her older brother was Saint Louis of Toulouse; her nephew was Charles I of Hungary.

Oliver Sutton (bishop)

Oliver Sutton (died 1299) was a medieval Bishop of Lincoln, in England.

Sutton was the nephew of Henry of Lexington, Bishop of Lincoln from 1253 to 1258. He was Dean of Lincoln before 30 June 1275.Sutton was elected to the see of Lincoln on 6 February 1280 and consecrated on 19 May 1280 at Lambeth. He was enthroned at Lincoln Cathedral on 8 September 1280.Sutton died on 13 November 1299 at Nettleham.

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (; Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانیه‎, Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye, literally "The Exalted Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged. The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.


Shōan (正安) is an era in Japanese history. This era spanned the years from April 1299 through November 1302. Preceding it was the Einin era, and following it was the Kengen era. The reigning emperors were Go-Fushimi-tennō (後伏見天皇) and Go-Nijō-tennō (後二条天皇).

William Zouche

William Zouche or William de la Zouche (1299–1352) was a medieval Lord Treasurer of England, and Archbishop of York from 1342 to 1352.

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