Year 1294 (MCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1294 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1294
Ab urbe condita2047
Armenian calendar743
Assyrian calendar6044
Balinese saka calendar1215–1216
Bengali calendar701
Berber calendar2244
English Regnal year22 Edw. 1 – 23 Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar1838
Burmese calendar656
Byzantine calendar6802–6803
Chinese calendar癸巳(Water Snake)
3990 or 3930
    — to —
甲午年 (Wood Horse)
3991 or 3931
Coptic calendar1010–1011
Discordian calendar2460
Ethiopian calendar1286–1287
Hebrew calendar5054–5055
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1350–1351
 - Shaka Samvat1215–1216
 - Kali Yuga4394–4395
Holocene calendar11294
Igbo calendar294–295
Iranian calendar672–673
Islamic calendar693–694
Japanese calendarEinin 2
Javanese calendar1204–1206
Julian calendar1294
Korean calendar3627
Minguo calendar618 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−174
Thai solar calendar1836–1837
Tibetan calendar阴水蛇年
(female Water-Snake)
1420 or 1039 or 267
    — to —
(male Wood-Horse)
1421 or 1040 or 268






1290s in England

Events from the 1290s in England.

1292–94 papal election

The papal election of 1292–94 (from April 5, 1292 to July 5, 1294), was the last papal election which did not take the form of a papal conclave (in which the electors are locked in seclusion cum clave—Latin for "with a key"—and not permitted to leave until a new Bishop of Rome has been elected). After the death of Pope Nicholas IV on April 4, 1292, the eleven surviving cardinals (a twelfth died during the sede vacante) deliberated for more than two years before electing the third of six non-cardinals to be elected pope during the Late Middle Ages: Pietro da Morrone, who took the name Pope Celestine V.

Contemporary sources suggest that Morrone was hesitant to accept his election when word of the cardinals' decision reached his mountain-top hermitage. His ascetic life left him largely unprepared for the day-to-day responsibilities of the papacy, and he quickly fell under the influence of the Neapolitan monarchy of Charles of Anjou, to the dissatisfaction of even the pro-Angevin cardinals within the College. Celestine V resigned on 13 December 1294.

1294 in Ireland

Events from the year 1294 in Ireland.

1294 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1294 (23–24 December) was convoked in Naples after the resignation of Pope Celestine V on 13 December 1294. Celestine V had only months earlier restored the election procedures set forth in the papal bull Ubi periculum of Pope Gregory X, which had been suspended by Pope Adrian V in July 1276. Every papal election since then has been a papal conclave. It was the first papal conclave held during the lifetime of the preceding pontiff, an event not repeated until the papal conclave of 2013 following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI.

Admiral of the South

The Admiral of the South also known as Admiral of the Southern Fleet was a senior English Navy appointment. The post holder was chiefly responsible for the command of the navy's fleet that operated in the English Channel out of Portsmouth from 1294 to 1326.

Battle of Red Ford

The Battle of Red Ford or Battle of the String of Lorne was a battle in 1294 or else after September 1296 between Clan Campbell and Clan MacDougall in Lorne, Scotland. The battle was fought over disputed lands. It ended in defeat of the Clan Campbell of Lochawe. The battle was on the borders of Loch Awe and Lorne, with the site and battle named Red Ford (Scottish Gaelic: Ath Dearg) after the ford which ran red with blood where the battle took place.

Joan of Valois, Countess of Hainaut

Joan of Valois (c. 1294 – 7 March 1342) was the second eldest daughter of the French prince Charles of Valois and his first wife, Margaret, Countess of Anjou. As the sister of King Philip VI of France and the mother-in-law of Edward III, she was ideally placed to act as mediator between them.

John I, Duke of Brabant

John I of Brabant, also called John the Victorious (1252/1253 – 3 May 1294) was Duke of Brabant (1267–1294), Lothier and Limburg (1288–1294). During the 19th century, John I was venerated as a folk hero.

John XII of Constantinople

John XII (? – after 1308) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1294 to 1303. John XII was born in Sozopolis on the western Black Sea coast (now Sozopol, Bulgaria). Prior to becoming patriarch, he was known as Kosmas.


The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق‎ /qɑ'zɑq/ , Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار‎ /qɑzɑq'tɑr/ ; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent. Kazakh identity is of medieval origin and was strongly shaped by the foundation of the Kazakh Khanate between 1456 and 1465, when several tribes under the rule of the sultans Zhanibek and Kerey departed from the Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr Khan.

The Kazakhs are descendants of the Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes – Argyns, Dughlats, Naimans, Jalairs, Keraits, Khazars, Qarluqs; and of the Kipchaks and Cumans, and other tribes such as the Huns and Nogais, and ancient Iranian nomads like the Sarmatians, Saka and Scythians who populated the territory between Siberia and the Black Sea before the 5th and 13th centuries AD.

Kublai Khan

Kublai (; Mongolian: Хубилай, Hubilai; Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position). He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.

Kublai was the fourth son of Tolui (his second son with Sorghaghtani Beki) and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He succeeded his older brother Möngke as Khagan in 1260, but had to defeat his younger brother Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil War lasting until 1264. This episode marked the beginning of disunity in the empire. Kublai's real power was limited to China and Mongolia, though as Khagan he still had influence in the Ilkhanate and, to a significantly lesser degree, in the Golden Horde. If one counts the Mongol Empire at that time as a whole, his realm reached from the Pacific Ocean to the Black Sea, from Siberia to what is now Afghanistan.In 1271, Kublai established the Yuan dynasty, which ruled over present-day Mongolia, China, Korea, and some adjacent areas, and assumed the role of Emperor of China. By 1279, the Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty was completed and Kublai became the first non-Han emperor to conquer all of China.

The imperial portrait of Kublai was part of an album of the portraits of Yuan emperors and empresses, now in the collection of the National Palace Museum in Taipei. White, the color of the royal costume of Kublai, was the imperial color of the Yuan Dynasty.

List of Albanian monarchs

This article includes a list of Albanian monarchs. Albania was first established by the Progon family in 1190, with Progon, Lord of Kruja as the nation's first monarch.

List of elections in 1294

The following elections occurred in the year 1294.

Papal conclave, 1294

Papal election, 1292–1294

List of papal elections

There have been 110 papal elections that have produced popes currently recognized by the Catholic Church as legitimate. There was no fixed process for papal succession before 1059 and popes were often selected with substantial secular involvement, if not outright appointment. Since the promulgation of In nomine Domini (1059), however, suffrage has been limited to the College of Cardinals.Papal elections since 1276 have taken the form of papal conclaves, which are elections that follow a set of rules and procedures developed in Ubi periculum (1274) and later papal bulls; observance of the conclave varied until 1294, but all papal elections since have followed relatively similar conclave procedures.

Although the cardinals have historically gathered at a handful of other locations within Rome and beyond, only five elections since 1455 have been held outside the Apostolic Palace. Twenty-eight papal elections have been held outside Rome, in: Terracina (1088), Cluny (1119), Velletri (1181), Verona (1185), Ferrara (October 1187), Pisa (December 1187), Perugia (1216, 1264–1265, 1285, 1292–1294, 1304–1305), Anagni (1243), Naples (1254, 1294), Viterbo (1261, 1268–1271, July 1276, August–September 1276, 1277, 1281–1282), Arezzo (January 1276), Carpentras/Lyon (1314–1316), Avignon (1334, 1342, 1352, 1362, 1370), Konstanz (1417) and Venice (1799–1800). Three elections moved between locations while in progress: the elections of 1268–71, 1292–94, and 1314–16.

Louis II, Duke of Bavaria

Ludwig I or Louis I of Upper Bavaria (German: Ludwig II der Strenge, Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein) (13 April 1229 – 2 February 1294) was Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253. He is known as Ludwig II or Louis II as Duke of Bavaria, and also as Louis the Strict. Born in Heidelberg, he was a son of duke Otto II and Agnes of the Palatinate. She was a daughter of the Welf Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine, her grandfathers were Henry XII the Lion and Conrad of Hohenstaufen.

NGC 1294

NGC 1294 is a lenticular galaxy located about 285 million light-years away in the constellation Perseus. The galaxy was discovered by astronomer William Herschel on October 17, 1786 and is a member of the Perseus Cluster.

Pope Celestine V

Pope Celestine V (Latin: Caelestinus V; 1215 – 19 May 1296), born Pietro Angelerio (according to some sources Angelario, Angelieri, Angelliero, or Angeleri), also known as Pietro da Morrone, Peter of Morrone, and Peter Celestine, was pope for five months from 5 July to 13 December 1294, when he resigned. He was also a monk and hermit who founded the order of the Celestines as a branch of the Benedictine order.

He was elected pope in the Catholic Church's last non-conclave papal election, ending a two-year impasse. Among the few edicts of his to remain in force was the confirmation of the right of the pope to abdicate; nearly all of his other official acts were annulled by his successor, Boniface VIII. On 13 December 1294, a week after issuing the decree, Celestine resigned, stating his desire to return to his humble, pre-papal life. He was subsequently imprisoned by Boniface in the castle of Fumone in the Campagna region, in order to prevent his potential installation as antipope. He died in prison on 19 May 1296 at the age of 81.Celestine was canonized on 5 May 1313 by Pope Clement V. No subsequent pope has taken the name Celestine.

Prince-Bishopric of Freising

The Prince-Bishopric of Freising (German: Hochstift Freising) was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1294 until its secularisation in the early years of the 19th century.

The Prince-Bishopric of Freising should not be confused with the diocese of the same name, which was considerably larger and over which the prince-bishop's authority was that of an ordinary bishop and therefore limited to spiritual and pastoral matters.


Speyer (German pronunciation: [ˈʃpaɪ̯ɐ], older spelling Speier, known as Spire in French and formerly as Spires in English) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants. Located beside the river Rhine, Speyer is 25 km (16 miles) south of Ludwigshafen and Mannheim. Founded by the Romans, it is one of Germany's oldest cities.

Speyer is dominated by the Speyer Cathedral, a number of churches and the Altpörtel (old gate). In the cathedral, beneath the high altar, are the tombs of eight Holy Roman Emperors and German kings.

The city is famous for the 1529 Protestation at Speyer.

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