1287

Year 1287 (MCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1287 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1287
MCCLXXXVII
Ab urbe condita2040
Armenian calendar736
ԹՎ ՉԼԶ
Assyrian calendar6037
Balinese saka calendar1208–1209
Bengali calendar694
Berber calendar2237
English Regnal year15 Edw. 1 – 16 Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar1831
Burmese calendar649
Byzantine calendar6795–6796
Chinese calendar丙戌(Fire Dog)
3983 or 3923
    — to —
丁亥年 (Fire Pig)
3984 or 3924
Coptic calendar1003–1004
Discordian calendar2453
Ethiopian calendar1279–1280
Hebrew calendar5047–5048
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1343–1344
 - Shaka Samvat1208–1209
 - Kali Yuga4387–4388
Holocene calendar11287
Igbo calendar287–288
Iranian calendar665–666
Islamic calendar685–686
Japanese calendarKōan 10
(弘安10年)
Javanese calendar1197–1198
Julian calendar1287
MCCLXXXVII
Korean calendar3620
Minguo calendar625 before ROC
民前625年
Nanakshahi calendar−181
Thai solar calendar1829–1830
Tibetan calendar阳火狗年
(male Fire-Dog)
1413 or 1032 or 260
    — to —
阴火猪年
(female Fire-Pig)
1414 or 1033 or 261
Domkyrkan i Uppsalas stadsbild
Construction of the Uppsala Cathedral begins.

Events

By place

Africa

Asia

Europe

By topic

Arts and culture

  • The Altar of St. James in Pistoia Cathedral, Italy – a masterwork of the silversmithing trade containing nearly a ton of silver – is begun; it will not be completed for nearly 200 years.

Economics

  • The Italian city of Siena exacts a forced loan on its taxpayers for the first time, a common feature of medieval public finance.[7]

Religion

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Meynier, Gilbert (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte. p. 163. ISBN 978-2-7071-5231-2.
  2. ^ History of Yuan.
  3. ^ Simons, Paul (2008). Since Records Began. London: Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-728463-4.
  4. ^ Wheeler M.Inst.C.E, William Henry (1896). A History of the Fens of South Lincolnshire, being a description of the rivers Witham and Welland and their estuary, and an account of the Reclamation, Drainage, and Enclosure of the fens adjacent thereto. (2nd ed.). J.M. Newcombe (Boston), Simpkin, Marshall & Co. (London). p. 27. doi:10.1680/ahotfosl2e.50358., quoting Stow's chronicle of 1287
  5. ^ Lourie, Elena (2004). Jews, Muslims, and Christians in and around the Crown of Aragon: essays in honour of Professor Elena Lourie. Brill. p. 260. ISBN 90-04-12951-0.
  6. ^ Catlos, Brian A. (2004). The victors and the vanquished: Christians and Muslims of Catalonia and Aragon, 1050-1300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-521-82234-3.
  7. ^ Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.
1280s in England

Events from the 1280s in England.

1287–88 papal election

The papal election of 1287–88 (April 4 – February 22) was the deadliest papal election in the history of the Roman Catholic Church, with six (or five) of the sixteen (or fifteen) cardinal electors perishing during the deliberations. Eventually, the cardinals elected Girolamo Masci, O.Min. as Pope Nicholas IV, almost a year after the death of Pope Honorius IV, who died on April 3, 1287. Nicholas IV was the first Franciscan pope.The cardinals' deaths are usually attributed to malaria. After the deaths of the six cardinals, the remaining electors—with the exception of Masci—left Rome and reassembled on 15 February 1288. When the Cardinals reassembled in February, 1288, there were seven electors left: Latino Malabranca, Bentivenga de Bentivengis, Girolamo Masci, Bernard de Languissel, Matteo Rosso Orsini, Giacomo Colonna, and Benedetto Caetani. Upon finding that Masci had remained at Santa Sabina in Rome the reassembled cardinals immediately elected him, but he refused until he was re-elected on February 22. It was thought at the time that Masci had survived by keeping a fire burning in his room to "purify" the pestilential vapors, or mal aria thought to cause the disease.

The election was held near Santa Sabina on Aventine Hill in the Savelli palace, Corte Savella, which Honorius IV had built and used as the de facto papal residence. According to Smith, Nicholas IV was, like his predecessor, "an undisguised partisan of the French interest" and "another example of the dishonest use of spiritual authority for political ends, by releasing Charles II of Naples from an inconvenient oath to Alfonso III of Aragon".

Aju

Aju (or Achu) (1227–1287) was a general and chancellor of the Mongol Empire and the Yuan Dynasty. He was from the Jarchud clan of the Mongol Uriankhai. His grandfather was Subutai, the honored general and Noyan of Genghis Khan; his father was Uryankhadai.

In 1253 he followed his father and subdued western Chinese people and conquered the Kingdom of Dali. Uryankhadai and Aju led 3,000 Mongols and more than 10,000 troops from Dali tribes to northern Vietnam in 1255. The king of the Trần Dynasty agreed to send tribute after his defeat in open battle; this lasted until the reign of Kublai.He and his father supported the Great Khan Möngke and Kublai's forces in 1258. Aju commanded a tumen, 10,000 men in his earlier career. They conquered 13 cities within 2 years and destroyed 40,000 troops of the Song Dynasty while his father was ill. After the occupation of Chingzhoua and Yovajiyu, Uryankhadai met prince Kublai at Echjou.

When Kublai succeeded the throne in 1260, Aju stayed in his palace. The following year, he was ordered to lead Yuan troops in Lianshui (涟水). He crushed Song armies and navies from 1261 to 1275. He captured Fancheng (樊城) by using Khotan artillery during the Battle of Xiangyang and its governor committed suicide.

In 1276, Aju was appointed to defend Beshbalik from Kaidu, a grandson of Ögedei. He died after the defeat of prince Sarban, who revolted against his master Kublai, in 1287. But some sources mention he died en route in 1286.

Battle of Pagan

The Battle of Pagan was fought in 1287 between Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty, division of the Mongol Empire, and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire in Burma. The invasion ended the Pagan Empire, which disintegrated into several small kingdoms.

Code page 1287

Code page 1287, also known as CP1287, DEC Greek (8-bit) and EL8DEC, is one of the code pages implemented for the VT220 terminals. It supports the Greek language.

Emperor Fushimi

Emperor Fushimi (伏見天皇, Fushimi-tennō, 10 May 1265 – 8 October 1317) was the 92nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1287 through 1298.

First Mongol invasion of Burma

The first Mongol invasions of Burma (present-day Myanmar) (Burmese: မွန်ဂို–မြန်မာ စစ် (၁၂၇၇–၁၂၈၇)) were a series of military conflicts between Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty, division of the Mongol Empire, and the Pagan Empire that took place between 1277 and 1287. The invasions toppled the 250-year-old Pagan Empire, and the Mongol army seized Pagan territories in present-day Dehong, Yunnan and northern Burma to Tagaung. The invasions ushered in 250 years of political fragmentation in Burma and the rise of ethnic Tai-Shan states throughout mainland Southeast Asia.

The Mongols first demanded tribute from Pagan in 1271–72, as part of their drive to encircle the Song dynasty of China. When King Narathihapate refused, Emperor Kublai Khan himself sent another mission in 1273, again demanding tribute. It too was rejected. In 1275, the emperor ordered the Yunnan government to secure the borderlands in order to block an escape path for the Song, and permitted a limited border war if Pagan contested. Pagan did contest but its army was driven back at the frontier by the Mongol Army in 1277–78. After a brief lull, Kublai Khan in 1281 turned his attention to Southeast Asia, demanding tribute from Pagan, the Khmer Empire, Đại Việt and Champa. When the Burmese king again refused, the emperor ordered an invasion of northern Burma. Two dry season campaigns (1283–85) later, the Mongols had occupied down to Tagaung and Hanlin, forcing the Burmese king to flee to Lower Burma. The Mongols organized northern Burma as the province of Zhengmian.

Ceasefire negotiations began in 1285, and ended with Narathihapate finally agreeing to submit in June 1286. The Burmese embassy, received by the emperor in Beijing in January 1287, agreed to a treaty that acknowledged the suzerainty of the Yuan dynasty or the Mongol Empire over the Pagan Empire and annual payments in taxes to the Yunnan government in exchange for the evacuation of Mongol troops from northern Burma. But the treaty never really took effect as Narathihapate was assassinated in July 1287, and no authority who could honor the treaty emerged. The Mongol command at Yunnan now deemed the imperial order to withdraw void, and ordered an invasion of central Burma. They may not have reached Pagan, and even if they did, after having suffered heavy casualties, they returned to Tagaung.

The Pagan Empire disintegrated and anarchy ensued. The Mongols, who probably preferred the situation, did nothing to restore order in the next ten years. In March 1297, they accepted the voluntary submission of King Kyawswa of Pagan although he controlled little beyond the capital city of Pagan (Bagan). But Kyawswa was overthrown nine months later, and the Mongols were forced to intervene, leading to their second invasion in 1300–01.

Marco Polo reported the first invasions (1277–87) in his travelogue, Il Milione. The Burmese referred to the invaders as the Taruk (after the central Asian Turkic troops that largely made up the Mongol invasion army); today, the term Taruk (တရုတ်) refers to the Han Chinese instead. King Narathihapate is unkindly remembered in Burmese history as Taruk-Pye Min, ("the King who Fled from the Taruk").

Hanthawaddy Kingdom

The Hanthawaddy Kingdom (Burmese: ဟံသာဝတီ နေပြည်တော်; Mon: ဟံသာဝတဳ, [hɔŋsawətɔe]; also Hanthawaddy Pegu or simply Pegu) was the Mon kingdom that ruled lower Burma (Myanmar) from 1287 to 1539 and from 1550 to 1552. The Mon-speaking kingdom was founded as Ramaññadesa (Burmese: ရာမညဒေသ, Mon: ရးမည) by King Wareru following the collapse of the Pagan Kingdom in 1287 as a nominal vassal state of the Sukhothai Kingdom and of the Mongol Yuan dynasty. The kingdom became formally independent of Sukhothai in 1330 but remained a loose federation of three major regional power centres: the Irrawaddy Delta, Bago, and Mottama. Its kings had little or no authority over the vassals. Mottama was in open rebellion from 1363 to 1388.

History of Myanmar

The history of Myanmar (also known as Burma) covers the period from the time of first-known human settlements 13,000 years ago to the present day. The earliest inhabitants of recorded history were a Tibeto-Burman-speaking people who established the Pyu city-states ranged as far south as Pyay and adopted Theravada Buddhism.

Another group, the Bamar people, entered the upper Irrawaddy valley in the early 9th century. They went on to establish the Bagan Kingdom (1044–1287), the first-ever unification of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery. The Burmese language and Bamar culture slowly came to replace Pyu norms during this period. After the First Mongol invasion of Burma in 1287, several small kingdoms, of which the Kingdom of Ava, the Hanthawaddy Kingdom, the Kingdom of Mrauk U and the Shan States were principal powers, came to dominate the landscape, replete with ever-shifting alliances and constant wars.

In the second half of the 16th century, the Taungoo dynasty (1510–1752) reunified the country, and founded the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia for a brief period. Later Taungoo kings instituted several key administrative and economic reforms that gave rise to a smaller, more peaceful and prosperous kingdom in the 17th and early 18th centuries. In the second half of the 18th century, the Konbaung dynasty (1752–1885) restored the kingdom, and continued the Taungoo reforms that increased central rule in peripheral regions and produced one of the most literate states in Asia. The dynasty also went to war with all its neighbours. The Anglo-Burmese wars (1824–85) eventually led to British colonial rule.

British rule brought several enduring social, economic, cultural and administrative changes that completely transformed the once-agrarian society. Most importantly, British rule highlighted out-group differences among the country's myriad ethnic groups. Since independence in 1948, the country has been in one of the longest running civil wars involving insurgent groups representing political and ethnic minority groups and successive central governments. The country was under military rule under various guises from 1962 to 2010, and in the process has become one of the least developed nations in the world.

Ingeborg of Denmark, Queen of Norway

Ingeborg Eriksdotter (c. 1244 – 24/26 March 1287) was a Danish princess. She was married to King Magnus VI of Norway and was Queen consort of Norway. Later as Queen dowager, she played an important part in politics during the minority of her son King Eirik II of Norway.

List of elections in 1287

The following elections occurred in the year 1287.

Papal election, 1287–1288

Mongol invasions of Vietnam

The Mongol invasions of Vietnam or Mongol-Vietnamese War refer to the three times that the Mongol Empire and its chief khanate the Yuan dynasty invaded Đại Việt during the time of the Trần dynasty, along with Champa: in 1258, 1285, and 1287–88. The first invasion began in 1258 under the united Mongol Empire, as it looked for alternative paths to invade Song China. The Mongol high ranking commander Uriyangkhadai was successful in capturing the Dai Viet capital (Thang Long); however, his army was weakened by the tropical climate and were later defeated .

The second and third invasions occurred during the reign of Kublai Khan of the Yuan Dynasty. By this point, the Mongolian Empire had fractured into 4 separate entities with Yuan Dynasty being the strongest and biggest empire. These invasions resulted in a disastrous land defeat for the Mongols in 1285 and the annihilation of the Mongol navy in 1288. However, both the Trần dynasty and Champa decided to accept the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty and serve as tributary states in order to avoid further conflicts.

Narathihapate

Narathihapate (Burmese: နရသီဟပတေ့, pronounced [nəɹa̰ θìha̰pətḛ]; also Sithu IV of Pagan; 23 April 1238 – 1 July 1287) was the last king of the Pagan Empire who reigned from 1256 to 1287. The king is known in Burmese history as the "Taruk-Pyay Min" ("the King who Fled from the Taruk [Mongols]") for his flight from Pagan (Bagan) to Lower Burma in 1285 during the first Mongol invasion (1277–87) of the kingdom. He eventually submitted to Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty in January 1287 in exchange for a Mongol withdrawal from northern Burma. But when the king was assassinated six months later by his son Thihathu, the Viceroy of Prome, the 250-year-old Pagan Empire broke apart into multiple petty states. The political fragmentation of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery would last for another 250 years until the mid-16th century.

The king is unkindly remembered in the royal chronicles, which in addition to calling a cowardly king who fled from the invaders, also call him "an ogre" and "glutton" who was "great in wrath, haughtiness and envy, exceeding covetous and ambitious." According to scholarship, he was certainly an ineffective ruler but unfairly scapegoated by the chronicles for the fall of the empire, whose decline predated his reign, and in fact had been "more prolonged and agonized".

Pope Honorius IV

Pope Honorius IV (c. 1210 – 3 April 1287), born Giacomo Savelli, was Pope from 2 April 1285 to his death in 1287. During his pontificate he largely continued to pursue the pro-French political policy of his predecessor, Pope Martin IV.

South England flood of February 1287

In February 1287 a storm hit the southern coast of England with such ferocity that whole areas of coastline were redrawn. Silting up and cliff collapses led to towns that had stood by the sea finding themselves landlocked, while others that had been inland found themselves with access to the sea.

The city of Winchelsea on Romney Marsh was destroyed (later rebuilt on the cliff top behind). Nearby Broomhill was also destroyed. The course of the nearby river Rother was diverted away from New Romney, which was almost destroyed and left a mile from the coast, ending its role as a port. The Rother ran instead to sea at Rye, prompting its rise as a port. The storm contributed to the collapse of a cliff at Hastings, taking part of Hastings Castle with it, blocking the harbour and ending its role as a trade centre, though it continued as a centre for fishing. Whitstable in Kent is also reported to have been hit by the surge.

In all, the storm can be seen to have had a powerful effect on the Cinque Ports, two of which were hit (Hastings and New Romney), along with the supporting "Antient Town" of Winchelsea. Meanwhile, the other Ancient Town of Rye was advantaged.

The storm is one of two huge ones in England in 1287. The other was the one known in the Netherlands as St. Lucia's flood in December, the following winter. Together with a surge in January 1286, they seem to have prompted the decline of one of England's then leading ports, Dunwich in Suffolk.

St. Lucia's flood

St. Lucia's flood (Sint-Luciavloed) was a storm tide that affected the Netherlands and Northern Germany on 14 December 1287, the day after St. Lucia Day, killing approximately 50,000 to 80,000 people in one of the largest floods in recorded history.

Meteorologically this disaster was similar to the North Sea flood of 1953, when an extreme low pressure system coinciding with a high tide caused a huge storm surge. The St. Lucia flood had a major influence on the subsequent history of the Netherlands.

Stephen Bersted

Stephen Bersted (died 1287) was a medieval Bishop of Chichester.

Third Mongol invasion of Poland

The third Mongol invasion of Poland was carried out by Nogai Khan and Talabuga in 1287–1288. As in the second invasion, its purpose was to loot Lesser Poland, and to prevent Duke Leszek II the Black from interfering in Hungarian and Ruthenian affairs. The invasion was also part of the hostilities between Poland and Ruthenia; in 1281, the Poles had defeated a Mongol force near Goslicz which had entered Duke Leszek's territory in support of Lev I.

Wareru

Wareru (Burmese: ဝါရီရူး, pronounced [wàɹíjú]; also known as Wagaru; 20 March 1253 – c. 14 January 1307) was the founder of the Martaban Kingdom, located in present-day Myanmar (Burma). By using both diplomatic and military skills, he successfully carved out a Mon-speaking polity in Lower Burma, during the collapse of the Pagan Empire (Bagan Empire) in the 1280s. The king was assassinated in 1307 but his line ruled the kingdom until its fall in the mid-16th century.

Wareru, a commoner, seized the governorship of Martaban (Mottama) in 1285, and after receiving the backing of Sukhothai, he went on to declare independence from Pagan in 1287. In 1295–1296, he and his ally Tarabya, the self-proclaimed king of Pegu (Bago), decisively defeated a major invasion by Pagan. Wareru eliminated Tarabya soon after, and emerged as the sole ruler of three Mon-speaking provinces of Bassein, Pegu and Martaban c. 1296. With his domain now much enlarged, Wareru sought and received recognition by the Mongols (Yuan China) in 1298.

Although he may have been of ethnic Shan background, Wareru's greatest legacy was the establishment of the only Mon-speaking polity left standing after the 1290s. The success of the kingdom helped foster the emergence of the Mon people as a coherent ethnicity in the 14th and 15th centuries. Furthermore, the legal code he commissioned—the Wareru Dhammathat—is one of the oldest extant dhammathats (legal treatises) of Myanmar, and greatly influenced the legal codes of Burma and Siam down to the 19th century.

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