Year 1278 (MCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1278 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1278
Ab urbe condita2031
Armenian calendar727
Assyrian calendar6028
Balinese saka calendar1199–1200
Bengali calendar685
Berber calendar2228
English Regnal yearEdw. 1 – 7 Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar1822
Burmese calendar640
Byzantine calendar6786–6787
Chinese calendar丁丑(Fire Ox)
3974 or 3914
    — to —
戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
3975 or 3915
Coptic calendar994–995
Discordian calendar2444
Ethiopian calendar1270–1271
Hebrew calendar5038–5039
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1334–1335
 - Shaka Samvat1199–1200
 - Kali Yuga4378–4379
Holocene calendar11278
Igbo calendar278–279
Iranian calendar656–657
Islamic calendar676–677
Japanese calendarKenji 4 / Kōan 1
Javanese calendar1188–1189
Julian calendar1278
Korean calendar3611
Minguo calendar634 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−190
Thai solar calendar1820–1821
Tibetan calendar阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
1404 or 1023 or 251
    — to —
(male Earth-Tiger)
1405 or 1024 or 252


By area



By topic

Arts and culture

  • The earliest known written copy of the Avesta, a collection of ancient sacred Persian Zoroastrian texts previously passed down orally, is produced.


  • Giles of Lessines writes his De usuris. He estimates that some credit contracts need not to be usurious, as "future things are not estimated to be of such value as those collected in the instant". The prevalence of this view in the usury debate allows for the development of the financial industry in Roman Catholic Europe.[3]





  1. ^ a b Lock, Peter (2013). The Routledge Companion to the Crusades. Routledge. p. 119. ISBN 9781135131371.
  2. ^ de Epalza, Miguel (1999). Negotiating cultures: bilingual surrender treaties in Muslim-Crusader Spain under James the Conqueror. Brill. p. 120. ISBN 90-04-11244-8.
  3. ^ Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.
1270s in England

Events from the 1270s in England.


Andorra ( (listen); Catalan: [ənˈdorə]), officially the Principality of Andorra (Catalan: Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Catalan: Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordering France to the north and Spain to the south. Believed to have been created by Charlemagne, Andorra was ruled by the Count of Urgell until 988, when it was transferred to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell, and the present principality was formed by a charter in 1278. It is known as a principality as it is a diarchy headed by two Princes: the Catholic Bishop of Urgell in Catalonia, Spain, and the President of France.

Andorra is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe, having an area of 468 square kilometres (181 sq mi) and a population of approximately 77,281. The Andorran people are a Romance ethnic group of originally Catalan descent. Andorra is the 16th-smallest country in the world by land and the 11th-smallest by population. Its capital, Andorra la Vella, is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1,023 metres (3,356 feet) above sea level. The official language is Catalan; Spanish, Portuguese, and French are also commonly spoken.Tourism in Andorra sees an estimated 10.2 million visitors annually. It is not a member of the European Union, but the euro is its official currency. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1993. In 2013, Andorra had the highest life expectancy in the world at 81 years, according to the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Battle of Algeciras (1278)

The Battle of Algeciras was a naval battle which occurred on July 25, 1278. The battle pitted the fleets of the Kingdom of Castile, commanded by the Admiral of Castile, Pedro Martínez de Fe, and the combined fleets of the Sultanate of Morocco and that of the Emirate of Granada, commanded by Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr. The battle was fought in the context of the Moorish naval expeditions to the Iberian Peninsula. The battle, which took place in the Strait of Gibraltar, resulted in a Muslim victory.

This battle coincided with a simultaneous siege of the city of Algeciras which lasted from 1278–79 and was commanded by the Infante Sancho. The Castilian prince would abandon the siege later in 1279, marking the end of the first action of the long battle for the Strait of Gibraltar.

Battle on the Marchfeld

The Battle on the Marchfeld (i.e. Morava Field; Czech: Bitva na Moravském poli; Hungarian: Morvamezei csata) at Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen took place on 26 August 1278 and was a decisive event for the history of Central Europe for the following centuries. The opponents were a Bohemian (Czech) army led by the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia and the German army under the German king Rudolph I of Habsburg in alliance with King Ladislaus IV of Hungary. With 15,300 mounted troops, it was one of the largest cavalry battles in Central Europe during the Middle Ages. The Hungarian cavalry played a significant role in the outcome of the battle.

King Ottokar II of Bohemia expanded his territories considerably from 1250 to 1273 but suffered a devastating defeat in November 1276, when the newly-elected German king Rudolph I of Habsburg imposed the Imperial ban on Ottokar, declaring him an outlaw and took over Ottokar's holdings in Austria, Carinthia, Carniola and Styria. Ottokar was reduced to his possessions in Bohemia and Moravia but was determined to regain his dominions, power and influence. In 1278 he invaded Austria, where parts of the local population, especially in Vienna, resented Habsburg rule. Rudolf allied himself with king Ladislaus IV of Hungary and mustered forces for a decisive confrontation.

Ottokar abandoned his siege of Laa an der Thaya and advanced to meet the allies near Dürnkrut, north of Vienna. Both armies were composed purely of cavalry and were divided into three divisions that attacked the enemy piecemeal. In the first phase of the battle, the Cuman horse archers in the Hungarian army outflanked and distracted the Bohemian left flank by launching arrows while the Hungarian light cavalry crashed into the Bohemians, driving them from the field. In the second phase, a great collision of knights and heavy cavalry took place in the center, with Rudolf's forces being driven back. Rudolf's third division, led by the king personally, attacked and halted Ottokar's charge. Rudolf was unhorsed in the melee and nearly killed. At a decisive moment, a German cavalry force of 200 riders, commanded by Ulrich von Kapellen, ambushed and attacked the Bohemian right flank from the rear. Assailed from two directions at once, Ottokar's army disintegrated in a rout, and Ottokar himself was killed in the confusion and slaughter. The Cumans pursued and killed the fleeing Bohemians with impunity.

The battle marked the beginning of the ascendancy of the House of Habsburg in Austria and Central Europe. The influence of the Přemyslid kings of Bohemia was diminished and restricted to their inheritance in Bohemia and Moravia.

Bolesław II Rogatka

Bolesław II Rogatka or Bolesław II the Horned (Polish: Bolesław II Rogatka), known also as Bolesław II the Bald, (Polish: Bolesław II Łysy) (c. 1220/5 – 26/31 December 1278), a member of the Silesian Piasts, was High Duke of Poland briefly in 1241 and Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1241 until 1248, when the duchy was divided between him and his brothers. After the partition, he ruled the Silesian Duchy of Legnica until his death. The second Mongol raid against Poland, led by Nogai Khan, occurred during his reign.

Constantine I, King of Armenia

Constantine I (Armenian: Կոստանդին Ա, Western Armenian transliteration: Gosdantin or Kostantine;) (also called Constantine III; 1278 – c. 1310) was briefly king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1298 to 1299. He was the son of Leo II of Armenia and Kyranna de Lampron and was part of the Hetoumid-family.

He helped his brother Sempad to usurp the throne in 1296, but turned against him two years later in 1298 to restore his older brother Hethum II. He assumed the throne for a year while Hethum recovered from his imprisonment. Shortly after Hethum's resumption in 1299, Constantine plotted to restore Sempad again, and both were imprisoned for the rest of their lives.


DZRM (DZRM 1278 kHz Metro Manila) was an AM station owned and operated by Philippine Broadcasting Service. The station's studios and offices are Located at the 4th Floor, PIA/Media Center Building, Visayas Ave. Barangay Vasra, Diliman, Quezon City and its transmitter at Barangay Marulas, Valenzuela City. Its broadcasting format is akin to the format of a printed magazine, thus its name.

It was PBS' general information radio station. It primarily focused on news, current events, and Philippine culture.

Distributed Interactive Simulation

Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) is an IEEE standard for conducting real-time platform-level wargaming across multiple host computers and is used worldwide, especially by military organizations but also by other agencies such as those involved in space exploration and medicine.

Emperor Duanzong

Emperor Duanzong of Song (10 July 1269 – 8 May 1278), personal name Zhao Shi, was the 17th emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the eighth and penultimate emperor of the Southern Song dynasty. He was the fifth son of Emperor Duzong and an elder brother of his predecessor, Emperor Gong and successor Zhao Bing.

Emperor Gong along with Grand Dowager Xie surrendered to the Mongol Empire in 1276 after the fall of the Song capital, Lin'an (present-day Hangzhou). Zhao Shi and his seventh brother, Zhao Bing, managed to escape southward to Fujian Province, where the new Song capital was established. On June 14, 1276, Zhao Shi was enthroned as the new Emperor Duanzong who ruled under the era name "Jingyan" (景炎; literally: "bright flame"). However, in 1278, the Mongols broke through the Song dynasty's last lines of defence, forcing Zhao Shi to flee again. Accompanied by loyal ministers such as Lu Xiufu and Zhang Shijie, Zhao Shi boarded a ship and fled further south to Guangdong Province. Thereafter, he stayed temporarily in Hong Kong which at that time was a small fishing village. The historical relic Sung Wong Toi in present-day Hong Kong's Kowloon City commemorates Zhao Shi's escape to Hong Kong.

In March 1278, while fleeing from the Mongols led by Liu Shen, in a hurricane, Zhao Shi fell from a boat and almost drowned. After his rescue, he became ill and died a few months later in Gangzhou (碙州; present-day Lantau Island, Hong Kong). He was succeeded by his seventh brother, Zhao Bing.

German submarine U-1278

German submarine U-1278 was a Type VIIC/41 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

She was ordered on 13 June 1942, and was laid down on 12 August 1943, at Bremer Vulkan AG, Bremen, as yard number 73. She was launched on 15 April 1944, and commissioned under the command of Kapitänleutnant Erich Müller-Bethke on 31 May 1944.

Kosmos 1278

Kosmos 1278 (Russian: Космос 1278 meaning Cosmos 1278) was a Soviet US-K missile early warning satellite which was launched in 1981 as part of the Soviet military's Oko programme. The satellite was designed to identify missile launches using optical telescopes and infrared sensors.Kosmos 1278 was launched from Site 43/3 at Plesetsk Cosmodrome in the Russian SSR. A Molniya-M carrier rocket with a 2BL upper stage was used to perform the launch, which took place at 19:37 UTC on 19 June 1981. The launch successfully placed the satellite into a molniya orbit. It subsequently received its Kosmos designation, and the international designator 1981-058A. The United States Space Command assigned it the Satellite Catalog Number 12547.It self-destructed in December 1986 and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on 2 September 2000.

Kōan (Kamakura period)

Kōan (弘安) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Kenji and before Shōō. This period spanned the years from February 1278 through April 1288. The reigning emperors were Go-Uda-tennō (後宇多天皇) and Fushimi-tennō (伏見天皇).

Macquarie Sports Radio 1278

Macquarie Sports Radio (call sign: 3EE) is a commercial radio station in Melbourne, Australia owned by Macquarie Radio Network.

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al‐Farisi

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al-Farisi (d. 1278/1279), an Iranian Islamic astronomer and astrologer born in Aden. He is the author of al-Tuḥfa, which includes a treatise containing important information for the history of Islamic astronomy and its connection with the religion of Islam.

NGC 1278

NGC 1278 is an elliptical galaxy located about 230 million light-years away in the constellation Perseus. NGC 1278 was discovered by astronomer Heinrich d'Arrest on February 14, 1863. It was then rediscovered by astronomer Guillaume Bigourdan on October 22, 1884 and was later listed as IC 1907. NGC 1278 is a member of the Perseus Cluster and is a low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN).

Ottokar II of Bohemia

Ottokar II (Czech: Přemysl Otakar II; c. 1233 – 26 August 1278), the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until his death in 1278. He also held the titles of Margrave of Moravia from 1247, Duke of Austria from 1251, Duke of Styria from 1260, as well as Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Carniola from 1269.

With Ottokar's rule, the Přemyslids reached the peak of their power in the Holy Roman Empire. His expectations of the imperial crown, however, were never fulfilled.

Roger Skerning

Roger Skerning (or Roger de Skerning; died 22 January 1278) was a medieval Bishop of Norwich.

Siege of Algeciras (1278–79)

The Siege of Algeciras was the first of many sieges of the city by Christian forces in the lengthy period of the Spanish Reconquista. The siege, ordered by King Alfonso X of Castile also known as "el Sabio", was a fruitless military campaign initiated by the Kingdom of Castile with the objective of removing the Moroccans from Algeciras. The siege on Algeciras, then known to the Muslims as Al-Jazira Al-Khadra, was strategically important because Algeciras had been at the time the main fortress and landing place for African reinforcement troops in the Iberian Peninsula. Castile, which had a powerful armada of ships anchored in the Bay of Gibraltar to blockade such reinforcement, had a few days previously to the siege, seen that fleet obliterated by the Muslim admiral, Abu Yusuf Yaqub at the Naval Battle of Algeciras.

William of Villehardouin

William of Villehardouin (Guillaume de Villehardouin; died 1 May 1278) was the last Villehardouin prince of Achaea (as William II) and ruled the principality at the height of its power and influence(1246 - 1278).

William was the son of Geoffrey I Villehardouin. In 1236 he aided the Latin Empire against the Byzantine Empire of Nicaea, and was rewarded with the overlordship of the Venetian Duchy of the Archipelago and other Venetian territories in the Aegean Sea. In 1239 he married the daughter of Narjot de Toucy and of Narjot's first wife (who was the daughter of the dowager empress Anna). William came to power in Achaea in 1246 when his brother Geoffrey II Villehardouin died.

As prince he conquered the remaining territory of the Peloponnese (known at the time as Morea) and built the fortress of Mistra near Sparta. In 1249 he captured Monemvasia with help from his Euboeote vassals, and later that year accompanied Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade, joining him in Cyprus with 400 knights and 28 ships. Louis also gave him a license to mint coins in the style of royal French money.

Under William's rule the Duchy of the Archipelago, the Duchy of Athens, and the Lombard lords ("triarchs") of Euboea recognized him as their lord. In 1255 his Venetian second wife Carintana dalle Carceri died, leading to a dispute over the inheritance of a fief in Euboea, and war broke out between Venice and Achaea (the War of the Euboeote Succession). William won the war and also defeated the Duke of Athens in 1258, reaffirming his influence over the duchy.

In 1259 he married Anna Komnene Doukaina, daughter of Michael II of Epirus, forming an alliance with the Byzantine Despotate of Epirus against Nicaea, an alliance which also included Manfred of Sicily. In September of that year he led the Achaean forces at the Battle of Pelagonia against the Nicaeans, but the Epirote army deserted and William was defeated. He fled the field and hid under a haystack, where he was captured and brought to Nicaea. He remained in captivity until 1262, and was forced to hand over Grand Maigne, Monemvasia and Mistra to the Byzantine Empire, which had been restored in Constantinople the previous year.

William had now lost all of his previous power, as had his former lord, Baldwin II of Constantinople, whose Latin Empire was lost with the Byzantine restoration. William and Baldwin both acknowledged Charles of Anjou as lord of Achaea under the Treaty of Viterbo in 1267; Charles had earlier defeated and killed William's old ally Manfred. As a vassal of Charles, William and 400 Achaean knights fought against Conradin at the Battle of Tagliacozzo in 1268.

William and Anna had two daughters, Isabella and Margaret; Isabella, the elder daughter, married Charles's son Philip of Sicily, who, however, predeceased his father. Charles personally succeeded William in 1278, ending the Villehardouin dynasty and setting up Angevin rule, with the principality governed essentially as a province of the Kingdom of Naples. With the decreasing power and influence of Achaea, the Duchy of Athens became the most powerful state in Greece.

William was also noted as a trouvère, and the Manuscrit du Roi, containing two of his own compositions, was written in Achaea during his reign. He was fluent in both French and Greek.

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