|1277 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2030|
|Balinese saka calendar||1198–1199|
|English Regnal year||5 Edw. 1 – 6 Edw. 1|
|Chinese calendar||丙子年 (Fire Rat)|
3973 or 3913
— to —
丁丑年 (Fire Ox)
3974 or 3914
|- Vikram Samvat||1333–1334|
|- Shaka Samvat||1198–1199|
|- Kali Yuga||4377–4378|
|Japanese calendar||Kenji 3|
|Minguo calendar||635 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1819–1820|
1403 or 1022 or 250
— to —
1404 or 1023 or 251
Events from the 1270s in England.1277 papal election
The papal election of 1277 (May 30 – November 25), convened in Viterbo after the death of Pope John XXI, was the smallest papal election since the expansion of suffrage to cardinal-priests and cardinal-deacons, with only seven cardinal electors (following the deaths of three popes who had not created cardinals). Because John XXI had revoked Ubi periculum, the papal bull of Pope Gregory X establishing the papal conclave, with his own bull Licet felicis recordationis, the cardinal electors were able to take their time. After six months of deliberation, the cardinals eventually elected their most senior member Giovanni Gaetano Orsini as Pope Nicholas III. From the end of the election until Nicholas III's first consistory on March 12, 1278, the number of living cardinals—seven—was the lowest in the history of the Roman Catholic Church.Aberystwyth Castle
Aberystwyth Castle (Welsh: Castell Aberystwyth) is a Grade I listed Edwardian fortress located in Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Mid Wales. It was built in response to the First Welsh War in the late 13th century, replacing an earlier fortress located a mile to the south. During a national uprising by Owain Glyndŵr, the Welsh captured the castle in 1404, but it was recaptured by the English four years later. In 1637 it became a Royal mint by Charles I, and produced silver shillings. The castle was slighted by Oliver Cromwell in 1649.Al-Zahiriyah Library
The Az-Zahiriyah library (Arabic: المكتبة الظاهرية) in Damascus, Syria dates back to 1277, taking its name from its founder Sultan Baibars (1223–1277). Building this library was his father’s idea but he died before he could achieve it. Initially Az-Zahiriah was a public school in charge of teaching Quranic sciences. The decorations, carvings, and writing on the building walls, in addition to the gate which bears geometric designs and patterns, make the library one of the most important buildings in Damascus. It is located at Bab el Barid in the Al-Amara neighborhood.The mosaics of the Umayyad Mosque gave inspiration to the decoration of the main prayer hall where a band of lavish golden floral and architectural mosaics is running around.The manuscript department includes over 13,000 classical Islamic manuscripts, the oldest being Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal’s Kitab al-zuhd and Kitab al-fada'il. Other notable manuscripits include Ta'rikh Dimashq by Ibn 'Asakir (1105–1175), al-Jam bayn al-gharibayn by Abu `Ubaydah Ahmad ibn Muhammad Al-Harawi (d. 1010), and Gharib al-hadith by Ibn Qutaybah al-Dinawari (d. 889).The library was nationally recognized by the Syrian state in 1880. In 1919 the "Arab Academy was charged with the supervision of the al-Zahiriyya Library. … Its collection consisted at that time of the surviving manuscripts from different small libraries in Syria. … The collection grew from 2,465 manuscripts to 22,000 volumes between 1919 and 1945." In 1949 a legal deposit law decreed that two copies of every work published in Syria be deposited in the library. The law was not enforced until July 1983, when a presidential decree required the deposit of 5 copies of each work published by a Syrian author. In 1984 the Al-Assad Library became the Syrian national library, replacing al-Zahiriyah Library.
Sultan Al-Zahir Baibars, also known as Rukn Uddin Baybrus (full name, al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari) was buried in Damascus in 1277 under the dome of the Az-Zahiriyah library, established by him.
As of 2011, the library's holdings included some 100,000 volumes, 13,000 manuscripts, and 50,000 periodicals.Battle of Ngasaunggyan
The Battle of Ngasaunggyan (Chinese: 牙嵩延之战) was fought in 1277 between Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty, the principal khanate of the Mongol Empire, and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire (in present-day Burma) led by Narathihapate. The battle was initiated by Narathihapate, who invaded the Yunnan, a province of the Yuan dynasty. Mongol defenders soundly defeated the Pagan forces.
Hostility between the two empires had already been established by that time: when Kublai Khan had sent emissaries to regional powers of eastern Asia to demand tribute, Narathihapate refused the khan's representatives the first time they visited (in 1271), and they were killed by bandits in 1273. When Kublai Khan did not immediately respond to this insult, Narathihapate gained confidence that the Mongols would not fight him. He subsequently invaded the state of Kaungai, whose chief had recently pledged fealty to Kublai Khan. Local garrisons of Mongol troops were ordered to defend the area, and although outnumbered were able to soundly defeat the Pagan forces in battle and press into the Pagan territory of Bhamo. The presence of war elephants initially caused Mongol horses to shy in terror, but Mongol general Khudu (Qutuq) ordered his men to shower the elephants with arrows. The wounded elephants stampeded and destroyed everything in their path. In the end, Mongol troops abandoned their offensive and returned to Yunnan, a province of Yuan dynasty with their wounded general Khudu.
The Battle of Ngassaunggyan was the first of three decisive battles between the two empires, the others being the Battle of Bhamo in 1283 and the Battle of Pagan in 1287. By the end of these battles, the Mongols had conquered the entire Pagan empire and installed a puppet government.
In the end of 1277, Yunnan governor's son Naser ad-Din attacked Bhamo again and tried to establish postal system which had already covered Mongol Empire after defeating enemies. But deadly heat forced him to leave Burma. He returned to Khanbaliq with 12 elephants and gave them to his master Kublai Khan in 1279.The battle was later reported back to Europe by Marco Polo, who described the battle vividly in his reports. His description was presumably pieced together by accounts he heard while visiting the court of Kublai Khan.Bentheim-Bentheim
Bentheim-Bentheim was a county in southeastern Lower Saxony, Germany, the borders of which by 1806 were the modern borders of the District of Bentheim. This county was formed from the county of Bentheim in 1277, and from it was formed Bentheim-Steinfurt in 1454. Bentheim-Bentheim reemerged as a county in 1643 and was mediatised to Berg in 1806, before being annexed to France in 1810. It was granted to Hanover by the Congress of Vienna.Condemnations of 1210–1277
The Condemnations at the medieval University of Paris were enacted to restrict certain teachings as being heretical. These included a number of medieval theological teachings, but most importantly the physical treatises of Aristotle. The investigations of these teachings were conducted by the Bishops of Paris. The Condemnations of 1277 are traditionally linked to an investigation requested by Pope John XXI, although whether he actually supported drawing up a list of condemnations is unclear.
Approximately sixteen lists of censured theses were issued by the University of Paris during the 13th and 14th centuries. Most of these lists of propositions were put together into systematic collections of prohibited articles. Of these, the Condemnations of 1277 are considered particularly important by those historians who consider that they encouraged scholars to question the tenets of Aristotelian science. From this perspective, some historians maintain that the condemnations had positive effects on the development of science, perhaps even representing the beginnings of modern science.Conquest of Wales by Edward I of England
The conquest of Wales by Edward I, sometimes referred to as the Edwardian Conquest of Wales, took place between 1277 and 1283. It resulted in the defeat and annexation of the Principality of Wales, and the other last remaining independent Welsh principalities, by Edward I, King of England.
By the 13th century Wales was divided between native Welsh principalities and the territories of the Anglo-Norman Marcher lords. The leading principality was Gwynedd whose princes had gained control of the greater part of the country, making the other remaining Welsh princes their vassals, and had taken the title Prince of Wales. Although English monarchs had made several attempts to seize control of the native Welsh territories, it was not until Edward's war of conquest against Llywelyn ap Gruffudd ("Llywelyn the Last") of 1277 to 1283 that this was achieved on a lasting basis.
In two campaigns, in 1277 and 1282/1283 respectively, Edward first significantly reduced the territory of the Principality of Wales and then completely overran it, as well as the other remaining Welsh principalities. Most of the conquered territory was retained as a royal fief, and these lands subsequently became, by custom, the territorial endowment of the heir to the English throne with the title Prince of Wales. The remainder would be granted to Edward's supporters as new Marcher lordships. Although the territories would not be effectively incorporated into the Kingdom of England until the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, Edward's conquest marked the end of Welsh independence.First Mongol invasion of Burma
The first Mongol invasions of Burma (present-day Myanmar) (Burmese: မွန်ဂို–မြန်မာ စစ် (၁၂၇၇–၁၂၈၇)) were a series of military conflicts between Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty, division of the Mongol Empire, and the Pagan Empire that took place between 1277 and 1287. The invasions toppled the 250-year-old Pagan Empire, and the Mongol army seized Pagan territories in present-day Dehong, Yunnan and northern Burma to Tagaung. The invasions ushered in 250 years of political fragmentation in Burma and the rise of ethnic Tai-Shan states throughout mainland Southeast Asia.
The Mongols first demanded tribute from Pagan in 1271–72, as part of their drive to encircle the Song dynasty of China. When King Narathihapate refused, Emperor Kublai Khan himself sent another mission in 1273, again demanding tribute. It too was rejected. In 1275, the emperor ordered the Yunnan government to secure the borderlands in order to block an escape path for the Song, and permitted a limited border war if Pagan contested. Pagan did contest but its army was driven back at the frontier by the Mongol Army in 1277–78. After a brief lull, Kublai Khan in 1281 turned his attention to Southeast Asia, demanding tribute from Pagan, the Khmer Empire, Đại Việt and Champa. When the Burmese king again refused, the emperor ordered an invasion of northern Burma. Two dry season campaigns (1283–85) later, the Mongols had occupied down to Tagaung and Hanlin, forcing the Burmese king to flee to Lower Burma. The Mongols organized northern Burma as the province of Zhengmian.
Ceasefire negotiations began in 1285, and ended with Narathihapate finally agreeing to submit in June 1286. The Burmese embassy, received by the emperor in Beijing in January 1287, agreed to a treaty that acknowledged the suzerainty of the Yuan dynasty or the Mongol Empire over the Pagan Empire and annual payments in taxes to the Yunnan government in exchange for the evacuation of Mongol troops from northern Burma. But the treaty never really took effect as Narathihapate was assassinated in July 1287, and no authority who could honor the treaty emerged. The Mongol command at Yunnan now deemed the imperial order to withdraw void, and ordered an invasion of central Burma. They may not have reached Pagan, and even if they did, after having suffered heavy casualties, they returned to Tagaung.
The Pagan Empire disintegrated and anarchy ensued. The Mongols, who probably preferred the situation, did nothing to restore order in the next ten years. In March 1297, they accepted the voluntary submission of King Kyawswa of Pagan although he controlled little beyond the capital city of Pagan (Bagan). But Kyawswa was overthrown nine months later, and the Mongols were forced to intervene, leading to their second invasion in 1300–01.
Marco Polo reported the first invasions (1277–87) in his travelogue, Il Milione. The Burmese referred to the invaders as the Taruk (after the central Asian Turkic troops that largely made up the Mongol invasion army); today, the term Taruk (တရုတ်) refers to the Han Chinese instead. King Narathihapate is unkindly remembered in Burmese history as Taruk-Pye Min, ("the King who Fled from the Taruk").German submarine U-1277
German submarine U-1277 was a Type VIIC/41 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.
She was ordered on 13 June 1942, and was laid down on 6 August 1943 at Bremer Vulkan AG, Bremen, as yard number 72. She was launched on 18 March 1944 and commissioned under the command of Kapitänleutnant Ehrenreich-Peter Stever on 3 May 1944.Karamanids
The Karamanids or Karamanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Karamanoğulları, Karamanoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Karaman and Beylik of Karaman (Karaman Beyliği), was one of the Islamic Anatolian beyliks, centered in south-central Anatolia around the present-day Karaman Province. From the 13th century until its fall in 1487, the Karamanid dynasty was one of the most powerful Turkish beyliks in Anatolia.Lençóis
Lençóis is a municipality in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The population is 11,445 (2015 est.) in an area of 1277 km². The town has a well-preserved colonial atmosphere and is the starting point for treks into Chapada Diamantina. The city is served by Horácio de Mattos Airport.List of elections in 1277
The following elections occurred in the year 1277.
Papal election, 1277List of monarchs of Thomond
The kings of Thomond (Irish: Rí Tuamhain) ruled from the establishment of Thomond during the High Middle Ages, until the Early Modern period. Thomond represented the legacy of Brian Bóruma and the High Kings of Ireland of his line who could not hold onto all of Munster, so had to partition the realm between themselves and Desmond, ruled by their rivals the Eóganachta. The Kings of Thomond were drawn from the leading kindred of the Dál gCais known as the Ó Briain. For centuries they fought off challenges from the Normans, including the de Clare family and internal conflict between factions. Eventually Murchadh Carrach Ó Briain decided to surrender and regrant and his realm to the Kingdom of Ireland in 1543 and accepted the titles Baron Inchiquin and Earl of Thomond.
The current holder of these titles is Conor Myles John O'Brien.NGC 1277
NGC 1277 is a lenticular galaxy in the constellation of Perseus. It is a member of the Perseus Cluster of galaxies and is located approximately 73Mpc (Mega parsecs) or 220 million light years from the Milky Way. It has an apparent magnitude of about 14.7. It was discovered on December 4, 1875 by Lawrence Parsons, 4th Earl of Rosse.
NGC 1277 has been called a "relic of the early universe" due to its stars being formed during a 100 million year interval about 12 billion years ago. Stars were formed at a rate of 1000 times that of the Milky Way galaxy's formation rate in a short burst of time. After this process of stellar formation ran its course, NGC 1277 was left populated with metal-rich stars that are about 7 billion years older than our Sun. It is still uncertain whether or not NGC 1277 is a "relic galaxy"; current studies are still researching the possibility.However, observations with Hubble Space Telescope indicate that NGC 1277 lacks metal-poor globular clusters, suggesting that it has accreted little mass over its lifetime and supporting the relic galaxy hypothesis.Pope John XXI
Pope John XXI (Latin: Ioannes XXI; c. 1215 – 20 May 1277), born Peter Juliani (Latin: Petrus Iulianus; Portuguese: Pedro Julião), was Pope from 8 September 1276 to his death in 1277. Apart from Damasus I (from Roman Lusitania), he has been the only Portuguese pope. He is sometimes identified with the logician and herbalist Peter of Spain (Latin: Petrus Hispanus; Portuguese: Pedro Hispano), which would make him the only pope to have been a physician."Pope John XXI" was actually the 20th pope named John, but decided to skip the number XX.PostScript Latin 1 Encoding
The PostScript Latin 1 Encoding (often spelled ISOLatin1Encoding) is one of the character sets (or encoding vectors) used by Adobe Systems' PostScript (PS) since 1984 (1982). In 1995, IBM assigned code page 1277 to this character set. It is a superset of ISO/IEC 8859-1.Stefan Uroš I
Stefan Uroš I (Serbian Cyrillic: Стефан Урош I; c. 1223 – May 1, 1277), known as Uroš the Great (Урош Велики) was the King of Serbia from 1243 to 1276, succeeding his brother Stefan Vladislav. He was one of the most important rulers in Serbian history.Wei Yilin
Wei Yilin (Chinese: 危亦林; pinyin: Wēi Yìlín; c. 1277–1347) was a Chinese physician and surgeon who lived during the Mongol Yuan dynasty. He compiled the medical treatise Shiyi Dexiaofang and invented a suspension method for reducing dislocated joints and fractures.