126 film is a cartridge-based film format used in still photography. It was introduced by Kodak in 1963, and is associated mainly with low-end point-and-shoot cameras, particularly Kodak's own Instamatic series of cameras.
Although 126 was once very popular, as of 2008 it is no longer manufactured, and few photofinishers will process it.
In 1963, Kodak introduced a new film, encased in a plastic cartridge, for which they re-introduced the "126" designation. (The number was originally used for the unrelated 126 roll film format from 1906 to 1949). The term "126" was intended to show that images were 26 mm square, using Kodak's common 1xx film numbering system. However the image size is actually 28×28 mm, but usually reduced to approximately 26.5×26.5 mm by masking during printing or mounting.
The 126 film format was defined in ISO 3029, which has since been withdrawn.
Like the 120 format, there is a continuous backing paper, and the frame number is visible through a small window at the rear of the cartridge. Cameras for this type of film are equipped with a large rectangular window in the back door, through which is visible not only the frame number, but also a portion of the label showing the film type and speed. The cartridge has a captive take-up spool, but no supply spool: the film and backing paper are simply coiled tightly and placed in the supply end of the cartridge. The positioning of the image is fixed by the cartridge. The film is 35 mm wide, but unlike 135 film, it is unperforated, except for one registration hole per image, similar to the earlier 828 film. The camera is equipped with a sensing pin which falls into this hole when the film is fully advanced to the next frame, at which point the winding knob or lever is locked, so as to prevent winding past the pre-exposed frame lines.
The top edge of the cartridge above the film gate has a square notch in a specific position corresponding to the speed of the film in the cartridge. Some of the higher-end cameras used this notch to determine the correct exposure, or to set the light meter, if so equipped. Although only film with speeds between ISO 64/19° and ISO 400/27° were ever manufactured in this format, the standard defined 20 different speeds, from ISO 20/14° to ISO 1600/33°.
The film was originally available in 12 and 20 image lengths; at the time regular production stopped it was only available in 24 exposure cartridges. The film does not need to be rewound, and is very simple to load and unload.
The format was introduced by Kodak under the brand name Kodapak, together with the Instamatic camera. Although the Instamatic name is sometimes treated as synonymous with the 126 format, Kodak also used it on its later 110-format cameras, which they called Pocket Instamatic and on its "M" series 8 mm movie cameras.
Around ten million cameras were made by Kodak and other companies. However, with a few exceptions, the format was mainly used for fairly simple amateur cameras. (Makers of the few high-end models included Kodak, Minolta, Rollei, Yashica and Zeiss Ikon.) Kodak officially discontinued the format on 31 December 1999.
Ferrania in Italy, was the last factory producing 126 film. Their product was an ISO 200 colour print film marketed under their Solaris brand. The last scheduled production run took place in April 2007, but an unscheduled production run in late 2007 surprised industry observers and raised hopes that it had not actually been discontinued. Ferrania's subsequent bankruptcy meant that there was no longer any large-scale factory source for 126 film.
Unused, outdated 126 films continue to show up at thrift stores, estate sales, and online auctions. Unless they have been stored frozen, they are probably deteriorated and are only suitable for experimenting. Amateur photographers sometimes salvage the plastic cartridge and backing paper from outdated 126 films and reload them with fresh 35mm film. The process is not difficult, but it is not entirely practical since the two films have significantly different perforations. 126 cameras have a film-advance mechanism that relies on one edge perforation per image, and 35mm camera film has eight perforations per image, on both edges of the film. The photographer must use the film-advance mechanism several times between images, and one edge of each image will have visible perforations.
Because it is 35 mm wide and is developed in industry-standard C-41 process chemistry, processing of 126 films is readily available, as long as the photofinisher knows that it is standard, 35 mm, C-41 film. Printing the photos can present problems, because modern film processing equipment often cannot handle the square format of 126 film. Some specialist photographic printers can correctly handle it. Standard flatbed scanners that have a light source for scanning film can be used to scan 126 negatives, perhaps using a mask made with black paper. Note that older film may require other processes such as C-22.
110 is a cartridge-based film format used in still photography. It was introduced by Kodak in 1972. 110 is essentially a miniaturised version of Kodak's earlier 126 film format. Each frame is 13 mm × 17 mm (0.51 in × 0.67 in), with one registration hole. There were 24 frames per cartridge that occasionally enabled the user to capture an extra image due to production variations.
The film is fully housed in a plastic cartridge, which also registers the image when the film is advanced. There is a continuous backing paper, and the frame number and film type are visible through a window at the rear of the cartridge. The film does not need to be rewound and is very simple to load and unload. It is pre-exposed with frame lines and numbers, a feature intended to make it easier and more efficient for photofinishers to print.
Unlike later competing formats, such as disc and APS film, processed 110 negatives are returned in strips, without the original cartridge.126 (number)
126 (one hundred [and] twenty-six) is the natural number following 125 and preceding 127.127 film
127 was a roll film format for still photography introduced by Kodak in 1912.
The film itself is 46 mm wide, placing it between 35 mm and 120 "medium format" films in terms of size. The image format normally used is a square 4 cm × 4 cm. However, rectangular 4 cm × 3 cm and 4 cm × 6 cm are also standard.
127 enjoyed mainstream popularity until its usage began to decline from the 1960s onwards in the face of newer, cartridge-based films. However, as of 2017 it survives as a niche format and is still in production.828 film
828 is a film format for still photography. Kodak introduced it in 1935, only a year after 135 film. 828 film was introduced with the Kodak Bantam, a consumer-level camera.
The 828 format uses the same basic film stock as 135 film (standard 35mm film), but the film lacks the sprocket holes of 135. The standard image format is 40 × 28 mm. This provides a 30% larger image compared to 135's standard 24 × 36 mm, yet on the same film stock. Because Kodak targeted 828 at a lower-end consumer market, the film was much shorter, at a standard 8 exposures per roll. 828 film originally had one perforation per frame, much like 126 film. Unlike 135 (a single-spool cartridge film) or 126 (a dual-spool cartridge film), 828 is a roll film format, like 120 film. Like 120, it has a backing paper and frames are registered through a colored window on the back of the camera (except on the original folding Bantams, where images were registered with an index hole).
828 cameras never achieved widespread popularity, and the format had a rather limited run. Kodak's last 828 cameras were the Pony 828 in the US, produced until 1959, and the Bantam Colorsnap 3 in the UK, produced until 1963. Kodak ceased production of 828 format film in 1985. The Traid Fotron, sold in the late 1960s, used 828 format film as well. However, the film was enclosed in a proprietary pop-in cartridge and so the consumer never actually saw the film; instead, they merely returned the entire cartridge to Traid for processing.
Those wishing to photograph with an 828-format camera have few options. As of 2005, 828 film is available for purchase on the Internet; this film is probably respooled from bulk unperforated 35mm film. Another option is to use standard 135 film, with sprocket holes, and respool it with used 828 backing paper onto old spools. The effective image size will be reduced with this method as the perforations will intrude on the image area. Finally, as with other obsolete film types, 120 film can be cut (with backing paper) and respooled onto 828 spools.Box camera
A box camera is a simple type of camera, the most common form being a cardboard or plastic box with a lens in one end and film at the other. They were very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The lenses are often single element designs meniscus fixed focus lens, or in better quality box cameras a doublet lens with minimal (if any) possible adjustments to the aperture or shutter speeds. Because of the inability to adjust focus, the small lens aperture and the low sensitivity of the sensitive materials available, these cameras work best in brightly lit day-lit scenes when the subject is within the hyperfocal distance for the lens and of subjects that move little during the exposure. Eventually, box cameras with photographic flash, shutter and aperture adjustment were introduced, allowing indoor photos.Disc film
Disc film was a still-photography film format aimed at the consumer market, and introduced by Kodak in 1982.The film was in the form of a flat disc, and was fully housed within a plastic cartridge. Each disc held fifteen 10 × 8 mm exposures, arranged around the outside of the disc, with the disc being rotated 24° between each image.
The system was a consumer-oriented product, and most cameras were self-contained units with no expansion capability. The disc film allowed them to be compact and considerably thinner than other cameras. The cameras were very simple to load and unload, and were generally completely automated. The cassette had a built-in dark slide to prevent stray light reaching the film when the disc was removed.
As the film was rotated on a disc instead of over a spool, the cassette was very thin. The flat nature of the format also led to the (potential) advantage of greater sharpness over curved spool-based cassette formats (such as Minox film, 110 and 126 film). Disc film has a very thick acetate base, comparable thickness with 4×5" sheet film, which holds the film much flatter than the other formats of the time.
Disc film did not prove hugely successful, mainly because the image on the negative was only 10 mm by 8 mm, leading to generally unacceptable grain and poor definition in the final prints from the analog imaging equipment used at the time. The film was intended to be printed with special 6-element lenses from Kodak, but many labs simply printed discs with standard 3-element lenses used for larger negative formats. The resulting prints often disappointed the consumer. Few labs made the investment required to get the best out of the small negative size. A problem with labs of the time was the manual nature of processing the color negative film. This was essentially a manual process, unlike spool-based films, whose chemical processing could be fully automated.
The film was officially discontinued by the last manufacturer, Kodak, on December 31, 1999, though the cameras had disappeared from the market long before then.
There were several different manufacturers of Disc film. Kodak produced films throughout the complete lifespan of the format, but 3M, Konica and Fuji also produced Disc film. While Kodak film was always eponymous, 3M and Konica made Disc film for many third parties, branded with the retailer's logo. As with most photographic film, for such white-label products the country of manufacture provides the best indication as to the actual manufacturer.
The 1983 "Minolta Disc-7" camera introduced a predecessor of the selfie stick - a convex mirror on its front to allow the composition of self-portraits, and its packaging showed the camera mounted on a stick while used for such a purpose.Dwayne's Photo
Dwayne's Photo is a film processing facility in Parsons, Kansas founded in 1956. It processes film, slides and certain movie films, and offers photo services.
Dwayne's Photo was the last Kodak certified Kodachrome processing facility in the world, which stopped accepting rolls of Kodachrome on December 30, 2010, citing Kodak's discontinuation of the necessary developing chemicals.Filem Negara Malaysia
The National Film Department of Malaysia (Malay: Filem Negara Malaysia, abbreviated FNM) was a government department under the Malaysian Ministry of Communications and Multimedia, which was responsible for the filming and documentation of national events. Its headquarters were located in Petaling Jaya, Selangor. On 2013, Filem Negara Malaysia was merged with the National Film Development Corporation Malaysia (FINAS) to form a single agency.Film format
A film format is a technical definition of a set of standard characteristics regarding image capture on photographic film, for either stills or filmmaking. It can also apply to projected film, either slides or movies. The primary characteristic of a film format is its size and shape.
In the case of motion picture film, the format may also include audio parameters (though often not). Other characteristics usually include the film gauge, pulldown method, lens anamorphosis (or lack thereof), and film gate or projector aperture dimensions, all of which need to be defined for photography as well as projection, as they may differ.Instamatic
For the film formats associated with the Instamatic and Pocket Instamatic camera ranges, see 126 film and 110 film respectively.
The Instamatic is a series of inexpensive, easy-to-load 126 and 110 cameras made by Kodak beginning in 1963. The Instamatic was immensely successful, introducing a generation to low-cost photography and spawning numerous imitators.
During its heyday, the range was so ubiquitous that the Instamatic name is still frequently used (erroneously) to refer to any inexpensive point-and-shoot camera. (It is also frequently used incorrectly to describe Kodak's line of instant-picture cameras, the Kodamatic series.)
The Instamatic name was also used by Kodak on some Super 8-based home-cine cameras.Joe Williams (film critic)
Joseph L. Williams (November 9, 1958 – July 26, 2015) was the film critic for the daily St. Louis Post-Dispatch (#29 among U.S. newspapers) and the Web site STLtoday.com in St. Louis, Missouri. He was also the author of the books Entertainment on the Net, Hollywood Myths and The Grassy Knoll Report
Williams had been a staff writer for the newspaper since 1996. From 2003 to 2006, he was the on-camera movie reviewer for St. Louis TV station KMOV, He was a frequent guest on radio and television broadcasts in the region.Kodacolor (still photography)
For other uses of the "Kodacolor" brand, see Kodacolor (disambiguation).
In still photography, Kodak's Kodacolor brand has been associated with various color negative films (i.e., films that produce negatives for making color prints on paper) since 1942. Kodak claims that Kodacolor was "the world's first true color negative film". More accurately, it was the first color negative film intended for making paper prints: in 1939, Agfa had introduced a 35 mm Agfacolor negative film for use by the German motion picture industry, in which the negative was used only for making positive projection prints on 35 mm film. There have been several varieties of Kodacolor negative film, including Kodacolor-X, Kodacolor VR and Kodacolor Gold.
The name "Kodacolor" was originally used for a very different lenticular color home movie system, introduced in 1928 and retired after Kodachrome film made it obsolete in 1935.Kodak
The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak ) is an American technology company that produces camera-related products with its historic basis on photography. The company is headquartered in Rochester, New York, and is incorporated in New Jersey. Kodak provides packaging, functional printing, graphic communications and professional services for businesses around the world. Its main business segments are Print Systems, Enterprise Inkjet Systems, Micro 3D Printing and Packaging, Software and Solutions, and Consumer and Film. It is best known for photographic film products.
Kodak was founded by George Eastman and Henry A. Strong on September 4, 1888. During most of the 20th century, Kodak held a dominant position in photographic film. The company's ubiquity was such that its "Kodak moment" tagline entered the common lexicon to describe a personal event that was demanded to be recorded for posterity. Kodak began to struggle financially in the late 1990s, as a result of the decline in sales of photographic film and its slowness in transitioning to digital photography. As a part of a turnaround strategy, Kodak began to focus on digital photography and digital printing, and attempted to generate revenues through aggressive patent litigation.In January 2012, Kodak filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York.In February 2012, Kodak announced that it would stop making digital cameras, pocket video cameras and digital picture frames and focus on the corporate digital imaging market. Digital cameras are still sold under the Kodak brand by JK Imaging Ltd thanks to an agreement with Kodak.
In August 2012, Kodak announced its intention to sell its photographic film, commercial scanners and kiosk operations, as a measure to emerge from bankruptcy, but not its motion picture film operations. In January 2013, the Court approved financing for Kodak to emerge from bankruptcy by mid 2013. Kodak sold many of its patents for approximately $525,000,000 to a group of companies (including Apple, Google, Facebook, Amazon, Microsoft, Samsung, Adobe Systems, and HTC) under the names Intellectual Ventures and RPX Corporation. On September 3, 2013, the company emerged from bankruptcy having shed its large legacy liabilities and exited several businesses. Personalized Imaging and Document Imaging are now part of Kodak Alaris, a separate company owned by the UK-based Kodak Pension Plan.Kodak Retina
Retina was the brand-name of a long-running series of German-built Kodak 35mm cameras, produced from 1934 until 1969. Kodak Retina cameras were manufactured in Stuttgart-Wangen by the Kodak AG Dr. Nagel Werk which Kodak had acquired in December 1931.
The Retina line included a variety of folding and non-folding models, including the Retina Reflex single lens reflex camera. Retina cameras were noted for their compact size, high quality, and low cost compared to competitors. These cameras retain a strong following today, of both photographers and collectors.
Kodak AG also offered a companion line of less-expensive Retinette cameras, with similar looks and function.Konica
Konica (コニカ, Konika) was a Japanese manufacturer of, among other products, film, film cameras, camera accessories, photographic and photo-processing equipment, photocopiers, fax machines and laser printers. The company merged with Japanese peer Minolta in 2003, with the new company named Konica Minolta.List of Minolta products
List of products manufactured by electronics company Minolta.Point-and-shoot camera
A point-and-shoot camera, also known as a compact camera and sometimes abbreviated to P&S, is a still camera designed primarily for simple operation. Most use focus free lenses or autofocus for focusing, automatic systems for setting the exposure options, and have flash units built in.
Point-and-shoots are by far the best selling type of separate camera, as distinct from camera phones. They are popular for vernacular photography by people who do not consider themselves photographers but want easy-to-use cameras for snapshots of vacations, parties, reunions and other events. Point-and-shoot camera sales declined after about 2010 as smartphones overtook them in such uses. To overcome market shrinkage, compact camera manufacturers began making higher end versions and with a stylish metal body.Most superzoom compact cameras have between 30x and 60x optical zoom, although some have even further zoom and weigh less than 300 grams, much less than bridge cameras and DSLRs.
Most of these compact cameras use small 1/2.3" image sensors, but since 2008 a few non-interchangeable lens compact cameras use a larger sensor such as 1" and even APS-C, such as the Fujifilm X100 series, or full frame format such as the Sony Cyber-shot DSC-RX1 series.They prioritize intelligent Auto, but some high end point-and-shoot cameras have PASM (program, aperture priority, shutter priority, and manual modes) on the mode dial, raw image format, and hot shoe. None have lens mounts.Schneider Kreuznach
Schneider Kreuznach (German pronunciation: [ˌʃnaɪdɐ ˈkʁɔʏtsnax]) is the abbreviated name of the company Jos. Schneider Optische Werke GmbH, which is sometimes also simply referred to as Schneider. They are a manufacturer of industrial and photographic optics. The company was founded on 18 January 1913 by Joseph Schneider as Optische Anstalt Jos. Schneider & Co. at Bad Kreuznach in Germany. The company changed its name to Jos. Schneider & Co., Optische Werke, Kreuznach in 1922, and to the current Jos. Schneider Optische Werke GmbH in 1998.
In 2001, Schneider received an Oscar for Technical Achievement for their Super-Cinelux motion picture lenses. It is best known as manufacturers of large format lenses for view cameras, enlarger lenses, and photographic loupes. It also makes a limited amount of small- and medium-format lenses, and has at various times manufactured eyeglasses and camera rangefinders, as well as being an OEM lens maker for Kodak and Samsung digital cameras. It has supplied the lenses for various LG devices and the BlackBerry Priv. It also supplied the lenses for the Kodak Regent camera in the 1930s and other classic cameras such as certain models of the Rolleiflex starting in the 1940s, the Kodak Retina and Kodak Retinette camera series in the 1950s and 1960s, and certain specialty lenses for Hasselblad. In 1961, It created Feinwerktechnik GmbH, a manufacturer of electrical-hydraulic servo valves.
In recent years, it has acquired several other companies:
In 1985, it acquired the B+W Filter Manufacturing Company (founded in 1947 by partners Biermann and Weber), maker of the line of B+W filters.
In July 1987, it purchased Rollei Fototechnic GmbH.
In 1989, it purchased Käsemann/Oberaudorf, a manufacturer of glass and plastic polarizing materials.
After 1991 it acquired the former East-German (GDR) camera and lens manufacturer Pentacon/Practica (Dresden)
In 2000, it acquired Century Optics, an American lensmaking firm.From the start of its production in 1914, Schneider had produced their 500,000th lens by June 1932, its millionth by November 1936, and its 10 millionth lens by January 1967. As of April 2000, it had produced over 14,730,000 lenses. The list below converts any cm designations on earlier lenses to mm (so a 16.5 cm lens is shown as a 165 mm lens).
ISO standards by standard number